Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Investigation of climate and vegetation change in Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) region using polen data

Year 2023, Volume: 16 Issue: 3, 210 - 217, 15.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2023.1263014

Abstract

Investigation of climate and vegetation change in Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) region using polen data

Abdulkadir GÜZEL1,Arif PARMAKSIZ2, Mehmet ÖZCANLI1

ORCİD: 0000-0003-0321-8198; 0000-0002-4168-4803; 0000-0003-2228-8298

1 Harran University, Faculty of Science-Literature, Department of Geography, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
2 Harran University, Faculty of Science-Literature, Department of Biology, Şanlıurfa, Turkey

Abstract
Today, it is known that there is a change in the world's climate system and that the living things that cause the deterioration of the natural balance are human beings. Human beings have always made changes in the environment they live in to meet their nutritional and shelter needs. These changes have affected the habitat in the region over time, causing both flora and fauna to change and have affected the level of biodiversity. In order to understand this change, pollen records from past periods are valuable archives of vegetation dynamics and provide important information about vegetation. In this study, pollen belonging to the ancient period was investigated from the wells drilled in Göbekli Tepe, which is described as the "zero point of history". The pollen analyzes obtained from the samples in the 1st well between 6 meters and 7-7.5 meters were approximately B.C. It covers the years 11126 and 13354. The pollen analyzes made at 6, 10, 12 meters in the samples in the 3rd well were B.C. It reflects the changes in vegetation and climate between 10634-12418. Although individuals belonging to Quercus, Salix, Juglans, Abies, Pinus and Juniperus species of forest vegetation were encountered in Ancient Göbekli Tepe, no individuals belonging to these tree species were encountered today. In this study, data were obtained supporting that the region was forest-steppe in the past, and the presence of forest-forming taxa Juglans, Abies, Pinus, and Juniperus was determined for the first time and the vegetation of the past period was made more evident.

Key words: Göbekli Tepe, human impact, oak steppe-forest, pollen

References

  • [1] Atalay, I. (1996). Palaeosols as indicators of the climatic changes during Quaternary period in S. Anatolia. Journal of Arid Environments, 32(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1996.0003
  • [2] Brauer, A., Haug, G. H., Dulski, P., Sigman, D. M., & Negendank, J. F. W. (2008). An abrupt wind shift in western Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience, 1(8), 520–523. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo263
  • [3] Van Vugt, L., Garcés-Pastor, S., Gobet, E., Brechbühl, S., Knetge, A., Lammers, Y., & Schwörer, C. (2022). Pollen, macrofossils and sedaDNA reveal climate and land use impacts on Holocene mountain vegetation of the Lepontine Alps, Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 296, 107749.
  • [4] Demirci, S., Koban Baştanlar, E., Dağtaş, N.D., Pişkin, E., Engin, A., Özer, F., & Togan, I. (2013). Mitochondrial DNA diversity of modern, ancient and wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: new insights on the evolutionary history of sheep. PloS one, 8(12), e81952. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081952
  • [5] Parmaksiz, A., Oymak, S., Yuncu, E., Demirci, S., Bastanlar, E., Unal, E., & Ozer, F. (2018). Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms in 12 Native, Karagul, Karacabey Merino Breeds from Turkey and Anatolian Mouflon (Ovis gmelinii anatolica). Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 24 (6): 821-828.
  • [6] Rey, F., Schworer, C., Gobet, E., Colombaroli, D., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Schleiss, S., & Tinner, W. (2013). Climatic and human impacts on mountain vegetation at Lauenensee (Bernese Alps, Switzerland) during the last 14,000 years. Holocene, 23(10), 1415e1427. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683613489585
  • [7] Schworer, C., Colombaroli, D., Kaltenrieder, P., Rey, F., & Tinner, W. (2015). Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps. Journal of Ecology, 103(2), 281e295. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354
  • [8] Vescovi, E., Tinner, W., Beer, R., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Steinhauser, U., Ziegler, S., Gilli, A., Wirth, S.B., Samartin, S., Jacquat, C., & Carraro, G. (2018). Vegetation history of the upper Leventina valley from neolithic to Roman times, recorded by pollen, spores, plant macrofossils, and charcoal. In: Della Casa, P. (Ed.), The Leventina Prehistoric Landscape (Alpine Ticino Valley, Switzerland). Chronos Zürich, 207e225.
  • [9] Conedera, M., Tinner, W., Neff, C., Meurer, M., Dickens, A.F., & Krebs, P. (2009). Reconstructing past fire regimes: methods, applications, and relevance to fire management and conservation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (5e6), 555e576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.11.005
  • [10] Connor, S. E., & Kvavadze, E. V. (2008). Modelling late Quaternary changes in plant distribution, vegetation and climate using pollen data from Georgia, Caucasus. Journal of Biogeography, 36(3), 529-545.
  • [11] Cour, P. (1974). Nouvelles techniques de détection des flux et des retombées polliniques: étude de la sédimentation des pollens et des spores à la surface du sol. Pollen et Spores, 16, 103-141.
  • [12] Reille, M. (1992). Pollen et spores d’Europe et d’Afrique du Nord. Laboratoire de botanique historique et de palynologie, Marseille, France.
  • [13] Grimm, E.C. 1991-2015. TiliaIT. https://www.tiliait.com.
  • [14] Chevalier, M., Davis, B. A., Heiri, O., Seppä, H., Chase, B. M., Gajewski, K., & Kupriyanov, D. (2020). Pollen-based climate reconstruction techniques for late Quaternary studies. Earth-Science Reviews, 210, 103384.
  • [15] Akan, H., Kaya, Ö.F., Eker, İ. & Cevheri, C. (2005). The flora of Kaşmer Dağı (Şanlıurfa). Turkish Journal of Botany, 29 (4), 291-310.
  • [16] Atamov, V., Aslan, M., Cevheri, C., & Çetin, E. (2007). Contribution to the flora of Fatik mountain (Sanliurfa-Turkey). Asian Journal of Plant Science, 6(1), 1-11.
  • [17] Dietrich, L., Meister, J., Dietrich, O., Notroff, J., Kiep, J., Heeb, J., & Schütt, B. (2019). Cereal processing at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey. PLoS One, 14(5), e0215214.
  • [18] Neef, R. (2003). Overlooking the Steppe-Forest: A Preliminary Report on the Botanical Remains from Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe (Southeastern Turkey) The Newsletter of Southwest Asian Neolithic Research. NeoLithics 2/03, 13-16.
  • [19] Driesch, A., & Peters, J. (1999). Vorläufiger Bericht über die archäozoologischen Untersuchungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe bei Urfa, Türkei. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 49, 23-39.
  • [20] Demir, A. (2009). The effects of global climate change on biodiversity and ecosystems resources. Environmental Sciences of Ankara University, 1, 037-054.
  • [21] Parmaksız, A., Yiğin, A., & Bozkaya, F. (2023). Determination of genetic structure of Bald ibis population living in Birecik (Türkiye) using mtDNA COI sequences. Biological Diversity and Conservation, 16(1), 31-37.

Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) bölgesinin iklim ve bitki örtüsü değişiminin polen verileri kullanılarak araştırılması

Year 2023, Volume: 16 Issue: 3, 210 - 217, 15.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2023.1263014

Abstract

Investigation of climate and vegetation change in Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) region using polen data
Abdulkadir GÜZEL1,Arif PARMAKSIZ2, Mehmet ÖZCANLI1
ORCİD: 0000-0003-0321-8198; 0000-0002-4168-4803; 0000-0003-2228-8298
1 Harran University, Faculty of Science-Literature, Department of Geography, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
2 Harran University, Faculty of Science-Literature, Department of Biology, Şanlıurfa, Turkey

Abstract
Today, it is known that there is a change in the world's climate system and that the living things that cause the deterioration of the natural balance are human beings. Human beings have always made changes in the environment they live in to meet their nutritional and shelter needs. These changes have affected the habitat in the region over time, causing both flora and fauna to change and have affected the level of biodiversity. In order to understand this change, pollen records from past periods are valuable archives of vegetation dynamics and provide important information about vegetation. In this study, pollen belonging to the ancient period was investigated from the wells drilled in Göbekli Tepe, which is described as the "zero point of history". The pollen analyzes obtained from the samples in the 1st well between 6 meters and 7-7.5 meters were approximately B.C. It covers the years 11126 and 13354. The pollen analyzes made at 6, 10, 12 meters in the samples in the 3rd well were B.C. It reflects the changes in vegetation and climate between 10634-12418. Although individuals belonging to Quercus, Salix, Juglans, Abies, Pinus and Juniperus species of forest vegetation were encountered in Ancient Göbekli Tepe, no individuals belonging to these tree species were encountered today. In this study, data were obtained supporting that the region was forest-steppe in the past, and the presence of forest-forming taxa Juglans, Abies, Pinus, and Juniperus was determined for the first time and the vegetation of the past period was made more evident.
Key words: Göbekli Tepe, human impact, oak steppe-forest, pollen

Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) bölgesinin iklim ve bitki örtüsü değişiminin polen verileri kullanılarak araştırılması

Özet
Günümüzde dünya iklim sisteminde bir değişim olduğu ve doğal dengenin bozulmasına neden olan canlıların insanoğlu olduğu bilinmektedir. İnsanlar, beslenme ve barınma ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak için yaşadıkları çevrede her zaman değişikler yapmışlardır. Bu değişiklikler zaman içerisinde bölgedeki habitatı etkileyerek hem floranın hem de faunanın değişmesine neden olmuş ve biyoçeşitlilik düzeyini etkilemiştir. Bu değişimin anlaşılması için geçmiş dönemlere ait polen kayıtları, bitki örtüsü dinamiklerinin değerli arşivleridir ve bitki örtüsünün hakkında önemli bilgiler sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada “tarihin sıfır noktası” olarak nitelendirilen Göbekli Tepe bölgesinde açılan kuyulardan eski döneme ait polenler araştırılmıştır. 1. kuyudaki örneklerinden 6 m ve 7-7.5 m’ler arasında elde edilen polen analizleri yaklaşık G.Ö. 11126 ve 13354 yıllarını kapsamaktadır. 3. kuyudaki örneklerinde 6, 10, 12 m’lerde yapılan polen analizleri G.Ö. 10634-12418 yılları arasındaki vejetasyon ve iklimdeki değişimleri yansıtmaktadır. Orman bitki örtüsüne ait ağaçlardan Quercus, Salix, Juglans, Abies, Pinus ve Juniperus türlerine ait bireylere Eski Dönem Göbekli Tepe’de rastlanmış olmasına rağmen günümüzde bu ağaç cinslerine ait hiç bir bireye rastlanmamıştır. Bu çalışmada bölgenin geçmiş dönemde orman-bozkır olduğunu destekler şekilde veriler elde edilmiş ve orman oluşturan Juglans, Abies, Pinus, ve Juniperus taksonlarının varlığı ilk defa belirlenerek geçmiş döneme ait bitki örtüsü daha da belirgin bir hale getirilmiştir.
Anahtar kelimeler: Göbekli Tepe, insan etkisi, meşe bozkır-ormanı, polen,

References

  • [1] Atalay, I. (1996). Palaeosols as indicators of the climatic changes during Quaternary period in S. Anatolia. Journal of Arid Environments, 32(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1996.0003
  • [2] Brauer, A., Haug, G. H., Dulski, P., Sigman, D. M., & Negendank, J. F. W. (2008). An abrupt wind shift in western Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience, 1(8), 520–523. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo263
  • [3] Van Vugt, L., Garcés-Pastor, S., Gobet, E., Brechbühl, S., Knetge, A., Lammers, Y., & Schwörer, C. (2022). Pollen, macrofossils and sedaDNA reveal climate and land use impacts on Holocene mountain vegetation of the Lepontine Alps, Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 296, 107749.
  • [4] Demirci, S., Koban Baştanlar, E., Dağtaş, N.D., Pişkin, E., Engin, A., Özer, F., & Togan, I. (2013). Mitochondrial DNA diversity of modern, ancient and wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: new insights on the evolutionary history of sheep. PloS one, 8(12), e81952. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081952
  • [5] Parmaksiz, A., Oymak, S., Yuncu, E., Demirci, S., Bastanlar, E., Unal, E., & Ozer, F. (2018). Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms in 12 Native, Karagul, Karacabey Merino Breeds from Turkey and Anatolian Mouflon (Ovis gmelinii anatolica). Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 24 (6): 821-828.
  • [6] Rey, F., Schworer, C., Gobet, E., Colombaroli, D., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Schleiss, S., & Tinner, W. (2013). Climatic and human impacts on mountain vegetation at Lauenensee (Bernese Alps, Switzerland) during the last 14,000 years. Holocene, 23(10), 1415e1427. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683613489585
  • [7] Schworer, C., Colombaroli, D., Kaltenrieder, P., Rey, F., & Tinner, W. (2015). Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps. Journal of Ecology, 103(2), 281e295. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354
  • [8] Vescovi, E., Tinner, W., Beer, R., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Steinhauser, U., Ziegler, S., Gilli, A., Wirth, S.B., Samartin, S., Jacquat, C., & Carraro, G. (2018). Vegetation history of the upper Leventina valley from neolithic to Roman times, recorded by pollen, spores, plant macrofossils, and charcoal. In: Della Casa, P. (Ed.), The Leventina Prehistoric Landscape (Alpine Ticino Valley, Switzerland). Chronos Zürich, 207e225.
  • [9] Conedera, M., Tinner, W., Neff, C., Meurer, M., Dickens, A.F., & Krebs, P. (2009). Reconstructing past fire regimes: methods, applications, and relevance to fire management and conservation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (5e6), 555e576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.11.005
  • [10] Connor, S. E., & Kvavadze, E. V. (2008). Modelling late Quaternary changes in plant distribution, vegetation and climate using pollen data from Georgia, Caucasus. Journal of Biogeography, 36(3), 529-545.
  • [11] Cour, P. (1974). Nouvelles techniques de détection des flux et des retombées polliniques: étude de la sédimentation des pollens et des spores à la surface du sol. Pollen et Spores, 16, 103-141.
  • [12] Reille, M. (1992). Pollen et spores d’Europe et d’Afrique du Nord. Laboratoire de botanique historique et de palynologie, Marseille, France.
  • [13] Grimm, E.C. 1991-2015. TiliaIT. https://www.tiliait.com.
  • [14] Chevalier, M., Davis, B. A., Heiri, O., Seppä, H., Chase, B. M., Gajewski, K., & Kupriyanov, D. (2020). Pollen-based climate reconstruction techniques for late Quaternary studies. Earth-Science Reviews, 210, 103384.
  • [15] Akan, H., Kaya, Ö.F., Eker, İ. & Cevheri, C. (2005). The flora of Kaşmer Dağı (Şanlıurfa). Turkish Journal of Botany, 29 (4), 291-310.
  • [16] Atamov, V., Aslan, M., Cevheri, C., & Çetin, E. (2007). Contribution to the flora of Fatik mountain (Sanliurfa-Turkey). Asian Journal of Plant Science, 6(1), 1-11.
  • [17] Dietrich, L., Meister, J., Dietrich, O., Notroff, J., Kiep, J., Heeb, J., & Schütt, B. (2019). Cereal processing at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey. PLoS One, 14(5), e0215214.
  • [18] Neef, R. (2003). Overlooking the Steppe-Forest: A Preliminary Report on the Botanical Remains from Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe (Southeastern Turkey) The Newsletter of Southwest Asian Neolithic Research. NeoLithics 2/03, 13-16.
  • [19] Driesch, A., & Peters, J. (1999). Vorläufiger Bericht über die archäozoologischen Untersuchungen am Göbekli Tepe und am Gürcütepe bei Urfa, Türkei. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 49, 23-39.
  • [20] Demir, A. (2009). The effects of global climate change on biodiversity and ecosystems resources. Environmental Sciences of Ankara University, 1, 037-054.
  • [21] Parmaksız, A., Yiğin, A., & Bozkaya, F. (2023). Determination of genetic structure of Bald ibis population living in Birecik (Türkiye) using mtDNA COI sequences. Biological Diversity and Conservation, 16(1), 31-37.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Structural Biology, Environmental Sciences, Conservation and Biodiversity
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Abdulkadir GÜZEL 0000-0002-4168-4803

Arif PARMAKSIZ 0000-0003-0321-8198

Mehmet ÖZCANLI 0000-0003-2228-8298

Early Pub Date December 8, 2023
Publication Date December 15, 2023
Submission Date March 10, 2023
Acceptance Date September 5, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 16 Issue: 3

Cite

APA GÜZEL, A., PARMAKSIZ, A., & ÖZCANLI, M. (2023). Investigation of climate and vegetation change in Göbekli Tepe (Türkiye) region using polen data. Biyolojik Çeşitlilik Ve Koruma, 16(3), 210-217. https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2023.1263014

❖  Abstracted-Indexed in
Web of Science {Zoological Records Indexed] Clavariate Analytic, Medical Reads (RRS), CrossRef;10.46309/biodicon.

❖ Libraries
Aberystwyth University; All libraries; Bath University; Birmingham University; Cardiff University; City University London; CONSER (Not UK Holdings); Edinburgh University; Essex University; Exeter University; Eskişehir Technical University Library; EZB Electronic Journals Library; Feng Chia University Library; GAZİ Gazi University Library; Glasgow University; HEC-National Digital Library; Hull University; Imperial College London; Kaohsinug Medical University Library; ANKOS; Anadolu University Library; Lancaster University; Libros PDF; Liverpool University; London Metropolitan University; London School of Economics and Political Science; Manchester University; National Cheng Kung University Library; National ILAN University Library; Nottingham University; Open University; Oxford University; Queen Mary,University of London;Robert Gordon University; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Sheffield Hallam University; Sheffield University; Shih Hsin University Library; Smithsonian Institution Libraries; Southampton University; Stirling University; Strathclyde University; Sussex University; The National Agricultural Library (NAL); The Ohio Library and Information NetWork; Trinity College Dublin; University of Washington Libraries; Vaughan Memorial Library; York University..

❖ The article processing is free.

❖ Web of Science-Clarivate Analytics, Zoological Record
❖ This journal is a CrossRef;10.46309/biodicon. member

❖ Please visit ” http:// www.biodicon.com“ for instructions about articles and all of the details about journal


❖  Correspondance Adres: Prof. Ersin YÜCEL, Sazova Mahallesi, Ziraat Caddesi, No.277 F Blok, 26005 Tepebaşı-Eskişehir/Türkiye
E-posta / E-mail: biodicon@gmail.com;
Web Address: http://www.biodicon.com;   https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/biodicon
❖ Biological Diversity and Conservation/ Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma
❖ ISSN 1308-5301 Print; ISSN 1308-8084 Online
❖ Start Date Published 2008
© Copyright by Biological Diversity and Conservation/Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma-Available online at www.biodicon.com/All rights reserved
Publisher : ERSİN YÜCEL (https://www.ersinyucel.com.tr/)
❖ This journal is published three numbers in a year. Printed in Eskişehir/Türkiye.
❖ All sorts of responsibilities of the articles published in this journal are belonging to the authors
Editör / Editor-In-Chief : Prof.Dr. Ersin YÜCEL, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8274-7578