Year 2015, Volume 151, Issue 151, Pages 1 - 46 2015-12-19

VAN GÖLÜ’NÜN GEÇ KUVATERNER TEKTONO-STRATİGRAFİK EVRİMİ
THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY

Naci GÖRÜR [1] , M. ÇAĞATAY [2] , Cengiz ZABCI [3] , Mehmet SAKINÇ [4] , Remzi AKKÖK [5] , Hande ŞİLE [6] , Sefer ÖRÇEN [7]

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Van Gölü çevresindeki taraçaların pek çoğu, Van Gölü Havzası’nın çok daha uzun dönem- li jeolojik geçmişine nazaran daha kısa bir dönemi yansıtır. Bunların depolanması, günü-müzden önceki son 125 bin yıl sırasında gerçekleşmiştir. Bu çökeller alüvyal yelpaze/ör- gülü akarsu, kumsal, Gilbert-tipi delta, kıyıyakını ve kıyıötesi gibi geniş bir yelpazede yer alan bir dizi sığ gölsel ve göl çevresi ortamlarında birikmişlerdir. Bunların litofasiyesleri- nin çeşitliliği, depolanma koşullarındaki iklimsel ve tektonik denetimlerin kanıtlarını oluş- turur. Su toplama havzasındaki yüksek rölyefli alanlar, bunların depolanmaları sırasında, gölün kıyısal alanlarına bol miktarda kırıntılı materyal sağlamış ve bu nedenle bölgede bas- kın olarak karasal kırıntılı çökeller görülmesine sebep olmuştur. Kaba kırıntılı sedimanla- rın yaygın olarak Gilbert-tipi deltaların oluştuğu büyük akarsuların ağızlarında gerçekleş- miştir. Akarsu-denetimli gölsel deltalar, göl seviyesinin yükselmesi sırasında oluşmuştur. Göl havzasının doğu kenarında göreceli olarak daha yaygın ve kalın gözlenen bu çökeller, batı rüzgârlarının etkisinden korunmuş düşük-enerjili kıyı ortamının varlığına işaret eder. Bununla beraber, deltaları çevreleyen aynı göl kenarının bazı alanlarında, dalgalar ve fırtı- na-kökenli kıyıboyu akıntıları tarafından taşınan sedimanlar ile beslenen kumsallar oluş- muştur. Kıyıyakını fasiyesinde görülen kaba-taneli kırıntılı malzeme, Paleo-Van Gölü’nün kıyılarının büyük olasılıkla fırtınalar ve fırtına-kökenli akıntıların varlığına maruz kaldığı- nı gösterir. Ancak, gölün yüksek kıyı çizgisi zamanlarında kıyıyakını çökellerinde derece- li tabakalanma ve taban yapıları gibi turbidit depolanmasına ilişkin herhangi bir kanıt bu- lunmaması, türbidit akıntılarının göl kenarı boyunca sediman taşınmasında önemli bir et- ken olamadığı göstermektedir. Gölün kıyıötesi yanal olarak devamlı, ince tabakalanmalı varvlı ve bazı kesimlerinde göçme ve konvülüt tabakaları gibi hidroplastik bozulma yapı- ları da içeren ince-taneli kumtaşları ve çamurtaşlarının çökeldiği durgun bir su kütlesi or- tamıydı. Van Gölü çevresindeki taraça çökellerinin yaşlarının yeterince bilinmemesi,, bu taraçalar arasında tam anlamıyla bir deneştirme yapılamasını engeller. Ancak incelenen ta- raça istiflerinde büyük-ölçekli döngülerin görülmemesi, her bir taraçanın daha yüksek göl seviyesi değişimlerine bağlı olarak meydana geldiğine ve bu olayı da bir regresyonun ta- kip ettiğine işaret eder. Elde edilen yaş verileri 1760 m (odsy) yüksekliğine kadar çıkan yüksek göl seviyelerinin son buzullaşma arası (MIS 5; 123-71 bin yıl (GÖ)) ile bunu ta- kip eden  26-24 bin yıl  (GÖ), 22-21 bin yıl (GÖ) ve 10-6 bin yıl (GÖ) arasında oluştuğu- nu göstermektedir. Taraçaların yükselmeye ters orantılı olarak gençleşmeleri, göl seviyesi- nin zamanla giderek alçaldığına veya zamanla katlanmış olarak artan yükselmenin etkisi- ne veya her ikisine birden bağlı olduğuna işaret eder. Göl seviyesi değişimleri olasılıkla ik- limsel, volkanik ve tektonik süreçlerin birlikte işlemesinin bir sonucu olarak gerçekleşmiş- tir. Gölün hidrolojik olarak bir kapalı havza olduğu göz önünde bulundurulacak olunursa, iklim olasılıkla diğerlerinden daha etkin bir rol oynamıştır. En genç taraça seviyesinin ya-şı 6 by (GÖ) olmasından dolayı, havzadaki iklim belki de göreli olarak daha kurak ve eva- poratif bir karakterdeydi. Gölün günümüzden önceki son 600 bin yıllık bütün geçmişi sıra- sında, bu alanın jeolojisi Türkiye’nin aktif eğim- ve doğrultu-atımlı neotektonik rejimi et- kisiyle şekillenirken, gölün kıyıötesinde karakteristik göçme yapıları, konvülüt tabakalan- ma ve çoğunlukla da Nemrut Volkanı’na bağlı patlama ürünleri oluşmuştur.

Many of the terraces around the Lake Van record a relatively short period of the much lon- ger geological history of the Lake Van Basin. Their deposition took place during the last ca. 125 ka BP. They accumulated in a large array of shallow lake and lake margin environments, such as alluvial fan/braided river, beach, Gilbert-type delta, nearshore lake and offshore la- ke. Variability of their lithofacies provides evidence for climatic and tectonic controls of the- ir depositional conditions. During their deposition high relief areas in the watershed delive- red abundant detritus to the coastal areas of the lake. The sedimentation was therefore domi- nated by terrigenous clastic deposits. The highest concentrations  of the coarse clastic sedi- ments were at the mouths of the major streams where they formed Gilbert-type deltas. The- se river-dominated lacustrine deltas formed during rising lake levels and are relatively more abundant and thicker in the eastern margin of the lake, indicating that this margin mostly had a low-energy coast sheltered from the prevailing westerly winds. However, some areas of the same margin adjacent to deltas were also supplied with sediments by waves and storm-indu- ced longshore currents to form beaches. Storms and storm-generated  traction currents were perhaps active agents along the shores of the Lake Paleo-Van as suggested by the presence of the coarse-grained material in its nearshore facies. Somehow, during times of lake high- stands, turbidity currents seem not to have played an important role in the sediment transpor- tation along the lake margin, because the nearshore sediments hardly show any evidence of turbidite depositon, such as graded bedding and sole-marks. The offshore lake was relatively quite standing water, depositing laterally persistent, thinly-bedded to varved and fine-grained sandstones and mudstones in part with hydroplastic disruptions, such as slumps and convo- lute beddings. Because of the lack of sufficient datings of the terrace sequences around La- ke Van, we cannot correlate them unequivocally. However, the absence of large-scale cycli- city within a given terrace sequence in each locality suggests that deposition of each terrace occurred during a separate lake level fluctuation each reaching to higher level than the mo- dern lake level followed by a regression. The available age data suggest that high lake levels, reaching up to 1760 m asl, occurred during the last interglacial (MIS 5; 123-71 ka BP), 26- 24 ka BP, 22-21 ka BP and 10-6 ka BP. The younging of the terrace deposits along with the decrease in elevation suggests either a gradual decline of lake level with time, or the effect of the cumulative uplift with time or both. The fluctuating lake level was probably due to a combination of climatic, volcanic and tectonic processes. Considering the hydrologically clo- sed nature of the lake, climate probably played more important role than the others. Since the formation of the youngest terrace sediments of 6 ka BP, perhaps the climate in the basin has been mostly relatively more arid and evaporative. During the entire history of the lake (last 600 ka), geology of the area has been characterized by the neotectonic régime of Turkey with active dip- and strike-slip faults, resulting in the offshore lake the characteristic slump struc- tures and convolute beddings, and eruptions of mainly the Nemrut Volcano.
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Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Naci GÖRÜR

Author: M. ÇAĞATAY

Author: Cengiz ZABCI

Author: Mehmet SAKINÇ

Author: Remzi AKKÖK

Author: Hande ŞİLE

Author: Sefer ÖRÇEN

Dates

Publication Date: December 19, 2015

Bibtex @research article { bulletinofmre52487, journal = {Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration}, issn = {0026-4563}, eissn = {2651-3048}, address = {Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2015}, volume = {151}, pages = {1 - 46}, doi = {10.19111/bmre.75031}, title = {THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY}, key = {cite}, author = {GÖRÜR, Naci and ÇAĞATAY, M. and ZABCI, Cengiz and SAKINÇ, Mehmet and AKKÖK, Remzi and ŞİLE, Hande and ÖRÇEN, Sefer} }
APA GÖRÜR, N , ÇAĞATAY, M , ZABCI, C , SAKINÇ, M , AKKÖK, R , ŞİLE, H , ÖRÇEN, S . (2015). THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, 151 (151), 1-46. DOI: 10.19111/bmre.75031
MLA GÖRÜR, N , ÇAĞATAY, M , ZABCI, C , SAKINÇ, M , AKKÖK, R , ŞİLE, H , ÖRÇEN, S . "THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 1-46 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bulletinofmre/issue/3966/52487?publisher=mta?publisher=mta>
Chicago GÖRÜR, N , ÇAĞATAY, M , ZABCI, C , SAKINÇ, M , AKKÖK, R , ŞİLE, H , ÖRÇEN, S . "THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 1-46
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY AU - Naci GÖRÜR , M. ÇAĞATAY , Cengiz ZABCI , Mehmet SAKINÇ , Remzi AKKÖK , Hande ŞİLE , Sefer ÖRÇEN Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.75031 DO - 10.19111/bmre.75031 T2 - Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 46 VL - 151 IS - 151 SN - 0026-4563-2651-3048 M3 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.75031 UR - https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.75031 Y2 - 2015 ER -
EndNote %0 Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY %A Naci GÖRÜR , M. ÇAĞATAY , Cengiz ZABCI , Mehmet SAKINÇ , Remzi AKKÖK , Hande ŞİLE , Sefer ÖRÇEN %T THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY %D 2015 %J Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration %P 0026-4563-2651-3048 %V 151 %N 151 %R doi: 10.19111/bmre.75031 %U 10.19111/bmre.75031
ISNAD GÖRÜR, Naci , ÇAĞATAY, M. , ZABCI, Cengiz , SAKINÇ, Mehmet , AKKÖK, Remzi , ŞİLE, Hande , ÖRÇEN, Sefer . "THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 / 151 (December 2015): 1-46. https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.75031
AMA GÖRÜR N , ÇAĞATAY M , ZABCI C , SAKINÇ M , AKKÖK R , ŞİLE H , ÖRÇEN S . THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY. Bull.Min.Res.Exp.. 2015; 151(151): 1-46.
Vancouver GÖRÜR N , ÇAĞATAY M , ZABCI C , SAKINÇ M , AKKÖK R , ŞİLE H , ÖRÇEN S . THE LATE QUATERNARY TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF THE LAKE VAN, TURKEY. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration. 2015; 151(151): 46-1.