Year 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 171 - 200 2017-12-30

Competition and Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis on the Banking Industry of the European Union
Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama

Ramazan EKİNCİ [1] , Recep KÖK [2]

188 507

The principal aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of “competition-efficiency”. It is known that the decisions on increasing strength against the crises in the banking system of the European Union (EU) increase competition and cost efficiency. According to the hypothesis of “competition-efficiency”, competition in financial markets causes increasing of efficiency and decreasing of costs. The sample in this study is 26 countries of the EU and in the period of 2006-2014. Cost efficiency scores are measured by using the Panel Stochastic Frontier Analysis, and it is seen that cost efficiency decreases within the debt crisis after 2010. Besides competitive advantage is measured with the method of Lerner index, and it is witnessed that the competitive advantage increases in the banking system of the EU. With regard to the aim of the study, Granger causality between competition and efficiency is examined, and there is a positive causality from competition to efficiency, but also there is not causality from efficiency to competition. According to these findings, the hypothesis of Quiet Life is not accepted for the banking system of the EU.                      


Bu çalışmanın temel amacı “rekabet–etkinlik” hipotezini test etmektir. Avrupa Birliği (AB) bankacılık sisteminde krizlere karşı direncin arttırılmasına yönelik kararların, rekabet ve maliyet etkinliğini artırdığı bilinmektedir. Rekabet-Etkinlik hipotezine göre finansal piyasalarda ortaya çıkan rekabet etkinlik artışına, dolayısıyla maliyetlerin de düşmesine neden olmaktadır. Analize konu olan örneklem 26 AB ülkesidir, 2006-2014 dönemini kapsamaktadır. Çalışmada Panel Stokastik Sınır Analizinden yararlanılarak maliyet etkinlik skorları hesaplandığında; özellikle 2010 yılı sonrası borç krizinin ardından maliyet etkinliğinin düştüğü görülmektedir. Ayrıca Lerner indeksi yöntemiyle rekabet gücü ölçüldüğünde; AB bankacılık sisteminde rekabet gücünün arttığı anlaşılmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı bağlamıyla rekabet ve etkinlik arasındaki Granger nedensellik incelendiğinde; rekabetten etkinliğe pozitif bir nedensellik mevcut iken; etkinlikten rekabete bir nedensellik olmadığı görülmektedir. Bu sonuçlara göre Avrupa Birliği bankacılık sistemi açısından ‘Quiet Life’ (rahat yaşam) hipotezi doğrulanmamaktadır.


  • Allen, L. ve Rai, A. (1996). Operational Efficiency in Banking: An International Comparison. Journal of Banking and Finance, 20, 655-672. Andries, A. M. ve Căpraru, B. (2012a). Competition and efficiency in EU27 banking systems. Baltic Journal of Economics, 12(1), 41–60.
  • Andries, A. M. ve Căpraru, B. (2014). The nexus between competition and efficiency: The European banking industries experience. International Business Review, 23, 566–579.
  • Altunbas, Y., Carbo, S., Gardener, E.P.M. ve Molyneux, P. (2007). Examining the Relationships between Capital, Risk, and Efficiency in European Banking. European Financial Management, 13(1), 49-70.
  • Amel D., Barnes, C., Panetta, F. ve Salleo, C. (2004). Consolidation and Efficiency in the Financial Sector: a Review of the International Evidence. Journal of Banking and Finance, 28, 2493-2519.
  • Bain, J. S. (1956). Barriers to new competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Battese, G. E. ve Coelli, T. J. (1992), Frontier Production Function, Technical Efficiency and Panel Data: With Application to Paddy Farmers in India. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 3, 153-169.
  • Battese, G. E. ve Coelli, T. J. (1995). A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data. Empirical Economics, 20, 325–332.
  • Beck, T., De Jonghe, O. ve Schepens, G. (2013). Bank competition and stability: cross-country heterogeneity. J. Financ. Intermediat, 22 (2), 218–244.
  • Berger, A.N. ve Humphrey, D.B. (1997). Efficiency of Financial Institutions: International Survey and Directions for Future Research. European Journal of Operational Research, 98, 175-212.
  • Berger, A. ve Mester, L. J. (1997). Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions? Journal of Banking and Finance, 21, 895–947.
  • Berger, A.N., Klapper, L.F. ve Turk Ariss, R. (2009). Bank competition and financial stability. J. Financ. Serv. Res, 35 (2), 99–118.
  • Boot, A.W. ve Schmeijts, A. (2006). The competitive challenge in banking. In L. Renneboog (Ed.), Advances in corporate finance and asset pricing (pp. 133–160). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Carbo, S., Humphrey, D., Maudos, J. Ve Molyneux, P. (2009). Cross-country comparisons of competition and pricing power in European banking. Journal of International Money and Finance, 28, 115–134.
  • Casu, B., Girardone, C. ve Molyneux, P. (2004). Productivity change in European banking: A comparison ofparametric and non-parametric approaches. Journal of Banking and Finance, 28, 2521–2540.
  • Casu, B. ve Girardone, C. (2006). Bank Competition, Concentration and Efficiency in the Single European Market. The Manchester School, 74 (4), 441- 468.
  • Chen, X. (2007). Banking deregulation and credit risk: Evidence from the EU. Journal of Financial Stability, 2, 356–390.
  • Claessens, S. ve Laeven, L. (2004). What drives bank competition? Some international evidence? Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 36, 562–583.
  • Claessens, S. ve Van Horen, N. (2012). Foreign banks: Trends, impact and financial stability. IMF working paper WP/12/10.
  • Claessens, S. (2009). Competition in the financial sector: Overview of competition policies. World Bank Research Observer, 24(1), 83–118.
  • Clerides, S., Delis, M. ve Kokas, S. (2013). A new data set on bank competition in national banking markets. Cyprus: University of Cyprus, Working Papers in Economics
  • Demsetz, H. (1973). Industry structure, market rivalry and public policy. Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 1–9.
  • Dietsch, M. ve Lozano-Vivas, A. (2000). How the environment determines banking efficiency: A comparison between French and Spanish industries. Journal of Banking and Finance, 24, 985–1004.
  • Evanoff, D. ve Ors, E. (2002). Local market consolidation and bank productive efficiency. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper, 02-25.
  • Fernandez de Guevara, J., Maudos, J. ve Perez, F. (2005). Market power in European banking sectors. Journal of Financial Services Research, 27 (2), 109–137.
  • Hasan, I. ve Morton, K. (2003), Development and efficiency of the banking sector in a transitional economy: Hungarian experience. Journal of Banking and Finance, 27, 2249-2271.
  • Kasman, A. ve Yildirim, C. (2006). Cost and profit efficiencies in transition banking: The case of new EU members. Applied Economics, 38, 1079–1090.
  • Koetter, M., Kolari, J. W. ve Spierdijk, L. (2008). Efficient Competition? Testing the 'Quiet Life' of U.S. Banks with Adjusted Lerner Indices. Paper presented at the 44th Bank market structure conference, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  • Lensink, R., Meesters, A. ve Naaborg, I. (2008). Bank efficiency and foreign ownership: Do good institutions matter? Journal of Banking and Finance, 32, 834–844. Lerner, A. P. (1934). The concept of monopoly and the measurement of monopoly power. The Review of Economic Studies, 1(3), 157–175.
  • Lozano-Vivas, A. ve Pasiouras, F. (2010). The impact of non-traditional activities on the estimation of bank efficiency: International evidence. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34, 1436–1449.
  • Mamatzakis, E., Staikouras, C. ve Koutsomanoli-Filippaki. A. (2008). Bank efficiency in the new European Union member states: Is There Convergence? International Review of Financial Analysis, 17, 1156-1172.
  • Maudos, J., Pastor, J. M., Perez, F. ve Quesada, J. (2002). Cost and profit efficiency in European banks. Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 12, 33–58.
  • Maudos, J., Fernandez de Guevara, J. (2007). The Cost of Market Power in Banking: Social Welfare Loss vs. Cost Inefficiency. Journal of Banking and Finance, 31, 2103 -2125.
  • Matousek, R. and Taci, A. (2004). Efficiency in Banking: Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic, Economics of Planning, 37, 225-244. Panzar, J. C. ve Rosse, J.N. (1987). Testing for monopoly equilibrium. Journal of Industrial Economics, 35, 443–456.
  • Pasiouras, F., Tanna, S. ve Zopounidis, C. (2009). The impact of banking regulations, on banks’ cost and profit efficiency: Cross-country evidence. International Review of Financial Analysis, 18, 294–302.
  • Pruteanu-Podpiera, A., Weill, L. ve Schobert, F. (2008). Banking Competition and Efficiency: a Micro-Data Analysis on the Czech Banking Industry. Comparative Economic Studies, 50, 253-273.
  • Schaeck, K. ve Čihák, M. (2008). How Does Competition Affect Efficiency and Soundness in Banking? New Empirical Evidence. ECB Working Papers Series, No. 932, September.
  • Sun, L. ve Change, T.P. (2011). A Comprehensive Analysis of the Effects of Risk Measures on Bank Efficiency, Journal of Banking and Finance, 35, 1727-1735.
  • Weill, L. (2004). On the Relationship between Competition and Efficiency in the EU Banking Sector. Credit and Capital, 37, 3, 329-352.
  • Weill, L. (2009). Convergence in Banking Efficiency across European Countries, Working paper, LARGE, Universite Robert Schuman, Institut d’Etudes Politiques.
  • Weill, L. (2013). Bank competition in the eu: How has it evolved? Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 26:100–112.
  • Yildirim, H. ve Philippatos, G.C. (2007). Efficiency of Banks: Recent Evidence from the Transition Economies of Europe, 1993-2000, The European Journal of Finance, 13 (2), 123-143.
  • Zarutskie, R. (2013). Competition, financial innovation and commercial bank loan portfolios. Journal of Financial Intermediation http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jfi.2013.02.001
Subjects Economics
Journal Section Karatekin İİBF
Authors

Author: Ramazan EKİNCİ
Institution: DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Recep KÖK
Institution: DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ

Bibtex @research article { ckuiibfd338148, journal = {Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi}, issn = {1308-5549}, eissn = {2147-4206}, address = {Cankiri Karatekin University}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, pages = {171 - 200}, doi = {10.18074/ckuiibfd.338148}, title = {Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama}, key = {cite}, author = {EKİNCİ, Ramazan and KÖK, Recep} }
APA EKİNCİ, R , KÖK, R . (2017). Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 7 (2), 171-200. Retrieved from http://dergipark.org.tr/ckuiibfd/issue/31317/338148
MLA EKİNCİ, R , KÖK, R . "Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama". Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi 7 (2017): 171-200 <http://dergipark.org.tr/ckuiibfd/issue/31317/338148>
Chicago EKİNCİ, R , KÖK, R . "Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama". Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi 7 (2017): 171-200
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama AU - Ramazan EKİNCİ , Recep KÖK Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 171 EP - 200 VL - 7 IS - 2 SN - 1308-5549-2147-4206 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of the Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama %A Ramazan EKİNCİ , Recep KÖK %T Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama %D 2017 %J Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi %P 1308-5549-2147-4206 %V 7 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD EKİNCİ, Ramazan , KÖK, Recep . "Rekabet ve Etkinlik: Avrupa Birliği Bankacılık Endüstrisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama". Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi 7 / 2 (December 2017): 171-200.