Research Article
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Analyzing Silence in Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy Sessions with Conversation Analysis

Year 2019, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 63 - 84, 25.02.2019
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.503291

Abstract

Accepting that silence is an integral part of every conversation has opened up a field to study about
the timing and meaning of those silences in psychotherapy process. Although silence was initially
treated as a homogenous concept in psychotherapy literature, it has been defined as an indicator of
different processes by different theoretical approaches, as well. In this study, how silence was used
by the patient in therapy, what its function was, how it emerged in the therapist-patient dialogue,
whether there were any patterns and effects of it on psychotherapy process were discussed. Within
this scope, the researcher, who was also the psychotherapist of the analyzed sessions, transcribed
two psychotherapy sessions of Miss S. and analyzed them with conversation analysis methodology.
Results indicated that Miss S. used silence when she did not approve the therapist's interpretation,
when she contradicted with herself, when she changed the topic to which she had a resistance,
when she wanted to create space for thinking, when she tried to be like someone as expected from
her or someone she wants to be and when some issues aroused that she had difficulty to accept.
The usage of silence in those various ways were discussed in the light of relevant literature. 

References

  • Drew, P., & Heritage, J. C. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. P. Drew and J. C. Heritage (Ed.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (ss. 3-65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ephratt, M. (2008). The functions of silence. Journal of Pragmatics, 40(11), 1909-1938. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2008.03.009
  • Gale, J., & Sanchez, B. (2005). The meaning and function of silence in psychotherapy with particular reference to a therapeutic community treatment programme. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 19(3), 205-220. doi:10.1080/02668730500238218
  • Goodwin, C., & Heritage, J. (1990). Conversation analysis. Annual Review of Anthropology, 19(1), 283-307. Erişim adresi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2155967
  • Harvey, L. (2008, Ocak). Silence in practice. Association for Cognitive Analytic Therapy (ACAT) Konferansında sunulan çalıştay. Erişim adresi: https://www.acat.me.uk/reformulation.php?issue_id=7&article_id=100
  • Hasegawa, T., & Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Silence in Japan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(5), 668-684. doi:10.1177/0022022198295005
  • Heldner, M., & Edlund, J. (2010). Pauses, gaps and overlaps in conversations. Journal of Phonetics, 38(4), 555-568. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2010.08.002
  • Hook, D. (2013). Tracking the Lacanian unconscious in language. Psychodynamic Practice, 19(1), 38-54. doi: 10.1080/14753634.2013.750094
  • Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. G. H. Lerner (Ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation (ss. 13-31). John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Jefferson, G. (2009). A case of precision timing in ordinary conversation: overlapped tag-positioned address terms in closing sequences. Semiotica, 9(1), 47-96. doi:10.1515/semi.1973.9.1.47
  • Kelly, G. (1955). Personal construct psychology. New York: Norton.
  • Lacan, J. (1977). Écrits: A selection (A. Sheridan Çev.). New York: Norton.
  • Lagaay, A. (2008). Between Sound and Silence: Voice in the History of Psychoanalysis. Episteme, 1(1), 53-62.
  • Levitt, H. M. (1998). Silence in Psychotherapy: The meaning and function of pauses (Doktora tezi). Erişim adresi http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape15/PQDD_0014/NQ33540.pdf
  • Levitt, H. M. (2001). Sounds of silence in psychotherapy: The categorization of clients' pauses. Psychotherapy Research, 11(3), 295-309. doi: 10.1093/ptr/11.3.295
  • Madill, A., Widdicombe, S., & Barkham, M. (2001). The potential of conversation analysis for psychotherapy research. The Counseling Psychologist, 29(3), 413-434. doi:10.1177/0011000001293006
  • Neuliep, J. W. (2017). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications.
  • Nikolić, M. (2016). The Functions of Silence in Confrontational Discourse. Sic: A Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation, 7(1), 1-20. doi: 10.15291/SIC/1.7.LC.6
  • Palaganas, E. C., Sanchez, M. C., Molintas, M., Visitacion, P., & Caricativo, R. D. (2017). Reflexivity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 22(2), 426-438. Erişim adresi: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol22/iss2/5
  • Peräkylä, A., Antaki, C., Vehviläinen, S., & Leudar, I. (Ed.). (2008). Conversation analysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Peräkylä, A. (2004). Making links in psychoanalytic interpretations: A conversation analytical perspective. Psychotherapy Research, 14(3), 289-307. doi:10.1093/ptr/kph026
  • Richards, K. (t.y.). Spoken English: Conversation Analysis [PDF]. Erişim adresi: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/repository/staff/richardskeith/se3lecturenotesrichards_k/
  • Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simple systematic for the organisation of turn taking in conversation. Language 50(4), 696-735. doi:10.2307/412243
  • Seedhouse, P. (2005). Conversation analysis and language learning. Language Teaching, 38(4), 165-187. doi:10.1017/S0261444805003010
  • Shedler, J. (2005). That was then, this is now: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the rest of us. Erişim adresi: http://www.apsa.org/sites/default/files/ShedlerThatwasthenthisisnow%28R6%29.pdf
  • Smith, H. F. (2003). Conceptions of conflict in psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 72(1), 49-96.
  • Tannen, D. (1985). Silence: Anything but. D. Tannen & M. Saville-Troike (Ed.), Perspectives on silence (ss. 93–111). Norwood, N.J. : Ablex Publication.

Psikanalitik Yönelimli Psikoterapi Seanslarındaki Sessizliğin Konuşma Analizi ile İncelenmesi

Year 2019, Volume: 6 Issue: 1, 63 - 84, 25.02.2019
https://doi.org/10.31682/ayna.503291

Abstract

Sessizliğin her konuşmanın ayrılmaz bir parçası olduğunu kabul etmek, bu sessizliklerin ne zaman
ortaya çıktıklarını, bir anlamları olup olmadığını çalışmak konusunda bir alan açmıştır. Bu
çalışmada, sessizliğin terapi seansı içerisinde hasta tarafından nasıl kullanıldığı ve işlevinin ne
olduğu, terapist-hasta diyalogunda nasıl ortaya çıktığı, herhangi bir örüntüsünün olup olmadığı ve
konuşmaya etkilerinin neler olduğunun anlaşılması amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda S. Hanım ile
araştırmacının psikanalitik yönelimli bir yaklaşım benimseyerek süpervizyon altında yürüttüğü iki
adet psikoterapi seansına ait ses kayıtlarının deşifreleri konuşma analizi metodolojisi kullanılarak
analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizlerin sonucunda hastanın terapistin yorumunu onaylamadığı
zamanlarda, kendi çelişkili düşüncelerini konuşurken, terapi sürecinde ele alınan konuyu
değiştirirken ve bu konu ile ilgili bir direnç geliştirdiğinde sessizliğe başvurduğu gözlenmiştir.
Bununla birlikte, hasta kendisine düşünmek için bir alan oluşturmak istediğinde, kendisinden
beklenilen ya da olmak istediği birisi gibi olmaya çalıştığında ve kendisinin kabul etmekte zorlandığı
bir durum ortaya çıktığında da sessizliğe başvurmaktadır. Sessizliğin bu şekilde seans içerisindeki
çeşitli kullanımları, ilgili literatür çerçevesinde tartışılmıştır.

References

  • Drew, P., & Heritage, J. C. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. P. Drew and J. C. Heritage (Ed.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (ss. 3-65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ephratt, M. (2008). The functions of silence. Journal of Pragmatics, 40(11), 1909-1938. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2008.03.009
  • Gale, J., & Sanchez, B. (2005). The meaning and function of silence in psychotherapy with particular reference to a therapeutic community treatment programme. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 19(3), 205-220. doi:10.1080/02668730500238218
  • Goodwin, C., & Heritage, J. (1990). Conversation analysis. Annual Review of Anthropology, 19(1), 283-307. Erişim adresi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2155967
  • Harvey, L. (2008, Ocak). Silence in practice. Association for Cognitive Analytic Therapy (ACAT) Konferansında sunulan çalıştay. Erişim adresi: https://www.acat.me.uk/reformulation.php?issue_id=7&article_id=100
  • Hasegawa, T., & Gudykunst, W. B. (1998). Silence in Japan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(5), 668-684. doi:10.1177/0022022198295005
  • Heldner, M., & Edlund, J. (2010). Pauses, gaps and overlaps in conversations. Journal of Phonetics, 38(4), 555-568. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2010.08.002
  • Hook, D. (2013). Tracking the Lacanian unconscious in language. Psychodynamic Practice, 19(1), 38-54. doi: 10.1080/14753634.2013.750094
  • Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. G. H. Lerner (Ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation (ss. 13-31). John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Jefferson, G. (2009). A case of precision timing in ordinary conversation: overlapped tag-positioned address terms in closing sequences. Semiotica, 9(1), 47-96. doi:10.1515/semi.1973.9.1.47
  • Kelly, G. (1955). Personal construct psychology. New York: Norton.
  • Lacan, J. (1977). Écrits: A selection (A. Sheridan Çev.). New York: Norton.
  • Lagaay, A. (2008). Between Sound and Silence: Voice in the History of Psychoanalysis. Episteme, 1(1), 53-62.
  • Levitt, H. M. (1998). Silence in Psychotherapy: The meaning and function of pauses (Doktora tezi). Erişim adresi http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape15/PQDD_0014/NQ33540.pdf
  • Levitt, H. M. (2001). Sounds of silence in psychotherapy: The categorization of clients' pauses. Psychotherapy Research, 11(3), 295-309. doi: 10.1093/ptr/11.3.295
  • Madill, A., Widdicombe, S., & Barkham, M. (2001). The potential of conversation analysis for psychotherapy research. The Counseling Psychologist, 29(3), 413-434. doi:10.1177/0011000001293006
  • Neuliep, J. W. (2017). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications.
  • Nikolić, M. (2016). The Functions of Silence in Confrontational Discourse. Sic: A Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation, 7(1), 1-20. doi: 10.15291/SIC/1.7.LC.6
  • Palaganas, E. C., Sanchez, M. C., Molintas, M., Visitacion, P., & Caricativo, R. D. (2017). Reflexivity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 22(2), 426-438. Erişim adresi: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol22/iss2/5
  • Peräkylä, A., Antaki, C., Vehviläinen, S., & Leudar, I. (Ed.). (2008). Conversation analysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Peräkylä, A. (2004). Making links in psychoanalytic interpretations: A conversation analytical perspective. Psychotherapy Research, 14(3), 289-307. doi:10.1093/ptr/kph026
  • Richards, K. (t.y.). Spoken English: Conversation Analysis [PDF]. Erişim adresi: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/repository/staff/richardskeith/se3lecturenotesrichards_k/
  • Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simple systematic for the organisation of turn taking in conversation. Language 50(4), 696-735. doi:10.2307/412243
  • Seedhouse, P. (2005). Conversation analysis and language learning. Language Teaching, 38(4), 165-187. doi:10.1017/S0261444805003010
  • Shedler, J. (2005). That was then, this is now: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the rest of us. Erişim adresi: http://www.apsa.org/sites/default/files/ShedlerThatwasthenthisisnow%28R6%29.pdf
  • Smith, H. F. (2003). Conceptions of conflict in psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 72(1), 49-96.
  • Tannen, D. (1985). Silence: Anything but. D. Tannen & M. Saville-Troike (Ed.), Perspectives on silence (ss. 93–111). Norwood, N.J. : Ablex Publication.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Psychology
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Burcu Pınar BULUT
Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi
0000-0001-8168-0068
Türkiye

Publication Date February 25, 2019
Submission Date December 26, 2018
Acceptance Date February 20, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019 Volume: 6 Issue: 1

Cite

APA Bulut, B. P. (2019). Psikanalitik Yönelimli Psikoterapi Seanslarındaki Sessizliğin Konuşma Analizi ile İncelenmesi . AYNA Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi , 6 (1) , 63-84 . DOI: 10.31682/ayna.503291