Year 2015, Volume 151, Issue 151, Pages 269 - 283 2015-12-19

EMET BOR YATAĞINDA (TÜRKİYE) İKİ YENİ MİNERALİN BULUNUŞ ÖYKÜSÜ: EMETİT Ca7Na3K(SO4)9 ve ŞONTARNAUİT Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2
REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2

Cahit HELVACI [1]

321 785

Batı Anadolu’da bilinen borat yataklarının orta kesiminde yer alan Emet borat yatağı, Emet havzası volkanosedimenter istifinin üst kesiminde oluşmuş dünyanın en büyük kolemanit- probertit yatağıdır. Emet borat yatağı özel mineral topluluğu ve parajenezi ile çok seçkin ve özel bir konuma sahiptir. Baskın olarak kolemanit ve az oranda probertit, üleksit ve hidroborasit minerallerinden oluşur. Bunlara ek olarak meyerhofferit, viçit-A, tunellit, terujit ve kahnit ender olarak yer yer gözlenir. Viçit-A, tunellit, terujit ve kahnit minerallerini içeren tek bor yatağıdır. Arsenik mineralleri (realgar ve orpiment) yaygın olup borlar ile aynı kökene sahiptirler. Doğanlar sondajlarının mineralojik kayıtları, orta kesimde tuz katmanının olduğu Na-Ca borat (probertit) ve Na-Ca sülfat (glauberit) birimlerinin ardalanmasından oluşur. Kolemanit mineralinin dağılımı tüm havza ve Doğanlar sondajlarında istifin alt ve üst kesimi ile sınırlıdır. Sondajların olduğu Doğanlar- ‹ğdeköy bölgesinde probertit, glauberit ve halit ana mineralleri oluştururlar. Birçok ender görülen bor ve diğer mineraller ile birlikte iki yeni mineralde (emetit ve fontarnauit) bu sondajlarda ilk defa tespit edilmiştir. Emet borat yatağı, birbirleri ile bağlantılı olan laküstrin playa gölünden oluşan iki ayrı bölgede oluşmuş ve kısmen termal kaynak kısmen de yüzey suları ile beslenmiştir. Erken oluşan kolemanit, meyerhofferit, üleksit ve terujit nodülleri doğrudan doğruya çözeltilerden pekleşmemiş sedimentlerin içinde sediment/su arayüzeyinde tortullar ile eş zamanlı olarak oluşmuşlar ve sedimentlerin pekleşmesine paralel olarak büyümelerine devam etmişlerdir. Diyajenetik alterasyonlar, kolemanitin viçit-A, kahnit, hidroborasit ve kalsitin kısmi ornatmalarını kapsar. Yeni mineral olan emetit ince kristallerin oluşturduğu yumrular şeklinde diyajenetik bir faz olarak glauberit biriminin üst kesiminde bu minerali ornatarak oluşmuştur. Fontarnauit minerali ise sondaj örneklerinde yaygın şekilde probertit, glauberit ve sölestin ile birlikte, renksizden açık kahverengi prizmatik kristaller veya kristal topluluğu şeklinde gözlenir.

The Emet borate deposit is situated in the middle of the known borate deposits of western Anatolia. Emet is the world biggest colemanite-probertite deposit which is located in the upper section of the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Emet basin. Emet borate deposit is unique and has unusual mineral associations. The principal minerals in the Emet borate deposit are colemanite with minor probertite, ulexite and hydroboracite. In addition, rare species such as meyerhofferite, veatchite-A, tunellite, terrugite and cahnite occur sporadically. This is the only deposit known to contain any of the minerals veatchite-A, tunellite, teruggite and cahnite. Arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment) are very abundant and spatially related to the borates, indicating a common genetic origin. The mineralogical record of Do¤anlar boreholes is characterized by the alternation of Na-Ca borate (probertite) and Na-Ca sulphate (glauberite) units including a central halite beds. Colemanite is restricted to the base and top of the sequence in these boreholes and in the whole basin. In this part of the section the major mineral associations probertite-glauberite and halite, with several rare minerals and two new minerals (emetite and fontarnauite) were also discovered in these borehole logs. The Emet borate deposit was formed in two separate parts, possibly part of an interconnected lacustrine playa lake, in areas of volcanic activity, fed partly by thermal springs and partly by surface streams. The early colemanite, meyerhofferite, ulexite and teruggite nodules were formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments below the sediment/water interface, and continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of colemanite by veatchite-A, cahnite, hydroboracite and calcite. The new mineral, emetite, always appears as a diagenetic phase consisting of aggregates of tiny crystals that replace glauberite at the top of glauberite units. Fontarnauite is most commonly associated with probertite, glauberite and celestine in isolated colorless to light brown prismatic crystals or as clusters of crystals in core samples of these boreholes.

  • Akdeniz, N., Konak, N. 1979. Simav–Emet–Dursunbey–Demirci yörelerinin jeolojisi [Geology of the Simav–Emet–Dursunbey–Demirci areas]. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 6547, Ankara (unpublished).
  • Akkuş, M.F. 1962. Geology of the Kütahya-Gediz area. Journal of Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, 58: 21-30
  • Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Garcia-Veigas, J., Alcobé, X., Helvacı, C., Grew, E. S., Ball, N. A. 2014. Fontarnauite, (Na,K)2 (Sr,Ca) (SO4) [B5O8 (OH)] (H2O)2, a new sulfate-borate from Doğanlar (Emet), Kütahya Province, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Candian Mineralogist (baskıda).
  • Çolak, M., Helvacı, C., Maggeti, M. 2000. Saponite from the Emet colemanite mines, Küthahya, Turkey. Clays and Clay Miner., 48: 409–423.
  • Ercan, T., Satır, M., Kreuzer, H., Türkecan, A., Günay, E., Çevikbaş, A., Ateş, M., Can, B. 1985. Batı Anado- lu Senozoyik volkanitlerine ait yeni kimyasal, izotopik ve radyometrik verilerin yorumu (Interpretation of new chemical, isotopic and radiometric data on Cenozoic volcanics of western Anatolia). Bullettin of Geological Society of Turkey, 28, 121-136.
  • Ercan, E., Satır, M., Sevin, D., Türkecan, A. 1996. Batı Anadolu’daki Tersiyer ve Kuvaterner yaşlı volkanik kayaçlarda yeni yapılan radyometrik yaş ölçümlerinin yorumu [Some new radiometric ages Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks from West Anatolia]. Mineral Research Exploration Bulletin (Turkey) 119, 103–112.
  • Ersoy, Y., Helvacı, C. 2007. Stratigraphy and geochemical features of the Early Miocene bimodal (ultrapotassic and calc-alkaline) volcanic activity within the NE-trending Selendi basin, western Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Science, 16, 117 -139.
  • Ersoy, E.Y., Helvacı, C., Palmer, M.R. 2011. Stratigraphic, structural and geochemical features of the NE–SW-trending Neogene volcano-sedimentary basins in western Anatolia: implications for associ- ations of supradetachment and transtensional stri- ke-slip basin formation in extensional tectonic setting. J. Asian Earth Sci. 41, 159–183.
  • Ersoy, E. Y., Helvacı, C., Palmer, M. R. 2012. Petrogenesis of the Neogene volcanic units in the NE–SW-trending basins in western Anatolia, Turkey. Contrib Mineral Petrol (2012) 163:379–401.
  • Ersoy E.Y., Çemen, İ., Helvacı, C., Billor, Z. 2014. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Neogene basins inWestern Turkey: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Aegean Extended Region. Tectonophysics 635 (2014) 33–58.
  • Floyd, P.A, Helvacı, C, Mittwede S.K. 1998. Geochemical discrimination of volcanic rocks, associated with borate deposits: an exploration tool. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 60: 185-205.
  • Fytikas M, Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzuoli R, Peccerillo A, Villari L. 1984. Tertiary to Quaternary evoluti- on of volcanism in the Aegean region. In The Geo- logical Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean, Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds). Special Publicati- ons 17. Geological Society: London; 687–699.
  • García-Veigas, J., Ortí, F., Rosell, L., Gündoğan, I., Helvacı, C. 2010a. Occurrence of a new sulphate mineral Ca7Na3 K(SO4)9 in the Emet borate deposits, western Anatolia (Turkey). Geological Quarterly 54, 431-438.
  • Garcia-Veigas, J., Rosell, L., Alcob, X.,Subias, I., Orti, F., Gündoğan, İ. and Helvacı, C. 2010b. Fontarnauite, a new sulphate-borate mineral from the Emet borate district (Turkey). Macla, 13: 97–98.
  • García-Veigas, J. , Rosell, L., Ortí , F., Gündoğan, İ., Hel- vacı, C. 2011. Mineralogy, diagenesis and hydrochemical evolution in a probertite–glauberite–halite saline lake (Miocene, Emet Basin, Turkey). Che- mical Geology 280, 352–364.
  • Gawlik, J. 1956. Borate deposits of the Emet Neogene ba- sin. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey Report No. 2479, Ankara (Turkish and German Text) (unpublished).
  • Helvacı, C. 1977. Geolgy, mineralogy and geochemistry of the borate deposits and associated rocks and the Emet Valley, Turkey. PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, England (unpublished).
  • Helvacı, C. 1978. A review of the mineralogy of the Turkish borate deposits. Mercian Geology 6: 257-270.
  • Helvacı, C. 1983. Mineralogy of the Turkish borate deposits. Geological Engineering 17, 37-54.
  • Helvacı, C. 1984. Occurence of rare borate-minerals: veatchite-A, tunellite, teruggite and cahnite in the Emet borate deposits, Turkey. Mineralium Deposita 19: 217-226.
  • Helvacı, C. 1986. Geochemistry and origin of the Emet borate deposits, western Turkey. Faculty of Enginee- ring Bulletin, Cumhuriyet University, Series A. Earth Sciences 3: 49-73.
  • Helvacı, C. 1989. A mineralogical approach to the mining, storing and marketing problems of the Turkish borate production. Geological Engineering 34-35, 5-17.
  • Helvacı, C. 1995. Stratigraphy, mineralogy, and genesis of the Bigadiç borate deposits, western Turkey. Economic Geolgy 90: 1237-1260.
  • Helvacı, C. 2005. Borates. In : Selley R.C., Cocks, L.R.M and Plimer, I.R. (editors) Encyclopedia of Geo- logy. Elsevier, December 2004, vol.3, p. 510-522.
  • Helvacı, C. 2015. Geological faetures of Neogene basins hosting borate deposits: An overview of deposits and future forecast, Turkey. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration (in press).
  • Helvacı, C., Firman, R.J. 1976. Geological setting and mi- neralogy of Emet borate deposit, Turkey. Transactions/section B, Institute of Mining and Meatllurgy 85: 142-152.
  • Helvacı, C., Stamatakis, M.G., Zagouroglou, C., Kanaris, J. 1993. Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterraean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration Mining Geology 2: 171-178.
  • Helvacı, C., Orti, F. 1998. Sedimentology and diagenesis of Miocene colemanite-ulexite deposits (Western Anatolia, Turkey), Journal of Sedimentary Research 68: 1021- 1033.
  • Helvacı, C., Alonso, R.N. 2000. Borate deposits of Turkey and Argentina : a summary and geological compa- rison. Turkish Journal of earth Sciences (Turkish J. Earth Sci.) vol. 24: 1-27.
  • Helvacı, C., Ortí, F. 2004. Zoning in the Kırka borate deposit, western Turkey: primary evaporitic fractionation or diagenetic modifications?. Canadian Mineralogists 42, 1179-1204.
  • Helvacı, C., Ersoy, E.Y. 2006. The facies characteristics and geochemical featuresof the volcanic rocks of the Selendi and Simav area, and their relations with the basin sedimentary rocks, western Anatolia. DEÜ. Bilimsel Araştırma Projesi No:03.KB.FEN.058. January 2006, İzmir, 116 s.
  • Helvacı, C., Ersoy, Y., Erkül, F., Sözbilir, H., Bozkurt, E. 2006. Selendi Havzasının stratigrafik, petrografik, jeokimyasal ve tektonik veriler ışığında volkono- sedimanter evrimi ve ekonomik potansiyeli. Tür- kiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu Pro- je No: ÇAYDA⁄/103Y124, Aralık 2006, 134 s.
  • Helvacı, C., Orti, F., Garcia-Veigas, J., Rosell, L., Gündoğan, İ., Yücel-Öztürk, Y. 2012. NEOGENE BO- RATE DEPOSITS: Mineralogy, Petrology and Sedimentology; A workshop with special emphasis on the Anatolian deposits. International Earth Sci- ences Colloquium on the Agean Region, IESCA 2012, İzmir, Turkey, 64p.
  • Holzer, H. 1954. Geological report of the Beyce-54/4 and Simav-71/2 area. Mineral Research and Explorati- on Institute of Turkey Report. no. 2366, Ankara (unpublished).
  • İnan, K., Dunham, A.C., Esson, J. 1973. Mineralogy, che- mistry and origin of Kırka borate deposit, Eskişehir Province, Turkey. Transactions/section B, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 82: 114-123.
  • Kistler, R.B., Smith, W.C. 1983. Boron and borates. In: LE- FONDS,S.J. (ed), Industrial Mineral and Rocks. 5th Edition, Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, 533-560.
  • Kistler, R.B., Helvacı, C. 1994. Boron and borates. In: CARR, D.D. (ed) Industrial Minerals and Rocks. 6th Edition, Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration Inc., Littleton, Colorado, 171-186. Lyday, P.A. 1982. Boron: Minerals Yearbook 1980, U.S.Bureau of Mines, 1: p 3
  • Orti, F., Helvacı, C., Rosell, L., Gündoğan, İ. 1998. Sulpha- te-borate relations in an evaporitic lacustrine envi- ronmet: the Sultançayır Gypsum (Miocene, Wes- tern Anatolia). Sedimentolgy 45: 697-710.
  • Özpeker, İ. 1969. Western Anatolian Borate Deposits and Their Genetic Studies. PhD Dissertation, İstanbul Technical University (in Turkish, unpublished).
  • Palmer, M. R., Helvacı, C. 1997. The boron istope geochemistry of the Neogene borate deposits of western Turkey. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 61:3161-3169.
  • Seyitoğlu, G., Anderson, D., Nowell, G., Scott, B.C. 1997. The evolution from Miocene potassic to Quaternary sodic magmatism in western Turkey: implications for enrichment processes in the lithospheric mantle. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 76, 127-147.
  • Sunder, M.S. 1980. Geochemistry of the Sarıkaya borate deposits (Kırka-Eskişehir). Bulletin of the Geologi- cal Society of Turkey 2: 19-34.
  • Travis, N.J., Cocks, E.J. 1984. The Tincal Trail. A history of borax. Harrap, London, 311.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Cahit HELVACI

Dates

Publication Date: December 19, 2015

Bibtex @research article { bulletinofmre238679, journal = {Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration}, issn = {0026-4563}, eissn = {2651-3048}, address = {Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2015}, volume = {151}, pages = {269 - 283}, doi = {10.19111/bmre.71777}, title = {REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2}, key = {cite}, author = {HELVACI, Cahit} }
APA HELVACI, C . (2015). REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, 151 (151), 269-283. DOI: 10.19111/bmre.71777
MLA HELVACI, C . "REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 269-283 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bulletinofmre/issue/3966/238679?publisher=mta?publisher=mta>
Chicago HELVACI, C . "REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 269-283
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2 AU - Cahit HELVACI Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.71777 DO - 10.19111/bmre.71777 T2 - Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 269 EP - 283 VL - 151 IS - 151 SN - 0026-4563-2651-3048 M3 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.71777 UR - https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.71777 Y2 - 2015 ER -
EndNote %0 Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2 %A Cahit HELVACI %T REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2 %D 2015 %J Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration %P 0026-4563-2651-3048 %V 151 %N 151 %R doi: 10.19111/bmre.71777 %U 10.19111/bmre.71777
ISNAD HELVACI, Cahit . "REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 / 151 (December 2015): 269-283. https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.71777
AMA HELVACI C . REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2. Bull.Min.Res.Exp.. 2015; 151(151): 269-283.
Vancouver HELVACI C . REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration. 2015; 151(151): 283-269.