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Etlerde Kuru Yaşlandırma

Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 1, 23 - 35, 30.01.2019

Abstract

Kasların ete dönüşümü sırasında kaslarda postmortem değişiklikler meydana gelir. Postmortem

değişikliklerin son aşaması olgunlaşmadır. Olgunlaşma, kesim sonrasında proteolitik enzimlerin

kas ve bağ doku proteinlerini hidrolize etmesiyle ölüm sertliğinin çözülmesi ve buna bağlı olarak

etin daha lezzetli, gevrek ve sulu bir hal alması ile sonuçlanan bir süreçtir. Olgunlaşma için pratikte

birkaç gün yeterli görülmektedir. Ancak etler uygun koşullarda çok daha uzun süreler bekletilmek

suretiyle yaşlandırıldığında, duyusal açıdan maksimum kalitede ürün elde edilebilmektedir.

Yaşlandırma kuru ve ıslak olmak üzere iki şekilde yapılabilmektedir. Kuru yaşlandırma sıcaklık,

nem ve hava akışının mikrobiyal gelişmeyi engelleyecek ve kilo kaybını en aza indirgeyecek

şekilde dengelenmesi ve izlenmesi ile gerçekleşen bir işlemdir. Kuru yaşlandırma ile eşsiz lezzete

sahip, katma değeri yüksek sığır eti elde edilebilmektedir. Bu makalede, kuru yaşlandırma yöntemi

hakkında genel bilgiler verilmiş; kuru yaşlandırma yönteminde uygulanan kontrollü ortam

koşullarından bahsedilmiştir.

References

  • Ahnström, M.L., Seyfert, M., Hunt, M.C., Johnson, D.E. (2006). Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour. Meat Science, 73(4): 674-679.
  • Anar, Ş. (2012). Et ve Et Ürünleri Teknolojisi. Dora Yayıncılık, Bursa.
  • Ardıçlı, S. (2018). Genetik ve postmortem mekanizmaların sığır eti renk özellikleri üzerine etkisi. Uludag University Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 37(1): 49-59.
  • Berger, J., Kim, Y.H.B., Legako, J.F., Martini, S., Lee, J., Ebner, P., Zuellya, S.M.S. (2018). Dry-aging improves meat quality attributes of grass-fed beef loins. Meat Science, 145: 285-291.
  • Blana, V. A., Nychas, G.J. E. (2014). Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173:1-8.
  • Campbell, R.E., Hunt M.C., Levis, P., Chambers, E. (2001). Dry‐aging effects on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. Journal of Food Science, 66(2): 196-199.
  • Corbin, C. H., O'Quinn, T. G., Garmyn, A. J., Legako, J. F., Hunt, M. R., Dinh, T. T. N., Miller, M. F. (2015). Sensory evaluation of tender beef strip loin steaks of varying marbling levels and quality treatments. Meat Science, 100: 24 –31
  • Coux, O., Tanaka, K., Goldberg, A.L. (1996). Structure and functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 65: 801-847.
  • Çelik, P. (2012). Kanatlı eti (hindi eti ve tavuk eti) ve kırmızı et karışımı ile elde edilen köftelerin kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Namık Kemal Üniversitesi. Tekirdağ.
  • Çon, A.H., Doğu, M.,Gökalp, H.Y. (2002). Afyon'da büyük kapasiteli et işletmelerinde üretilen sucuk örneklerinin bazı mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin periyodik olarak belirlenmesi. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 26: 11-16.
  • Dashdorj, D., Tripathi, V.K., Cho, S., Kim, Y., Hwang, I. (2016). Dry aging of beef; Review. Journal of Animal Science Technology, 58: 20.
  • Daun, C., Johansson, M., Önning, G., Åkesson, B. (2001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, tissue and soluble selenium content in beef and pork in relation to meat ageing and pig RN phenotype. Food Chemistry, 73(3): 313-319.
  • DeGeer, S.L., Hunt, M.C., Bratcher, C.L., Croizer-Dodson, B.A., Johnson, D.E. and Stika, J.F. (2009). Effects of dry aging of bone-in and boneless strip loins using two aging processes for two aging times. Meat Science, 83: 768-774.
  • Dikeman, M.E., Obuz, E., Gök, V., Akkaya, L., Stroda, S. (2013). Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks. Meat Science, 94(2): 228-233.
  • Feiner, G. (2006). Meat Products Handbook, Woodhead Publishing (1st ed.), pp.574-594.
  • Galletly, J. (2016). Dry aged beef – design and good manufacturing. Meat and Livestock Australia Limited, Project code: P.PSH.0679.
  • Goll, D.E., Thompson, V.F., Li, H., Wei, W., Cong, J. (2003). The calpain system. Physiological Reviews, 83(3): 731-801.
  • Huff-Lonergan, H., Lonergan, S.M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: the role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science, 71(1): 194-204.
  • Hulankova, R., Kamenik, J., Salakova, A., Zavodsky, D., Borilova, G. (2018). The effect of dry aging on instrumental, chemical and microbiological parameters of organic beef loin muscle. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 89: 559-565.
  • Ingram, M., Roberts, T.A. (1976). The microbiology of the red meat carcass and the slaughterhouse. Royal Society of Health Journal, 96(6): 270-276.
  • Juncher, D., Rønn, B., Mortensen, E., Henckel, P., Karlsson, A., Skibsted, L., Bertelsen, G. (2001). Effect of pre-slaughter physiological conditions on the oxidative stability of colour and lipid during chill storage of pork. Meat Science, 58(4): 347-357.
  • Kemp, C.M., Sensky, P.L., Bardsley, R.G., Buttery, P.J., Parr, T. (2009). Tenderness – An enzymatic view. Meat Science, 84(2): 248-256.
  • Kemp, C. M., Parr, T. (2012). Advances in apoptotic mediated proteolysis in meat tenderisation. Meat Science, 92: 252–259.
  • Khan, M.I., Jung, S, Nam, K.C., Jo, C. (2016). Postmortem aging of beef with a special reference to the dry aging. Korean Journal For Food Science of Animal Resources, 36(2): 159–169.
  • Kim, Y.H, Kemp, R., Samuelsson, L.M. (2016). Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Meat Science, 111: 168-176.
  • Koplay, Z., Sezer, Ç. (2013). The effect of nisin and clove essential oil on shelf life of beef. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(1): 9-19.
  • Laster, M.A. (2007). Tenderness, flavor, and yield assessments of dry aged beef. Master of Science Thesis, Texas A and M University, College Station.
  • Laster, M.A., Smith, R.D., Nicholson, K.L., Nicholson, J.D., Miller, R.K., Griffin, D.B., Harris, K.B., Savell, J.W. (2008). Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups. Meat Science, 80(3): 795-804.
  • Li, X., Babol, J., Bredie, W.L.P., Nielsen, B., Tománková, J., Lundström, K. (2014). A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing. Meat Science, 97(4): 433-442.
  • Li, X., Babol, J., Wallby, A., Lundström, K. (2013). Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum. Meat Science, 95(2): 229-234.
  • Martinaud, A., Mercier, Y., Marinova, P., Tassy, C., Gatellier, P., Renerre, M. (1997). Comparison of oxidative processes on myofibrillar proteins from beef during maturation and by different model oxidation systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45 (7): 2481–2487.
  • Miller, M.F., Davis, G.W., Ramsey, C.B. (1985). Effect of subprimal fabrication and packaging methods on palatability and retail caselife of loin steaks from lean beef. Journal of Food Science, 50(6): 1544-1546.
  • Minks, D., Stringer, W. C. (1972). The influence of aging beef in vacuum. Journal of Food Science, 37: 736-738.
  • Nair, M.N., Canto, A.C.V.C.S., Rentfrow, G., Suman, S.P. (2019). Muscle-specific effect of aging on beef tenderness. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 100: 250-252.
  • Nishimura, T. (2015). Role of extracellular matrix in development of skeletal muscle and postmortem aging of meat. Meat Science, 109: 48 –55
  • Nortje, G. L., Naudè, R.T. (1981). Microbiology of beef carcass surfaces. Journal of Food Protection, 44(5): 355-358.
  • Nychas, G.J.E., Arkoudelos, J.S. (1990). Staphylococci: their role in fermented sausages. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement, 19: 167-188.
  • Oreskovich, D.C., McKeith, F.K., Carr, T.R., Novakofski, J., Bechtel, P.J. (1988). Effects of different aging procedures on the palatability of beef. Journal of Food Quality, 11(2): 151-158.
  • Öztan, A. (2003). Et Bilimi ve Teknolojisi. TMMOB Gıda Mühendisleri Odası Yayınları Kitaplar Serisi. No:1, Ankara.
  • Parrish, F.C., Boles, J.A., Rust, R.E., Olson, D.G. (1991). Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. Journal of Food Science, 56(3): 601-603.
  • Perry, N. (2012). Dry aging beef. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 1(1): 78-80.
  • Savell, J.W. (2008). Dry-aging of beef. Executive summary, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, Centennial, CO, 1-16.
  • Sitz, B.M., Calkins, C.R., Feuz, D.M., Umberger, W.J., Eskridge, K.M. (2006). Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks. Journal of Animal Science, 84(5): 1221-1226.
  • Smith, R.D. (2007). Dry aging beef for the retail channel. Master of Science Thesis, Texas A and M University, College Station.
  • Starkey, C. P., Geesink, G. H., Collins, D., Oddy, V. H., Hopkins, D. L. (2016). Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles. Meat Science, 113: 51 –58.
  • Vural, H. (1992). Türk fermente sucuk üretiminde starter kültür kullanımı üzerine araştırmalar. Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi. Ankara.
  • Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Fu, L. (2017). Food Spoilage Microorganisms: Ecology and control (1st ed.) pp192.
  • Warren, K.E., Kastner, C.L. (1992). A comparison of dry-aged and vacuum-aged beef striploins. Journal of Muscle Foods, 3(2): 151-157.
  • Yıbar, A., Çetin, E. (2013). Hayvan refahının et kalitesi üzerine etkileri. Uludag University Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 32(2): 31-37.

Dry Aging of Beef

Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 1, 23 - 35, 30.01.2019

Abstract

After slaughter, physical and chemical postmortem changes occur in the muscles. The final stage

of postmortem changes is maturation. Meat maturation is a process that results in the resolution

of rigor mortis, and meat becoming more delicious, tender and juicy. In practice, a few days are

enough for maturation. However, when meat is aged by waiting for longer periods under favorable

conditions, maximum quality products can be obtained in terms of sensory properties. There are

two main ways to age meat: dry and wet. Dry aging is a method that temperature, humidity and air

flow is controlled in an environment to prevent microbial growth and minimize weight loss. High

value added beef with unique flavor formation is achieved with dry aging. In this review, general

information about dry aging method and its application is given.

References

  • Ahnström, M.L., Seyfert, M., Hunt, M.C., Johnson, D.E. (2006). Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour. Meat Science, 73(4): 674-679.
  • Anar, Ş. (2012). Et ve Et Ürünleri Teknolojisi. Dora Yayıncılık, Bursa.
  • Ardıçlı, S. (2018). Genetik ve postmortem mekanizmaların sığır eti renk özellikleri üzerine etkisi. Uludag University Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 37(1): 49-59.
  • Berger, J., Kim, Y.H.B., Legako, J.F., Martini, S., Lee, J., Ebner, P., Zuellya, S.M.S. (2018). Dry-aging improves meat quality attributes of grass-fed beef loins. Meat Science, 145: 285-291.
  • Blana, V. A., Nychas, G.J. E. (2014). Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173:1-8.
  • Campbell, R.E., Hunt M.C., Levis, P., Chambers, E. (2001). Dry‐aging effects on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. Journal of Food Science, 66(2): 196-199.
  • Corbin, C. H., O'Quinn, T. G., Garmyn, A. J., Legako, J. F., Hunt, M. R., Dinh, T. T. N., Miller, M. F. (2015). Sensory evaluation of tender beef strip loin steaks of varying marbling levels and quality treatments. Meat Science, 100: 24 –31
  • Coux, O., Tanaka, K., Goldberg, A.L. (1996). Structure and functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 65: 801-847.
  • Çelik, P. (2012). Kanatlı eti (hindi eti ve tavuk eti) ve kırmızı et karışımı ile elde edilen köftelerin kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Namık Kemal Üniversitesi. Tekirdağ.
  • Çon, A.H., Doğu, M.,Gökalp, H.Y. (2002). Afyon'da büyük kapasiteli et işletmelerinde üretilen sucuk örneklerinin bazı mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin periyodik olarak belirlenmesi. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 26: 11-16.
  • Dashdorj, D., Tripathi, V.K., Cho, S., Kim, Y., Hwang, I. (2016). Dry aging of beef; Review. Journal of Animal Science Technology, 58: 20.
  • Daun, C., Johansson, M., Önning, G., Åkesson, B. (2001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, tissue and soluble selenium content in beef and pork in relation to meat ageing and pig RN phenotype. Food Chemistry, 73(3): 313-319.
  • DeGeer, S.L., Hunt, M.C., Bratcher, C.L., Croizer-Dodson, B.A., Johnson, D.E. and Stika, J.F. (2009). Effects of dry aging of bone-in and boneless strip loins using two aging processes for two aging times. Meat Science, 83: 768-774.
  • Dikeman, M.E., Obuz, E., Gök, V., Akkaya, L., Stroda, S. (2013). Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks. Meat Science, 94(2): 228-233.
  • Feiner, G. (2006). Meat Products Handbook, Woodhead Publishing (1st ed.), pp.574-594.
  • Galletly, J. (2016). Dry aged beef – design and good manufacturing. Meat and Livestock Australia Limited, Project code: P.PSH.0679.
  • Goll, D.E., Thompson, V.F., Li, H., Wei, W., Cong, J. (2003). The calpain system. Physiological Reviews, 83(3): 731-801.
  • Huff-Lonergan, H., Lonergan, S.M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: the role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science, 71(1): 194-204.
  • Hulankova, R., Kamenik, J., Salakova, A., Zavodsky, D., Borilova, G. (2018). The effect of dry aging on instrumental, chemical and microbiological parameters of organic beef loin muscle. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 89: 559-565.
  • Ingram, M., Roberts, T.A. (1976). The microbiology of the red meat carcass and the slaughterhouse. Royal Society of Health Journal, 96(6): 270-276.
  • Juncher, D., Rønn, B., Mortensen, E., Henckel, P., Karlsson, A., Skibsted, L., Bertelsen, G. (2001). Effect of pre-slaughter physiological conditions on the oxidative stability of colour and lipid during chill storage of pork. Meat Science, 58(4): 347-357.
  • Kemp, C.M., Sensky, P.L., Bardsley, R.G., Buttery, P.J., Parr, T. (2009). Tenderness – An enzymatic view. Meat Science, 84(2): 248-256.
  • Kemp, C. M., Parr, T. (2012). Advances in apoptotic mediated proteolysis in meat tenderisation. Meat Science, 92: 252–259.
  • Khan, M.I., Jung, S, Nam, K.C., Jo, C. (2016). Postmortem aging of beef with a special reference to the dry aging. Korean Journal For Food Science of Animal Resources, 36(2): 159–169.
  • Kim, Y.H, Kemp, R., Samuelsson, L.M. (2016). Effects of dry-aging on meat quality attributes and metabolite profiles of beef loins. Meat Science, 111: 168-176.
  • Koplay, Z., Sezer, Ç. (2013). The effect of nisin and clove essential oil on shelf life of beef. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(1): 9-19.
  • Laster, M.A. (2007). Tenderness, flavor, and yield assessments of dry aged beef. Master of Science Thesis, Texas A and M University, College Station.
  • Laster, M.A., Smith, R.D., Nicholson, K.L., Nicholson, J.D., Miller, R.K., Griffin, D.B., Harris, K.B., Savell, J.W. (2008). Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups. Meat Science, 80(3): 795-804.
  • Li, X., Babol, J., Bredie, W.L.P., Nielsen, B., Tománková, J., Lundström, K. (2014). A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing. Meat Science, 97(4): 433-442.
  • Li, X., Babol, J., Wallby, A., Lundström, K. (2013). Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum. Meat Science, 95(2): 229-234.
  • Martinaud, A., Mercier, Y., Marinova, P., Tassy, C., Gatellier, P., Renerre, M. (1997). Comparison of oxidative processes on myofibrillar proteins from beef during maturation and by different model oxidation systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45 (7): 2481–2487.
  • Miller, M.F., Davis, G.W., Ramsey, C.B. (1985). Effect of subprimal fabrication and packaging methods on palatability and retail caselife of loin steaks from lean beef. Journal of Food Science, 50(6): 1544-1546.
  • Minks, D., Stringer, W. C. (1972). The influence of aging beef in vacuum. Journal of Food Science, 37: 736-738.
  • Nair, M.N., Canto, A.C.V.C.S., Rentfrow, G., Suman, S.P. (2019). Muscle-specific effect of aging on beef tenderness. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 100: 250-252.
  • Nishimura, T. (2015). Role of extracellular matrix in development of skeletal muscle and postmortem aging of meat. Meat Science, 109: 48 –55
  • Nortje, G. L., Naudè, R.T. (1981). Microbiology of beef carcass surfaces. Journal of Food Protection, 44(5): 355-358.
  • Nychas, G.J.E., Arkoudelos, J.S. (1990). Staphylococci: their role in fermented sausages. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement, 19: 167-188.
  • Oreskovich, D.C., McKeith, F.K., Carr, T.R., Novakofski, J., Bechtel, P.J. (1988). Effects of different aging procedures on the palatability of beef. Journal of Food Quality, 11(2): 151-158.
  • Öztan, A. (2003). Et Bilimi ve Teknolojisi. TMMOB Gıda Mühendisleri Odası Yayınları Kitaplar Serisi. No:1, Ankara.
  • Parrish, F.C., Boles, J.A., Rust, R.E., Olson, D.G. (1991). Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. Journal of Food Science, 56(3): 601-603.
  • Perry, N. (2012). Dry aging beef. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 1(1): 78-80.
  • Savell, J.W. (2008). Dry-aging of beef. Executive summary, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, Centennial, CO, 1-16.
  • Sitz, B.M., Calkins, C.R., Feuz, D.M., Umberger, W.J., Eskridge, K.M. (2006). Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks. Journal of Animal Science, 84(5): 1221-1226.
  • Smith, R.D. (2007). Dry aging beef for the retail channel. Master of Science Thesis, Texas A and M University, College Station.
  • Starkey, C. P., Geesink, G. H., Collins, D., Oddy, V. H., Hopkins, D. L. (2016). Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles. Meat Science, 113: 51 –58.
  • Vural, H. (1992). Türk fermente sucuk üretiminde starter kültür kullanımı üzerine araştırmalar. Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi. Ankara.
  • Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Fu, L. (2017). Food Spoilage Microorganisms: Ecology and control (1st ed.) pp192.
  • Warren, K.E., Kastner, C.L. (1992). A comparison of dry-aged and vacuum-aged beef striploins. Journal of Muscle Foods, 3(2): 151-157.
  • Yıbar, A., Çetin, E. (2013). Hayvan refahının et kalitesi üzerine etkileri. Uludag University Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 32(2): 31-37.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Derleme
Authors

Çiğdem MUŞTU This is me (Primary Author)
İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi, ABMYO, Aşçılık Programı

Publication Date January 30, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Muştu, Ç. (2019). Etlerde Kuru Yaşlandırma . Aydın Gastronomy , 3 (1) , 23-35 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aydingas/issue/42929/519326

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