Year 2019, Volume 13 , Issue 2, Pages 92 - 97 2019-08-31

Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats

Fidel GWALA [1] , William SİBUOR [2] , Beda O. OLABU [3] , Anne N. PULEI [4] , Julius A. OGENG’O [5]



Objectives: The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a known biomarker of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular events and evaluation of therapeutic action. Excessive salt directly causes changes in the common carotid intima and media layers and has been linked to hypertensive disease resulting to changes on vascular structure. Hibiscus sabdariffa is a traditional herbal drink with antihypertensive effects. The anatomical aspects of its effects however, are largely unknown. This study therefore, investigated the effects of hibiscus extract on CIMT in rats fed with a high-salt diet.

Methods: Young albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into three groups: (A) high-salt diet alone, (B) high-salt diet and Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and (C) control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks. Specimens from carotid arteries of rats were fixated and processed for paraffin embedding. Seven-micrometer thick sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain and examined under light microscopy. Morphometric measurements were taken to determine the CIMT. 

Results: High-salt diet increased CIMT from 497.86 µm to 697.85 µm in 8 weeks. In Hibiscus sabdariffa extract fed rats, the CIMT decreased to 542.85 µm (p<0.05) by week 8. 

Conclusion: Hibiscus sabdariffa extract ameliorates salt-induced increase in CIMT in rats in a time-dependent manner. This implies that Hibiscus sabdariffa products may have therapeutic value in salt-induced vascular morbidity.



carotid intima media thickness, hibiscus, salt diet
  • 1. Aaron KJ, Sanders PW. Role of dietary salt and potassium intake in cardiovascular health and disease: a review of the evidence. Mayo Clinic Proc 2013; 88: 987 – 995.
  • 2. He FJ, Li J, MacGregor GA. Effect of longerterm modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta – analysis of randomissed trials. BMJ 2013; 346:f1325.
  • 3. Zhao X, Yang X, Zhang X, Li Y, Zhao X, Ren L. Dietary salt intake and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with prehypertension. J Clin Hypertens 2014; 16: 575 – 580.
  • 4. Xin Z, Xia xu Y, Cheng Hui Y, Xiao Lin Z, Ya Ling H. Dietary salt intake and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with prehypertension. Heart 2015; ASSA 14 – 11 – 03 DOI 101: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl - 2014 - 307109.87.
  • 5. Baldo MP, Rodrigues SL, Mill JG. High salt intake is a multifaceted cardiovascular disease: new support from cellular and molecular evidence. Heart Fail Rev 2015; 20: 461 – 474.
  • 6. Chrysant SG. Effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease: the role of Cox inhibitors. Clin cardiol 2016; 39: 240 – 242.
  • 7. Njoroge JN, Khoudary SRE, Fried LF, Barinas-Mitchell E, Sutton-Tyrrell K. High urinary sodium is associated with increased carotid intima–media thickness in normotensive overweight and obese adults. Am J Hypertens 2011; 24:70-76.
  • 8. Lorenz MW, Karbstein P, Markus HS, Sitzer M. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is not associated with carotid intima-media progression: the carotid atherosclerosis progression study. Stroke 2007; 38:1774-1779.
  • 9. World Health Organization. Reducing salt intake in populations: report of a WHO forum and technical meeting, 5-7 October 2006, Paris, France.
  • 10. Serban C, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Andrica F, Banach M. Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2015; 33:1119-1127.
  • 11. Hopkins AL, Lamm MG, Funk JL, Ritenbough C. Hibiscus sabdariffa L in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of human and animal studies. Fitoterapia 2013; 85: 84 – 94.
  • 12. Seujange Y, Leelahavanichkul A, Yisarakun W, KhawsukW, Meepool A, Phamonleatmongkol P. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus aqueous extracts attenuate the progression of renal injury in 5/6 nephrectomy rats. Renal failure 2013; 35:118-125.
  • 13. Guardiola S, Mach N. Therapeutic potential of hibiscus sabdariffa: a review of scientific evidence. Endocrinol Nutr 2014; 61: 274 – 295.
  • 14. Onyenekwe PC, Ajani EO, Ameh DA, Gamaniel KS. Antihypertensive effect of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx infusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats and a comparison of its toxicity with that in Wistar rats. Cell Biochem Funct 1999; 17:199-206.
  • 15. Sireeratawong S, Itharat A, Khonsung P, Lertprasertsuke N, Jaijoy K. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013; 10:122-127.
  • 16. Centurión OA. Carotid intima-media thickness as a cardiovascular risk factor and imaging pathway of atherosclerosis. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2016; 15:152-160.
  • 17. Nezu T, Hosomi N, Aoki S, Matsumoto M. Carotid intima-media thickness for atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb 2016; 23:18-31.
  • 18. Jashnani KD, Kulkarni RR Deshpande JR. Role of carotid intima-media thickness in assessment of atherosclerosis: an autopsy study. Indian Heart Journal 2005; 57:319-323
  • 19. Sofola OA, Knill A, Hainsworth, Drinkhill M. Change in endothelial function in mesenteric arteries of Sprague‐Dawley rats fed a high salt diet. J Physiol 2002; 543:255-260.
  • 20. Safar ME, Thiulliez CH, Richard V, Benetos A. Pressure-independent contribution of sodium to large artery structure and function in hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 2000; 46:269-276
  • 21. Dai X W, Wang C, Xu Y, Guan K, Su YX, Chen YM. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese men and women. Nutrients 2016; 8: 612. DOI: 10.3390/nu 8100612.
  • 22. Ferreira-Sae MC, Cipolli JA, Cornélio ME, Matos-Souza JR, Fernandes MN, Schreiber. Sodium intake is associated with carotid artery structure alterations and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 upregulation in hypertensive adults. J Nutr 2011; 141:877-882.
  • 23. Safar ME, London GM, Plante GE. Arterial stiffness and kidney function. Hypertension 2004; 43:163-168.
  • 24. Sanders PW. Vascular consequences of dietary salt intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009b; 297:F237-F243.B
  • 25. Ruiz-Ortega M, Rodríguez-Vita J, Sanchez-Lopez E, Carvajal G, Egido J. TGF-β signaling in vascular fibrosis. Cardiovasc Res 2007; 74:196-206.
  • 26. Saka OS, Komolafe AO, Ogunlade O, Olayode AA, Akinjisola AA. Aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) administration alleviates high salt diet- induced changes in the aorta of adult Wistar rats: a morphological and morphometric study. Anatomy 2016; 10:7-15
  • 27. de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Morgan PE, Hodgkinson SC, Cutfield WS. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in middle-aged overweight men: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. PloS one 2013; 8:e57622.
  • 28. Chen CC, Hsu JD, Wang SF, Chiang HC, Yang MY, Kao ES, Ho YC, Wang CJ. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51:5472-5477
  • 29. Da-Costa-Rocha I, Bonnlaender B, Sievers H, PischelI and Heinrich M. Hibiscus sabdariffa L.–A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food chemistry 2014; 165:424-443.
  • 30. Joven J, March I, Espinel E, Fernández‐Arroyo S, Rodríguez‐Gallego E. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function. Mol Nutr Food Res 2014; 58:1374-1378.
  • 31. Beltrán-Debón R, Rodríguez-Gallego E, Fernández-Arroyo S, Senan-Campos O, Massucci FA, Hernández-Aguilera A, Joven J. The acute impact of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in metabolic homeostasis: an approach combining metabolomics and gene-expression analyses. Food Funct 2015; 6:2957-2966.
  • 32. Ekor M, Adesanoye OA, Udo IE, Adegoke OA, Raji J, Farombi EO. Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extract protects against dyslipidemia and oxidative stress induced by chronic cholesterol administration in rabbits. Afr J Med Med Sci 2010; 39:161-170.
  • 33. Olalye MT, Rocha JBT. Commonly used tropical medicinal plants exhibt distinct in vitro antioxidant activities against hepatotoxins in rat liver. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2007; 58:433-438.
  • 34. Sitia S, Tomasoni L, Atzeni F, Ambrosio G, Cordiano C, Catapano A, Picano E. From endothelial dysfunction to atherosclerosis. Autoimmunity reviews 2010; 9:830-834.
  • 35. Micucci M, Malaguti M, Toschi TG, Di Lecce G, Aldini R. Cardiac and vascular synergic protective effect of olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L flower extraxts. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2015; DOI: 10.1155/2015/318125.
  • 36. Huang CN, Chan KC, Lin WT, Su SL, Wang CJ, Peng CH. Hibiscus sabdariffa inhibits vascular smooth cell proliferation and migration induced by high glucose …. A mechanism involves connective tissue growth factor signals. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57: 3073 – 3079.
Primary Language en
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Original Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3910-2832
Author: Fidel GWALA (Primary Author)
Institution: University of Nairobi
Country: Kenya


Author: William SİBUOR
Institution: Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Country: Kenya


Author: Beda O. OLABU
Institution: Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi
Country: Kenya


Author: Anne N. PULEI
Institution: Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Country: Kenya


Author: Julius A. OGENG’O
Institution: Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Country: Kenya


Dates

Publication Date : August 31, 2019

Bibtex @research article { anatomy584077, journal = {Anatomy}, issn = {1307-8798}, eissn = {1308-8459}, address = {}, publisher = {Turkish Society of Anatomy and Clinical Anatomy (TSACA)}, year = {2019}, volume = {13}, pages = {92 - 97}, doi = {}, title = {Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats}, key = {cite}, author = {GWALA, Fidel and SİBUOR, William and OLABU, Beda O. and PULEI, Anne N. and OGENG’O, Julius A.} }
APA GWALA, F , SİBUOR, W , OLABU, B , PULEI, A , OGENG’O, J . (2019). Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats. Anatomy , 13 (2) , 92-97 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/anatomy/issue/52102/584077
MLA GWALA, F , SİBUOR, W , OLABU, B , PULEI, A , OGENG’O, J . "Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats". Anatomy 13 (2019 ): 92-97 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/anatomy/issue/52102/584077>
Chicago GWALA, F , SİBUOR, W , OLABU, B , PULEI, A , OGENG’O, J . "Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats". Anatomy 13 (2019 ): 92-97
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats AU - Fidel GWALA , William SİBUOR , Beda O. OLABU , Anne N. PULEI , Julius A. OGENG’O Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Anatomy JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 92 EP - 97 VL - 13 IS - 2 SN - 1307-8798-1308-8459 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Anatomy Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats %A Fidel GWALA , William SİBUOR , Beda O. OLABU , Anne N. PULEI , Julius A. OGENG’O %T Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats %D 2019 %J Anatomy %P 1307-8798-1308-8459 %V 13 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD GWALA, Fidel , SİBUOR, William , OLABU, Beda O. , PULEI, Anne N. , OGENG’O, Julius A. . "Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats". Anatomy 13 / 2 (August 2019): 92-97 .
AMA GWALA F , SİBUOR W , OLABU B , PULEI A , OGENG’O J . Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats. Anatomy. 2019; 13(2): 92-97.
Vancouver GWALA F , SİBUOR W , OLABU B , PULEI A , OGENG’O J . Hibiscus ameliorates salt-induced carotid intima-media thickness in albino rats. Anatomy. 2019; 13(2): 97-92.