Year 2020, Volume , Issue 17, Pages 121 - 150 2020-06-30

Osmanlı ve Batı Kaynaklarına Göre Mıknatıslar, Pusulalar ve Yer Manyetizması Ölçümleri

Ferhat ÖZÇEP [1]


Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Jeofizik modern anlamda 1600’lerde jeomanyetik çalışmalarla başlatılabilir. 1600 ile 1800 yılları arasında tarihsel sapma açısı, eğim açısı ve şiddet değerlerini içerecek şekilde bireysel manyetik ölçmeler vardır. Denizcilik amaçlı olarak Piri Reis tarafından yazılan Kitab-i Bahriye gibi, SEydi Ali Reis’in Muhit gibi bazı kitaplarda Pusulanın nasıl kullanılacağına ilişkin bazı bilgiler olmasına ragmen, bu manyetik sapma açısının tam olarak anlaşıldığı anlamına gelmez. Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye, yer manyetizması ile ilgili 1731’de Ibrahim Müteferrika tarafından Christoph Eberhard’ın “Versuch einer Magnetischen Theorie” adlı kitabından türkçeye çevrilen ilk bilimsel kitaptır. Muhammed al Awfi’s Jami al- Hikayat (Turkçeye Ibn Arabşah çevirmiştir); Piri Reis’in Kitab-i Bahriye; Seydi Ali Reis’in “Risale-i Mirat-i Kainat min Alat-i Irtifa”, “Miratul Memalik” ve “Kitab Al-Muhit Fi˙Ilm’al-Eflak Va’l Abhur” gibi birçok kitapta manyetik pusuladan bahsedilmiştir. Osmanlı Türkleri tarafından İstanbul’da 1727 ve 1893 yıllarında yapılmış iki özgün manyetik sapma açısı ölçümü vardır.
Jeofizik, Pusula, Tarihsel Manyetik Ölçümler
  • Abbot, D., 1984, Physicists, The Biographical dictionary of Scientists, Blond Educational. Adams, F. D., 1954, The birth and development of the geological sciences,Dower Pub. Inc. Newyork. Adıvar, A.A., 1939, La science chez les Turcs ottomans, Paris, G.-P. Maisonneuve. Allaby, M, 2008, A dictionary of earth sciences, Oxford University Press, 3 ed.) Al-Hasan, A.Y., Hill, D.R., 1986, Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History, Cambridge University Press. Barmore, F., 1985, Turkish mosque orientation and secular variation of magnetic declination, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol.44, no:2, 81-98. Banerjie, S.K., Sabra, A.I., 1978, A 13th century magnetic compass of Yemeni Sultan al- Ashraf, Paper presented ath the second International Symposium for the History of Arabic Science, 10 April 1979. Bassala, G., 1988, Evolution of Technology, Cambridge University Press. Bauer, L.A., 1912, Land Magnetic Observations (1905-1910), Researches of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Intitution of Washington. Bauer, L.A., Fleming, J.A., 1912, Land Magnetic Observations (1911-1913) and Reports on Special Reports, Researches of Terrestrial Magnetism Vol II, Carnegie Institution of Washington. Becquerel, M., 1846, Traite complet de Magnetisme, Librairie de Firmin Didot Freres, Paris. Berkes, N., 1964, The development of secularism in Turkey. McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP. Bittner, M., 1897, Die topographischen Kapitel des indischen Seespiegels, Mohît”, Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Bowers, B., 2002, Electricity: Static electricity, In: An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology, Editor: I. McNeil, Routledge. Bloxham, J., D. Gubbins, and A. Jackson, 1989, Geomagnetic secular variation, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 329, 415–502. Bragner, R., 1988, Kitabı- Bahriye (Piri Reis), Traslation, Vol, 1, Istanbul. Historical Research Foundation Pub. Brice, W.C., Compasses, Compasssi and Konabis, Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 29, 1984, pp. 169-178. Brice, W., Imber, C., Lorch, R., 1976, The Da'ire-yi Mu'addel of Seydi 'Ali Re'is, Seminar of Early Islamic Science, Monograph No:1, Published by University of Manchester. Bullard, E., 1956, Edmond Halley (1656–1741), Endeavour, 15, 189– 199. Cajori, F., 1962, A history of Physics, Dover Publ. Carlson, J.B., 1975, Compass: Chicness or Olmec Primacy, Science, Vol. 189, pp: 733-735. Carter, C., 2009, Magnetic Fever: Global Imperialism in the nineteenth century, American Philosophical Society Pub. Casale, G., 2010, The Ottoman Age of exploration, Oxford Univeristy Press. Cajory, F., 1962, A History of Physics, Dover pub. Chapman, S., and Bartels, J. , 1940,. Geomagnetism (Vol. 2). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapman, S., 1941, Edmond Halley as physical geographer, and the story of his charts, Occas. Notes R. Astron. Soc., 9, 122–134. Chapman, S., 1943a, Edmond Halley and geomagnetism, Nature, 152, 231–237. Chapman, S., 1943b, Edmond Halley and geomagnetism, J. Geophys. Res., 48, 131–144. Clark, T. D. G,2000, Edmond Halley’s voyages of the Paramore and the first isogonic chart of the Earth’s magnetic field, in Geomagnetism (Research: Past and Present), edited by W. Schro¨der, pp. 61–71, Wilfried Schro¨der, Bremen-Roennebeck, Germany. Courtillot, V., & Le Mouël, J. L. ,2007, The study of Earth's magnetism (1269–1950): A foundation by Peregrinus and subsequent development of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism. Reviews of Geophysics, 45(3). d’Abbadie, A. M., 1890, Reconnaissance Magnetique, Annales du Bureau des Longitude, B’3–B’62. Debus, A.G., 1968, D’Abbadie, Who is Who in Science, Western Publishing Company. Debus, A.G., 1968, Becquerel, Antoine Cesar, Who is Who in Science, Western Publishing Company. Dear, I.C.B. and Kemp, P., (edited) 2006, The Oxford Companion to Ships and Sea, Oxford University Press,(2nd Edition). Demirel, S.: 1982, Book of “Fuziiyati Miknatisiyye” of Ibrahim Mliteferrika, D.T.F.C. Ataturk’ün 100. dogum yilma armagan dergisi, 265–330, Ankara University Printinghouse, Ankara, (in Turkish). Dizer, M, 1977, "The Da'irat al- Mu'addal in the Kandilli Observatory and Some Remarks on the Earliest Recorded Islamic Values of the Magnetic Declination," JHAS 1: 257. Dunn, R., Higgitt, R., 2014, Finding Longitude: How ships, clocks and stars helped solve the longitude problem. HarperCollins UK. Eberhard, C., 1720, Versuch einer Magnetischen Theorie, in welchem nach gewissen Grund-Sätzen Anleitung gegeben wird, Den rechten und allgemeinen Weg zur Länge und Breite der Oerter, so wol auf der See als zu Lande, vermittelst des Magnets zu finden: Specimen Theoriae Magneticae, Quo Ex Certis Principiis Magneticis Ostenditur Vera Et Universalis Methodus Inveniendi Longitudinem et Latitudinem.Libsiae (Leibzig), Joannem Christiantum Martini. Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1895, vol. 3., London, p. 835; Evans, M. E., 1988, Edmond Halley, geophysicist, Phys. Today, 41(2), 41–45. Fara, P, 1993, Magnetic England in the eighteen century, Ph.D. Dissertation, Univeristy of London. Fara, P., 2000, Magnetism, In: Reader’s Guide to the History of Science, Arne Hessenbruck (Editor), Fitzroy Pearborn Publihers, London. Farrel, M, 2000, Whiston, Willimam, In: Encyclopedia of Scientific revolution from Copernicus to Newton, W. Applebaum (Editor), Garland Publishing, London. Fleming, J.A., Ed.,1939, Physics of the Earth: Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity, vol. 8, Washington, D.C. Force, J.E., 1985, William Whiston: Honest Newtonian, Cambridge University Press. Hagen., G., 2012, The order of knowledge, the knowledge of order: Intellectual life, In: The Cambridge History of Turkey, Edited by Suraiya N. Faroqhi, Kate Fleet, Cambridge University Press., pp. 407-456. Harrison, J., 1978, The Library of Newton, Cambridge Univeristy Press. Hewson, J. B., 1983, A History of the Practice of Navigation. Ferguson Brown & Son. Howerth, R., 2003, Fitting geomagnetic fields befor the invention of least squares: Willima Whiston’s isoclinic map of southern England (1719-1721), Anals of Science, 60, 63-84. Horowitz, W., 1998, Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography, Eisenbrauns, Indiana. Good, G. A.,1985, Geomagnetics and scientific institutions in 19th century America. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 66(27), 521-526. Good, G. A.,1988, Study of geomagnetism in the late 19th century, . Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 69, 218-232. Good, G.A., 1999, Louis Agricola Bauer, American national Biography, ed. J.A. Gorratty and M.C. Carnes, 2, 349-351, New York, Oxford University Press. Ihsanoğlu, E., 1997, Ottoman Science, In: Encyclopedia of History of Science, Technology and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Ed. Helaine Selin, Kuwer Academic Publishers. Ihsanoğlu, E., 2004, Science, Technology and Learning in The Ottoman Impire: Western influence, local institutions and transfer of knowledge, Asgate publishing Limited, London. Jackson, A., 1989, The Earth’s magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Jackson, A., 2007, Geomagnetic Secular Variation and Its Applications to the Core, Volume 5, Geomagnetism. Jonkers, A. R., Jackson, A., & Murray, A., 2003, Four centuries of geomagnetic data from historical records. Reviews of Geophysics, 41(2). Jowett, B., 1871, Dialogues of Plato, Vol. 1. Charles Scnibner and Company, New York. Karim, A., 2005, Magnetic Compass: Scientific Texts, in: Encyclopedia Islamic Science and Scientists, edited by: Zaki Kirmani, M. And Singh, N. K., Global Vision Publishing House, India, 195–196ç Kellner, L., 1963, Alexsander von Humboldt, Oxford University Press. Khalileh, H., 2006, Navigation. In: Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Josef V. Meri (Editor), Routledge Pub., London. Kucuk, B.H., 2012, Early enlightenment in Istanbul, PhD Thesis, UC San Diego, USA. Malin, S.R.C., Bullard, B., 1981, The Direction of the Earth's Magnetic Field at London, 1570-1975, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 299, No. 1450 pp. 357-423, Published by: The Royal Society. Malin, S., 1987, Historical Introduction to Geomagnetism, In: Geomagnetism, Vol.1, Edited by J.A. Jacops, Academic Press. Malin, S. and Isikara, A., 1997, Istanbul Kandilli- 50 years, lAGANews, 36, 3–4. McClellan, J.E., and Dorn , H., 2006, Science and Technology in World History, Second edition, The John Hopkins University Press. McConnel, A., 1980, Geomagnetic Instruments before 1900, Harriet Wynter Ltd, London. McKoen, R., 1941, ( Edited and with an Intdroduction), Aristotle, De Anima, the Basic Works of Aristotle, Oxford University Press) McNeil, I., Introduction, basic Tools, Devices and mechanisms, In: An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology, Editor: I. McNeil, Routdlege Pub. Meyer, H.W., 1971, A history of Electricity and magnetism, MIT Press. Merrill, R. T., & McElhinny, M. W., 1983. The Earth's magnetic field: Its history, origin and planetary perspective (Vol. 401). London: Academic Press. Mills, A., 2004, The Lodestone: History, Physics, and Formation , Annals of Science, 61:3, 273-319, DOI: 10.1080/00033790310001642812. Nippoldt, A., 1919, Ergebnisse der deutschen erdmagnetischen Aufnahme in den Balkanlandern in den Jahren 1917-18. Meterologische Zeitschrift, Braunschweig, Bd. 36, Heft 3/4, Marz-April (56-58). Needham, J., 1959, Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Cambridge University Press. Norman, N., 1720. [First published in 1581]. The Newe Attractive: Shewing the Nature, Propertie, and Manifold Vertues of the Loadstone: With the Declination of the Needle, Touched Therewith under the Plaine of the Horizon (Reprint edition). London. Ozdogan, I., Orbay, N., and Isikara, A. M., 1981, Evolution of Geomagnetic Data Obtained Istanbul since 1600, Istanbul Earth Sciences Review, 1, 71–73. Ozcep, F. and Orbay, N., 1997, History of the Geophysical Sciences in ˙Istanbul (Turkey) since 1600, In: Geomagnetism and Aeronomy: With special historical case studies, edited by: Schroder, W., Science Edition, Comm. History IAGA/History Commision DGG, ISSN:0179-5658, 111–122. Ozcep, F., Ozcep T., 2014, Notes On The History Of Geophysics In Ottoman Empire, HISTORY OF GEO- AND SPACE SCIENCES, vol.5, pp.163-174. Pedersen, O., Pihl, M., 1974, Early physics and astronomy: A historical Introduction, American Elsevier Inc., new York. Pumfrey, S., 2000, Gilbert, In: Reader’s Guide to the History of Science, Arne Hassenbruck (Editor), Fitzroy Pearborn Publihers, London. Raulin, V., 1867, Etudes sur le Magnetism Terrestre, Bulletin Scientifique, Physique, 225-230. Sabine, E., 1868, Contributions to terrestrial magnetism, XI, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 158, 371–416. Sabine, E., 1872, Contributions to terrestrial magnetism, XIII, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 162, 353–433. Sabine, E., 1875, Contributions to terrestrial magnetism, XIV, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 165, 161–203. Sabine, E., 1877, Contributions to terrestrial magnetism, XV, Philos.Trans. R. Soc. London, 167, 461–508. Sarton, G., 1927, Introduction to History of Science, Vol.1, Carnegie Institution Pub. Schmidl, P.c., 2014, Compass, In: The oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science and Technology, İ. Kalın, Editor in Chief, Oxford University Press. Seydi Ali Reis, (tarihsiz), Mirat-ül Memalik, Çeviri: Necdet Akyıldız, Tercüman 1001 Temel Eser. İstanbul. Sipahioglu, O. N., 1957a, Geomagnetic works in Turkey, Turkish Physics Society Pub., No:3, Istanbul (in Turkish). Sipahioglu, O. N., 1957b, Geomagnetic measurements in Turkey, Turkish Physics Society Pub., no: 5, Istanbul (in Turkish). Smith, J.H., 2008, Compass, In: Encyclopedia of History of Science, technology and medicin in Non-western Cultures, H. Selin (Editor) Stern, D. P., 2002, A millennium of geomagnetism. Reviews of geophysics,40(3), 1-1. Soucek, S., 1992, Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean, In: History of Cartography, vol2, Book 1, Cartography in the Traditional islamic and Asian Societies, Univeristy of Chicago Press. Tekeli, S., 1962, Equatorrial armilla of Iz al-Din b. Muhammed al-Wafai and Torquetum, Journal of Faculty of Lİngusitics, History and Geography, Ankara Univeristy, 18, 227-259. Topdemir, G.; H., 2007, "Salih Zeki" in The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Thomas Hockey, Virginia Trimble, Thomas R. Williams, Katherine Bracher, Richard A. Jarrell, Jordan D. Marché, II, F. Jamil Ragep, JoAnn Palmeri, Marvin Bolt (Eds.), Springer Science Business Media, LLC, 2007, pp. 1007-1008 Turan, Ş, 2002, Kitabül Muhit, Islam Ansiklopedisi, Vol: 26, pp: 111-112 Turner, L.Le, 1998, Scientific instruments: 1500-1900, An Introduction, University of California Press, London. Unat, Y., 2007, Pusula, Islam Ansiklopedisi, Vol. 34, pp: 363-364 Van Bemmelen, W., 1899, Die Abweichung der Magnetnadel: Beobachtungen, Siicular- Variation, Wert- und Isogonensysteme bis zur Mitte des XVIHIIen Jahrhunderts, Supplement to vol. 21 of the "Observations" (Batavia, Royal Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory at Batavia. Vlahakis, G.N., Malaquias, I.M., Brooks, N.M., Regourd, F., Gunergun, F., Wrigth, D., 2006, Imperialism and Science: Social impact and interaction, ABC-CLIO Pub. Von Hammer, J., 1834, “Extracts from the Mohit", Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lll, no: 35, 545-553. Von Hammer, J., 1836, “Extracts from the Mohit", Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lll, no: 56, 441-466. Von Hammer, J., 1837, “Extracts from the Mohit", Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lll, no: 70, 805-812. Von Hammer, J., 1838, “Extracts from the Mohit", Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lll, no: 70, 767-780. Waters, D.W., 1958, The Art of Navigation in England in Elizabethan and early Stuard times, Halis and Carter Pub., London. Veinberg, B. P., 1929-1933, Catalogue of Magnetic Determinations in USSR and in Adjacent Countries From 1556 to 1926, 3 vols., Cent. Geophys. Obs., St. Petersburg, Russia. Wiedeman, E.: Magnetic Compass, in: Encyclopedia Islamic Science and Scientists, edited by: Zaki Kirmani, M., Singh, N. K., Global Vision Publishing House, India, 195–196, 2005. Whiston, W., 1719,The Longitude and Latitude Found by the Inclinatory or Dipping Needle, Privately Printed Book, (Original Copy in Newton’s Personal Library), London. Whiston, W., 1721. The Longitude and Latitude Found by the Inclinatory or Dipping Needle. London, J. Senex, at the Globe in Salisbury Court; and W. Taylor, at the Ship in Pater-Noster-Row White, L., 1962, Mediaval technology and social change, Oxford Clarenden Press. White, L., 1967, Technology in the Medieval ages, In: Technology in western civilizations, Vol.1, M. Krazberg and C.W. Pursell Edited), Oxford Univeristy Press, London. Williams, T.I., 1982, A biographical dictionary of Scientists, Adam and Charles Black, London. Wyld, J., 1854, Geographical and Hydrographical Notes: to Accompany Mr. Wyld’s Maps of the Ottoman Empire and Black Sea, London.
Primary Language tr
Subjects History and Philosophy of Science
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-1751-1603
Author: Ferhat ÖZÇEP (Primary Author)
Institution: İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution Istanbul Üniversitesi Araştırma Projeleri Birimi
Project Number IRP- 49162
Thanks Prof. Dr. Jim Secord
Dates

Application Date : May 3, 2020
Publication Date : June 30, 2020

APA Özçep, F . (2020). Osmanlı ve Batı Kaynaklarına Göre Mıknatıslar, Pusulalar ve Yer Manyetizması Ölçümleri . Dört Öge , (17) , 121-150 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/dortoge/issue/56303/731534