Year 2018, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 128 - 134 2018-12-31

Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats

Temidayo Adeniyi [1] , Peter Achukwu [2]

31 49

Objectives: Neurodegenerative disorders have been associated with several environmental pollutants such as heavy metals. This study aimed at investigating the neurodegenerative impact of lead concentration obtained from the waterways in Kwara State, Nigeria on Wistar rats.

Methods: Twenty-first filial generation inbred adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with an average weight of 150–180 g were divided into two groups of ten animals. The highest mean concentration of lead obtained from the waterways of the three geographical zones of Kwara Nigeria was administered with water (0.009 mg of Pb(CH3CO2).3H2O per milliliter solution) to rats in the treatment group ad libitum for 65 days. The harvested prefrontal cortex was processed for paraffin embedding and the sections were stained for haematoxylin and eosin stain and Bielschowsky’s silver impregnation stain, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunohistochemistry.

Results: The histochemical stainings revealed shreds of evidence of neuronal degeneration in the treatment group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked astrocytosis, the hallmark of neuroinflammation, with induced oxidative stress in the treatment group compared to the control group.

Conclusion: These results indicate lead obtained from the three geographical zones of Kwara Nigeria may have a possible pathogenic role in development of neurodegenerative disorders and emphasize the effects of exposure to this environmental pollutant. 


Neurodegenerative disorders, environmental pollutants, lead, oxidative stress
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Primary Language en
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-8482-9136
Author: Temidayo Adeniyi (Primary Author)
Institution: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State
Country: Nigeria

Author: Peter Achukwu
Institution: Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria
Country: Nigeria


Publication Date: December 31, 2018

Bibtex @research article { anatomy505092, journal = {Anatomy}, issn = {1307-8798}, eissn = {1308-8459}, address = {Turkish Society of Anatomy and Clinical Anatomy (TSACA)}, year = {2018}, volume = {12}, pages = {128 - 134}, doi = {}, title = {Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats}, key = {cite}, author = {Adeniyi, Temidayo and Achukwu, Peter} }
APA Adeniyi, T , Achukwu, P . (2018). Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats. Anatomy, 12 (3), 128-134. Retrieved from
MLA Adeniyi, T , Achukwu, P . "Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats". Anatomy 12 (2018): 128-134 <>
Chicago Adeniyi, T , Achukwu, P . "Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats". Anatomy 12 (2018): 128-134
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats AU - Temidayo Adeniyi , Peter Achukwu Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Anatomy JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 128 EP - 134 VL - 12 IS - 3 SN - 1307-8798-1308-8459 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Anatomy Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats %A Temidayo Adeniyi , Peter Achukwu %T Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats %D 2018 %J Anatomy %P 1307-8798-1308-8459 %V 12 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Adeniyi, Temidayo , Achukwu, Peter . "Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats". Anatomy 12 / 3 (December 2019): 128-134.
AMA Adeniyi T , Achukwu P . Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats. Anat. 2018; 12(3): 128-134.
Vancouver Adeniyi T , Achukwu P . Lead contamination induces neurodegeneration in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats. Anatomy. 2018; 12(3): 134-128.