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The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries

Year 2021, Volume , Issue , 0 - 0, 28.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.855879

Abstract

This study aims to test the validity of the tourism-led growth hypothesis. For this purpose, ten countries with the highest tourism income (USA, China, Australia, France, Italy, England, Spain, Germany, Japan, Thailand) are included in the analysis covering the period 1995-2018. Pedroni cointegration, panel Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) and panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) methods are utilized by using economic growth, tourism revenues and exchange rate series. According to panel DOLS and panel FMOLS test results, tourism revenues and exchange rate have a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, Granger causality analysis findings indicate a uni-directional causal relation from tourism revenues to economic growth and from exchange rate to tourism. The overall results of the empirical analysis verify the tourism-led growth hypothesis for the ten countries with the highest tourism income.

References

  • Arslanturk, Y. (2012). Dynamic relation between economic growth, foreign exchange and tourism incomes: An econometric perspective on Turkey. Journal of Business Economics and Finance, 1(1), 30-37.
  • Balaguer, J., & Cantavella-Jorda, M. (2002). Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: The Spanish case. Applied Economics, 34(7), 877-884.
  • Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Driha, O. M., & Sinha, A. (2020). The dynamic effects of globalization process in analysing N-shaped tourism led growth hypothesis. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43, 42-52.
  • Belloumi, M. (2010). The relationship between tourism receipts, real effective exchange rate and economic growth in Tunisia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 550-560.
  • Brida, J. G., Cortes-Jimenez, I., & Pulina, M. (2016). Has the tourism-led growth hypothesis been validated? A literature review. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(5), 394-430.
  • Cernat, L., & Gourdon, J. (2012). Paths to success: Benchmarking cross-country sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 33(5), 1044-1056.
  • Chatziantoniou, I., Filis, G., Eeckels, B., & Apostolakis, A. (2013). Oil prices, tourism income and economic growth: A structural VAR approach for European Mediterranean countries. Tourism Management, 36,331-341.
  • Chen, C. F., & Chiou-Wei, S. Z. (2009). Tourism expansion, tourism uncertainty and economic growth: New evidence from Taiwan and Korea. Tourism Management, 30(6), 812-818.
  • Chiu, Y. B., & Yeh, L. T. (2017). The threshold effects of the tourism-led growth hypothesis: Evidence from a cross-sectional model. Journal of Travel Research, 56(5), 625-637.
  • Clancy, M. J. (1999). Tourism and development evidence from Mexico. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(1), 1-20.
  • Cortes-Jiménez, I., Nowak, J. J., & Sahli, M. (2011). Mass beach tourism and economic growth: Lessons from Tunisia. Tourism Economics, 17(3), 531-547.
  • Çuhadar, M. A (2020). Comparative study on modelling and forecasting tourism revenues: The case of Turkey. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 8(2), 235-255.
  • Dunets, A. N., Gerasymchuk, N. A., Kurikov, V. M., Noeva, E. E., Kuznetsova, M. Y., & Shichiyakh, R. A. (2020). Tourism management in border destinations: Regional aspects of sustainable development of protected natural areas. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(4), 3253.
  • Ekanayake, E. M., & Long, A. E. (2012). Tourism development and economic growth in developing countries. The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, 6(1), 51-63.
  • Farzanegan, M. R., Gholipour, H. F., Feizi, M., Nunkoo, R., & Andargoli, A. E. (2021). International tourism and outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19): A cross-country analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 60(3), 687-692.
  • Figini, P., & Vici, L. (2010). Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 789-805.
  • Gavurova, B., Suhanyi, L., & Rigelský, M. (2020). Tourist spending and productivity of economy in OECD countries–research on perspectives of sustainable tourism. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(1), 983-1000.
  • Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Gunduz, L., & Hatemi-J, A. (2005). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?. Applied Economics Letters, 12(8), 499-504.
  • Im, K. S., Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (2003). Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. Journal of Econometrics, 115(1), 53-74.
  • Ivanov, S. H., & Webster, C. (2013). Tourism's contribution to economic growth: A global analysis for the first decade of the millennium. Tourism Economics, 19(3), 477-508.
  • Katircioglu, S. T. (2009a). Revisiting The Tourism-Led-Growth Hypothesis for Turkey Using the Bounds Test and Johansen Approach for Cointegration. Tourism Management, 30 (1), 17-20.
  • Katircioglu, S. (2009b). Testing the tourism-led growth hypothesis: The case of Malta. Acta Oeconomica, 59(3), 331-343.
  • Kızılkaya, O., Sofuoğlu, E., & Karaçor, Z. (2016). Türkiye’de turizm gelirleri-ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: ARDL sınır testi yaklaşımı. Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1), 203-215.
  • Kozak, M., & Bahar, O. (2013). Turizm Ekonomisi. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Kreishan, F. M. M. (2010). Tourism and economic growth: The case of Jordan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 229-234.
  • Levin, A., Lin, C. F., & Chu, C. S. J. (2002). Unit root tests in panel data: Asymptotic and Unite-sample properties. Journal of Econometrics, 108(1), 1-24.
  • Lin, V. S., Yang, Y., & Li, G. (2019). Where can tourism-led growth and economy-driven tourism growth occur?. Journal of Travel Research, 58(5), 760-773.
  • Lionetti, S., & Gonzalez, O. (2012). On the relationship between tourism and growth in Latin America. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(1), 15-24.
  • Liu, H., & Song, H. (2018). New evidence of dynamic links between tourism and economic growth based on mixed-frequency granger causality tests. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 899-907.
  • Mariolis, T., Rodousakis, N., & Soklis, G. (2020). The COVID-19 multiplier effects of tourism on the Greek economy. Tourism Economics, https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816620946547.
  • Mishra, P. K., Rout, H. B., & Pradhan, B. B. (2018). Seasonality in tourism and forecasting foreign tourist arrivals in India. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 11(4), 629-658.
  • Oh, C. O. (2005). The contribution of tourism development to economic growth in the Korean economy. Tourism management, 26(1), 39-44.
  • Osinubi, T. T., & Osinubi, O. B. (2020). Inclusive growth in tourism-led growth hypothesis: Evidence from Nigeria. African Journal of Economic Review, 8(2), 141-160.
  • Ozturk, I. (2010). A literature survey on energy–growth nexus. Energy policy, 38(1), 340-349.
  • Ozturk, I., Acaravci A. (2009). On the causality between tourism growth and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Turkey. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 5(25), 73-81.
  • Paramati, S. R., Alam, M. S., & Chen, C. F. (2017). The effects of tourism on economic growth and CO2 emissions: A comparison between developed and developing economies. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 712-724.
  • Payne, J. E., & Mervar, A. (2010). Research note: The tourism–growth nexus in Croatia. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 1089-1094.
  • Pedroni, P. (1999). Critical values for cointegration tests in heterogeneous panels with multiple regressors. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(S1), 653-670.
  • Pedroni, P. (2000). Fully-Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels. Advances in Econometrics, 15, 93-130.
  • Pedroni, P. (2001). Purchasing power parity tests in cointegrated panels. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(4), 727-731.
  • Pedroni, P. (2004). Panel cointegration: Asymptotic and Unite sample properties of pooled time series tests with an application to the PPP Hypothesis. Econometric Theory, 20(03), 597-625.
  • Perles-Ribes, J. F., Ramón-Rodríguez, A. B., Rubia, A., & Moreno-Izquierdo, L. (2017). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid after the global economic and financial crisis? The case of Spain 1957–2014. Tourism Management, 61, 96-109.
  • Polat, E., & Günay, S. (2012). Türkiye’de turizm ve ihracat gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisinin testi: Eşbütünleşme ve nedensellik analizi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 16(2), 204-211.
  • Rasool, H., Maqbool, S., & Tarique, M. (2021). The relationship between tourism and economic growth among BRICS countries: a panel cointegration analysis. Future Business Journal, 7(1), 1-11.
  • Ribeiro, E. D. C., & Wang, B. (2020). Tourism led growth hypothesis: Has the tourism industry an impact on the economic growth of Sao Tome and Principe?. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 10(1), 180-185.
  • Ridderstaat, J., Croes, R., & Nijkamp, P. (2013). Modelling tourism development and long-run economic growth in Aruba (No. 13-145/VIII). Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper.
  • Rout., H.B., Mishra, P., & Pradhan, B. (2019). Empirics of tourism-led growth in India, 1995 to 2016. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 9(6), 1190-1201.
  • Schubert, S. F., Brida, J. G., & Risso, W. A. (2011). The impacts of international tourism demand on economic growth of small economies dependent on tourism. Tourism Management, 32, 377-385.
  • Selimi, N., Sadiku, S. L., & Sadiku, M. (2017). The impact of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An empirical analysis. International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), 10(2), 19-25.
  • Shahzad, S. J. H., Shahbaz, M., Ferrer, R., & Kumar, R. R. (2017). Tourism-led growth hypothesis in the top ten tourist destinations: New evidence using the quantile-on-quantile approach. Tourism Management, 60, 223-232.
  • Sinclair, M. T., & Tsegaye, A. (1990). International tourism and export instability. The journal of development studies, 26(3), 487-504.
  • Solarin, S. A. (2018). Does tourism-led growth hypothesis exist in Mauritius? Evidence from disaggregated tourism markets. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(9), 964-969.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2013). How stable is the tourism-led growth hypothesis in Malaysia? Evidence from disaggregated tourism markets. Tourism Management, 37, 52-57.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2015). Does tourism effectively stimulate Malaysia's economic growth?. Tourism Management, 46, 158-163.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2018). Tourism-led growth hypothesis: A new global evidence. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 59(3), 304-311.
  • Terzi, H. (2015). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis (TLGH) valid for Turkey?. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 16(2), 165-178.
  • Tugcu, C. T. (2014). Tourism and economic growth nexus revisited: A panel causality analysis for the case of the Mediterranean Region. Tourism Management, 42, 207-212.
  • UNWTO (2020). World Tourism Barometer September 2020. Retrieved 09. 07. 2021, from https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2020.18.1.5
  • Yavuz, N. C. (2006). Test for the effect of tourism receipts on economic growth in Turkey: Structural break and causality analysis. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 7(2), 162-171.
  • Zortuk, M. (2009). Economic impact of tourism on Turkey's economy: Evidence from cointegration tests. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 25, 231–239.
  • Zuo, B., & Huang, S. (2018). Revisiting the tourism-led economic growth hypothesis: The case of China. Journal of Travel Research, 57(2), 151-163.

Year 2021, Volume , Issue , 0 - 0, 28.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.855879

Abstract

References

  • Arslanturk, Y. (2012). Dynamic relation between economic growth, foreign exchange and tourism incomes: An econometric perspective on Turkey. Journal of Business Economics and Finance, 1(1), 30-37.
  • Balaguer, J., & Cantavella-Jorda, M. (2002). Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: The Spanish case. Applied Economics, 34(7), 877-884.
  • Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Driha, O. M., & Sinha, A. (2020). The dynamic effects of globalization process in analysing N-shaped tourism led growth hypothesis. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43, 42-52.
  • Belloumi, M. (2010). The relationship between tourism receipts, real effective exchange rate and economic growth in Tunisia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 550-560.
  • Brida, J. G., Cortes-Jimenez, I., & Pulina, M. (2016). Has the tourism-led growth hypothesis been validated? A literature review. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(5), 394-430.
  • Cernat, L., & Gourdon, J. (2012). Paths to success: Benchmarking cross-country sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 33(5), 1044-1056.
  • Chatziantoniou, I., Filis, G., Eeckels, B., & Apostolakis, A. (2013). Oil prices, tourism income and economic growth: A structural VAR approach for European Mediterranean countries. Tourism Management, 36,331-341.
  • Chen, C. F., & Chiou-Wei, S. Z. (2009). Tourism expansion, tourism uncertainty and economic growth: New evidence from Taiwan and Korea. Tourism Management, 30(6), 812-818.
  • Chiu, Y. B., & Yeh, L. T. (2017). The threshold effects of the tourism-led growth hypothesis: Evidence from a cross-sectional model. Journal of Travel Research, 56(5), 625-637.
  • Clancy, M. J. (1999). Tourism and development evidence from Mexico. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(1), 1-20.
  • Cortes-Jiménez, I., Nowak, J. J., & Sahli, M. (2011). Mass beach tourism and economic growth: Lessons from Tunisia. Tourism Economics, 17(3), 531-547.
  • Çuhadar, M. A (2020). Comparative study on modelling and forecasting tourism revenues: The case of Turkey. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 8(2), 235-255.
  • Dunets, A. N., Gerasymchuk, N. A., Kurikov, V. M., Noeva, E. E., Kuznetsova, M. Y., & Shichiyakh, R. A. (2020). Tourism management in border destinations: Regional aspects of sustainable development of protected natural areas. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(4), 3253.
  • Ekanayake, E. M., & Long, A. E. (2012). Tourism development and economic growth in developing countries. The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, 6(1), 51-63.
  • Farzanegan, M. R., Gholipour, H. F., Feizi, M., Nunkoo, R., & Andargoli, A. E. (2021). International tourism and outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19): A cross-country analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 60(3), 687-692.
  • Figini, P., & Vici, L. (2010). Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 789-805.
  • Gavurova, B., Suhanyi, L., & Rigelský, M. (2020). Tourist spending and productivity of economy in OECD countries–research on perspectives of sustainable tourism. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 8(1), 983-1000.
  • Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Gunduz, L., & Hatemi-J, A. (2005). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?. Applied Economics Letters, 12(8), 499-504.
  • Im, K. S., Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (2003). Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. Journal of Econometrics, 115(1), 53-74.
  • Ivanov, S. H., & Webster, C. (2013). Tourism's contribution to economic growth: A global analysis for the first decade of the millennium. Tourism Economics, 19(3), 477-508.
  • Katircioglu, S. T. (2009a). Revisiting The Tourism-Led-Growth Hypothesis for Turkey Using the Bounds Test and Johansen Approach for Cointegration. Tourism Management, 30 (1), 17-20.
  • Katircioglu, S. (2009b). Testing the tourism-led growth hypothesis: The case of Malta. Acta Oeconomica, 59(3), 331-343.
  • Kızılkaya, O., Sofuoğlu, E., & Karaçor, Z. (2016). Türkiye’de turizm gelirleri-ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: ARDL sınır testi yaklaşımı. Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1), 203-215.
  • Kozak, M., & Bahar, O. (2013). Turizm Ekonomisi. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Kreishan, F. M. M. (2010). Tourism and economic growth: The case of Jordan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 229-234.
  • Levin, A., Lin, C. F., & Chu, C. S. J. (2002). Unit root tests in panel data: Asymptotic and Unite-sample properties. Journal of Econometrics, 108(1), 1-24.
  • Lin, V. S., Yang, Y., & Li, G. (2019). Where can tourism-led growth and economy-driven tourism growth occur?. Journal of Travel Research, 58(5), 760-773.
  • Lionetti, S., & Gonzalez, O. (2012). On the relationship between tourism and growth in Latin America. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(1), 15-24.
  • Liu, H., & Song, H. (2018). New evidence of dynamic links between tourism and economic growth based on mixed-frequency granger causality tests. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 899-907.
  • Mariolis, T., Rodousakis, N., & Soklis, G. (2020). The COVID-19 multiplier effects of tourism on the Greek economy. Tourism Economics, https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816620946547.
  • Mishra, P. K., Rout, H. B., & Pradhan, B. B. (2018). Seasonality in tourism and forecasting foreign tourist arrivals in India. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 11(4), 629-658.
  • Oh, C. O. (2005). The contribution of tourism development to economic growth in the Korean economy. Tourism management, 26(1), 39-44.
  • Osinubi, T. T., & Osinubi, O. B. (2020). Inclusive growth in tourism-led growth hypothesis: Evidence from Nigeria. African Journal of Economic Review, 8(2), 141-160.
  • Ozturk, I. (2010). A literature survey on energy–growth nexus. Energy policy, 38(1), 340-349.
  • Ozturk, I., Acaravci A. (2009). On the causality between tourism growth and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Turkey. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 5(25), 73-81.
  • Paramati, S. R., Alam, M. S., & Chen, C. F. (2017). The effects of tourism on economic growth and CO2 emissions: A comparison between developed and developing economies. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 712-724.
  • Payne, J. E., & Mervar, A. (2010). Research note: The tourism–growth nexus in Croatia. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 1089-1094.
  • Pedroni, P. (1999). Critical values for cointegration tests in heterogeneous panels with multiple regressors. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(S1), 653-670.
  • Pedroni, P. (2000). Fully-Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels. Advances in Econometrics, 15, 93-130.
  • Pedroni, P. (2001). Purchasing power parity tests in cointegrated panels. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(4), 727-731.
  • Pedroni, P. (2004). Panel cointegration: Asymptotic and Unite sample properties of pooled time series tests with an application to the PPP Hypothesis. Econometric Theory, 20(03), 597-625.
  • Perles-Ribes, J. F., Ramón-Rodríguez, A. B., Rubia, A., & Moreno-Izquierdo, L. (2017). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid after the global economic and financial crisis? The case of Spain 1957–2014. Tourism Management, 61, 96-109.
  • Polat, E., & Günay, S. (2012). Türkiye’de turizm ve ihracat gelirlerinin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisinin testi: Eşbütünleşme ve nedensellik analizi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 16(2), 204-211.
  • Rasool, H., Maqbool, S., & Tarique, M. (2021). The relationship between tourism and economic growth among BRICS countries: a panel cointegration analysis. Future Business Journal, 7(1), 1-11.
  • Ribeiro, E. D. C., & Wang, B. (2020). Tourism led growth hypothesis: Has the tourism industry an impact on the economic growth of Sao Tome and Principe?. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 10(1), 180-185.
  • Ridderstaat, J., Croes, R., & Nijkamp, P. (2013). Modelling tourism development and long-run economic growth in Aruba (No. 13-145/VIII). Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper.
  • Rout., H.B., Mishra, P., & Pradhan, B. (2019). Empirics of tourism-led growth in India, 1995 to 2016. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 9(6), 1190-1201.
  • Schubert, S. F., Brida, J. G., & Risso, W. A. (2011). The impacts of international tourism demand on economic growth of small economies dependent on tourism. Tourism Management, 32, 377-385.
  • Selimi, N., Sadiku, S. L., & Sadiku, M. (2017). The impact of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An empirical analysis. International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), 10(2), 19-25.
  • Shahzad, S. J. H., Shahbaz, M., Ferrer, R., & Kumar, R. R. (2017). Tourism-led growth hypothesis in the top ten tourist destinations: New evidence using the quantile-on-quantile approach. Tourism Management, 60, 223-232.
  • Sinclair, M. T., & Tsegaye, A. (1990). International tourism and export instability. The journal of development studies, 26(3), 487-504.
  • Solarin, S. A. (2018). Does tourism-led growth hypothesis exist in Mauritius? Evidence from disaggregated tourism markets. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(9), 964-969.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2013). How stable is the tourism-led growth hypothesis in Malaysia? Evidence from disaggregated tourism markets. Tourism Management, 37, 52-57.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2015). Does tourism effectively stimulate Malaysia's economic growth?. Tourism Management, 46, 158-163.
  • Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2018). Tourism-led growth hypothesis: A new global evidence. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 59(3), 304-311.
  • Terzi, H. (2015). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis (TLGH) valid for Turkey?. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 16(2), 165-178.
  • Tugcu, C. T. (2014). Tourism and economic growth nexus revisited: A panel causality analysis for the case of the Mediterranean Region. Tourism Management, 42, 207-212.
  • UNWTO (2020). World Tourism Barometer September 2020. Retrieved 09. 07. 2021, from https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2020.18.1.5
  • Yavuz, N. C. (2006). Test for the effect of tourism receipts on economic growth in Turkey: Structural break and causality analysis. Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 7(2), 162-171.
  • Zortuk, M. (2009). Economic impact of tourism on Turkey's economy: Evidence from cointegration tests. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 25, 231–239.
  • Zuo, B., & Huang, S. (2018). Revisiting the tourism-led economic growth hypothesis: The case of China. Journal of Travel Research, 57(2), 151-163.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Emrah SOFUOĞLU (Primary Author)
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi
0000-0001-7716-1599
Türkiye

Publication Date July 28, 2021
Application Date January 7, 2021
Acceptance Date August 10, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume , Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ahtr855879, journal = {Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR)}, issn = {2147-9100}, eissn = {2148-7316}, address = {Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty Dumlupınar Boulevard Post Code: 07058 Campus ANTALYA, TURKEY}, publisher = {Akdeniz University}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {0 - 0}, doi = {10.30519/ahtr.855879}, title = {The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries}, key = {cite}, author = {Sofuoğlu, Emrah} }
APA Sofuoğlu, E. (2021). The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) , , 0-0 . DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.855879
MLA Sofuoğlu, E. "The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries" . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) (2021 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ahtr/issue/59492/855879>
Chicago Sofuoğlu, E. "The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) (2021 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries AU - Emrah Sofuoğlu Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.855879 DO - 10.30519/ahtr.855879 T2 - Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - IS - SN - 2147-9100-2148-7316 M3 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.855879 UR - https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.855879 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries %A Emrah Sofuoğlu %T The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries %D 2021 %J Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) %P 2147-9100-2148-7316 %V %N %R doi: 10.30519/ahtr.855879 %U 10.30519/ahtr.855879
ISNAD Sofuoğlu, Emrah . "The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) / (July 2021): 0-0 . https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.855879
AMA Sofuoğlu E. The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2021; 0-0.
Vancouver Sofuoğlu E. The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2021; 0-0.
IEEE E. Sofuoğlu , "The Validity of Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis for The Top Ten Tourism Revenue Generating Countries", Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), pp. 0-0, Jul. 2021, doi:10.30519/ahtr.855879


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