Year 2015, Volume 151, Issue 151, Pages 169 - 215 2015-12-19

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY
BOR YATAKLARINI İÇEREN NEOJEN HAVZALARININ JEOLOJİK ÖZELLİKLER: YATAKLARIN GENEL DEĞERLENDİRMESİ VE GELECEK ÖNGÖRÜSÜ, TÜRKİYE

Cahit HELVACI [1]

697 1526

The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ) (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins), and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC) are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey), California (USA), Central Andes (South America) and Tibet (Central Asia). The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal) deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka), California (Boron), and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca). Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and hydroboracite are present in west Anatolia, Death Valley, California, and Sijes (Argentina). Quaternary borates are present in salars (Andes) and playa- lakes and salt pans (USA-Tibet). Boron is a rare element in the Earth’s crust, but extraordinary concentrations can be found in limited places. The formation of borate deposits can be classified as follows: a skarn group associated with intrusives and consisting of silicates and iron oxides; a magnesium oxide group hosted by marine evaporitic sediments; and a sodium– and calcium–borate hydrates group associated with playa-lake sediments and explosive volcanic activity. Some conditions are essential for the formation of economically viable borate deposits in playa-lake volcano-sedimentary sequences: formation of playa-lake environment; concentration of boron in the playa lake, sourced from andesitic to rhyolitic volcanics, direct ash fall into the basin, or hydrothermal solutions along graben faults; thermal springs near the area of volcanism; arid to semi-arid climatic conditions; and lake water with a pH of between 8.5 and 11. A borate is defined as any compound that contains or supplies boric oxide (B2O3). A large number of minerals contain boric oxide, but the three that are most important from a worldwide commercial standpoint are borax, ulexite, and colemanite, which are produced in a limited number of countries. Turkey has the largest borax, ulexite and colemanite reserves in the world and all the world’s countries are dependent upon the colemanite and ulexite reserves of Turkey. Most of the world’s commercial borate deposits are mined by open pit methods. Brines from Searles Lake, and presumably the Chinese sources, are recovered by either controlled evaporation or carbonation. Boric acid is one of the final products produced from most of the processes. Further research on the mineralogy and chemistry of borate minerals and associated minerals will the production and utilization of borate end-products.  Many modern industries need industrial borate minerals, and many people use their products. In addition, boron is essential to plant life, and by extension, all life so it’s hard to imagine our world without using it. Therefore, borates and their products are critical to the Sustainable Development of the world.

Batı Anadolu’da bor içeren Neojen havzalarının geometri, stratigrafi ve volkanik bileşenleri, havza evrimi ve bor oluşumu ile Batı Anadolu’nun açılma koşulları arasında önemli bilgi ve ipuçları içerir. Bu bor yataklarının bir kesimi, İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zonu (İBTZ) boyunca gelişen KD-GB uzanımlı havzalarda (Bigadiç, Sultançayır ve Kestelek yatakları), diğer yataklar ise Menderes Masifi’nin kuzey kesiminde gelişen KD-GB gidişli hatlar boyunca gözlenen Se- lendi ve Emet havzalarında yer alır. Kırka bor yatağı ise daha doğuda tamamen farklı bir jeolo- jik ortam ve volkanostratigrafik istif içinde yer alır. Bor elementi, Yerküreyi oluşturan 92 ele- mentten birisi olarak, tüm çevremizde mevcut olup, toprak, su, bitki ve canlılarda belli oranlar- da bulunabilir. Bor doğada serbest halde bulunmaz, diğer elementler ve oksijen ile birlikte ge- nel olarak bor tuzlarını oluşturur. Bugüne kadar yapılan çalışmalarda, yaklaşık iki yüz seksenden fazla bor içeren mineral tespit edilmiştir. Bunlardan sodyum, kalsiyum ve magnezyum tuzları en yaygın olanlarıdır. Küresel ölçekte kıtasal ortamlarda dört ana metalojenik bor bölgesi bilinir. Bunlar Anadolu (Türkiye), Kaliforniya (ABD), Orta Andlar (Güney Amerika) ve Tibet (Orta Asya)’tir. Bor yataklarının çökelme ortamı, Senozoyik volkanizması, sıcak su etkinliği, kapalı havzalar ve kurak iklimler ile yakından ilişkilidir. Boraks, borun en önemli ticari kaynağı olmak- la birlikte rezervleri Türkiye, ABD ve Arjantin’de bulunur. Kolemanit, Ca borat üretimi için ana üründür ve mevcut rezerleri Türkiye ile sınırlıdır. Datolit ve szaibelyite mineralleri Rusya ve Çin’de bulunmaktadır. Dünyada ana boraks (tinkal) yatakları, Anadolu’da (Kırka), Kaliforniya’ da (Boron), ve Andlarda (Tincalayu ve Loma Blanca) bulunmaktadır. Kırka, Boron ve Loma Blanca bor yatakları mineralojik bileşim ve kimyasal özellikleri bakımından birbirleri ile ben- zerlikler sunarlar. Probertit ve hidroborasit içeren kolemanit yatakları Anadolu, Death Valley (Kaliforniya) ve Sijes (Arjantin) bulunur. Kuvaterner yaşlı bor oluşumları ise Andlardaki salar- larda, ABD ve Tibet’te ise playa göllerinde ve tuz tavalarında bulunurlar. Bor, yerkabuğunda en- der bir element olmasına karşın, belirli yerlerde sıradışı konsantrasyonlarda depolanabilir. Borat yataklarının oluşumu, aşağıdaki gibi sınıflanır: demir oksit, silikatları kapsayan intrüziflerle iliş- kili skarn grupları; denizel evaporit çökelleri içinde oluşmuş magnezyum oksit grubu; ve playa- göl tortulları ve patlamalı volkanik aktivite ile ilişkili, sodyum ve kalsiyum bor hidratlar grubu. Volkanosedimanter playa-göl çökellerinde, ekonomik açıdan önemli bor yataklarının oluşumu aşağıdaki koşullara bağlıdır: playa-göl ortamının oluşması; playa-gölde konsantrasyon, andezi- tik kaynaklı riyolitik volkanikler, havza içine doğrudan kül ya da graben fayları boyunca hidro- termal çözelti taşınımı; volkanizma çevresinde sıcak su kaynakları; kurak veya yarı-kurak iklim koşulları; ve göl suyunun pH aralığı, 8.5 - 11 arasında olmasıdır. Bor mineralleri, borik oksit (B2O3) içeren bileşikler olarak tanımlanır. Minerallerin büyük bir kısmı bor oksit içerir. Bunun- la birlikte, boraks, üleksit ve kolemanit dünya çapında ticari önem taşıyan üç bor mineralidir. Bu mineraller belirli ülkelerde gözlenir. Türkiye, dünyanın en büyük boraks, üleksit ve kolemanit rezervlerine sahiptir. Bütün ülkeler Türkiye’nin kolemanit ve üleksit rezervlerine bağımlıdır.

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Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Cahit HELVACI

Dates

Publication Date: December 19, 2015

Bibtex @research article { bulletinofmre52488, journal = {Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration}, issn = {0026-4563}, eissn = {2651-3048}, address = {Maden Tetkik Arama Genel Müdürlüğü}, year = {2015}, volume = {151}, pages = {169 - 215}, doi = {10.19111/bmre.05207}, title = {GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY}, key = {cite}, author = {HELVACI, Cahit} }
APA HELVACI, C . (2015). GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, 151 (151), 169-215. DOI: 10.19111/bmre.05207
MLA HELVACI, C . "GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 169-215 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bulletinofmre/issue/3966/52488?publisher=mta?publisher=mta>
Chicago HELVACI, C . "GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 (2015): 169-215
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY AU - Cahit HELVACI Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.05207 DO - 10.19111/bmre.05207 T2 - Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 169 EP - 215 VL - 151 IS - 151 SN - 0026-4563-2651-3048 M3 - doi: 10.19111/bmre.05207 UR - https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.05207 Y2 - 2014 ER -
EndNote %0 Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY %A Cahit HELVACI %T GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY %D 2015 %J Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration %P 0026-4563-2651-3048 %V 151 %N 151 %R doi: 10.19111/bmre.05207 %U 10.19111/bmre.05207
ISNAD HELVACI, Cahit . "GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY". Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration 151 / 151 (December 2015): 169-215. https://doi.org/10.19111/bmre.05207
AMA HELVACI C . GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY. Bull.Min.Res.Exp.. 2015; 151(151): 169-215.
Vancouver HELVACI C . GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration. 2015; 151(151): 215-169.


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