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Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 61, 0 - 0, 01.04.2016

Abstract

Problem Statement: Most structures of the texts individuals encounter today are multimodal, in which written, visual, and auditory elements are used together. Students who spend most of their time on social networks or playing various computer games gain experience in multimodal environments. As a part of teacher training, it is important that teachers who prepare students for life and set an example have multimodal literacy skills by keeping up with advancing technology.

Purpose of Study: The study, carried out in Turkey, researches whether or not the multimodal literacy skills within the formal training prospective teachers receive are limited. A scale that aims to measure the multimodal literacy skills of teachers is developed.

Method: Designed in a survey model, the scale aimed to develop a multimodal literacy scale for prospective teachers. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were conducted on 392 prospective teachers.

Findings and Results: At the end of EFA, we identified that the scale had a 3 factored structure, which explains 52.63% of the total variance. As a result of the CFA conducted, consistency index values were identified and the 3 factor structured scale, recognized as made up of 17 items, was verified as a model. In order to determine the reliability of the scale, we calculated the Cronbach Alpha internal consistency and test-retest reliability coefficients. In light of the values obtained, the scale was concluded as reliable and valid. During the studies of item analysis, corrected item-total correlation of the items within 3 factors was calculated and the t-test was used to determine if these items discriminate the 27 % of the upper groups and the 27 % the lower groups. These results can indicate that the items in the scale have a high validity rate, and it can discriminate between students with regard to their capabilities of multimodal literacy.

Conclusions and Recommendations: A scale designed to measure the multimodal literacy skills of teachers who will play a big part in the education of upcoming generations was developed. With this, we can identify multimodal literacy skills during their undergraduate education, whereby we can identify the prospective teachers who do not have such skills and they can then be trained in this respect.

Keywords: Multimodal literacy, scale development, validity, reliability

References

  • Bearne, E. & Wolstencroft, H. (2007). Visual approaches to teaching writing: Multimodal literacy 5-11. London: Sage Publications.
  • Bowen, T. & Whithous, C. (2013). ‘‘What else is possible’’ multimodal composing and genre in the teaching of writing. In T. Bowen & C. Whithous (Eds.), Multimodal literacies and emerging genres (pp. 1-15). Pittsburg: Pittsburg Press.
  • Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Comrey, A. L. & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2. edition). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • DeVellis, R. F. (2003) Scale development (2. edition). California: Sage Publication Inc.
  • Erkuş, A. (2012). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme-I: Temel kavramlar ve işlemler [Measurement and scale development in psychology-I: Basic concepts and processes]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, literacy and learning: A multimodal approach. New York: Routledge.
  • Jöreskog, K. G. & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the simplis command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.
  • Karasar, N. (2013). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific method of research] (25. baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151.
  • Kellner, D. (2000). New technologies/new literacies: reconstructing education for the new millennium. Teacher Education, 11(3), 245-265.
  • Kline, P. (1986). A handbook of test construction: Introduction to psychometric design. New York, NY, US: Methuen.
  • Klein, R. K. & & Shinas, V. H. (2012). 21st Century literacies in teacher education: Investigating multimodal texts in the context of an online graduate-level literacy and technology course. Mid-South Educational Research Association, 19(1), 60-74.
  • Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.
  • Kurudayıoğlu M. & Tüzel, S. (2010). 21. Yüzyıl okuryazarlık türleri, değişen metin algısı ve Türkçe öğretimi [The types of literacy of the 21st century, changing text comprehension and Turkish teaching]. Türklük Bilimi Araştırmaları,28 283-289. Retrieved from
  • http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/tubar/article/view/5000073085/500006730
  • McKee, L. (2013). Print litercy opportunities for young children in a multimodal literacy ensemble. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London.
  • Narey, M. J. (2009). Introduction. In M.J. Narey (Ed.), Making meaning construction multimodal perspectives of language, literacy and learning through arts-based early childhood education (pp. 1-6). New York: Springer.
  • Neville, M. (2006). Teaching multimodal literacy using the learning by design approach to pedagogy: Case studies from selected queensland schools. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne.
  • Özçelik, D. A. (2010). Test hazırlama kılavuzu [Test preparation guide] (4. baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Pahl, K. & Rowsell, J. (2006). Introduction. In K. Pahl & J. Rowsell (Eds.), Travel notes from the new literacy studies instances of practice (pp. 1-39). Ontario: Cromwell Press.
  • Raykov, T. & Marcoulides, G. A. (2008). An introduction to applied multivariate analysis. New York: Routledge Taylor &Francis Group.
  • Rowsell, J. & Walsh, M. (2011). Rethinking literacy education in new times: Multimodality, multiliteracies & new literacies. Brock Education, 21(1), 53-62.
  • Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal Eşitlik Modelleri: Temel Kavramlar ve Örnek Uygulamalar [Structural equation models: Basic concepts and model implementations]. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5. edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2010). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi [Measurement of attitudes and data analysis with SPSS] (4. baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Tüzel, S. (2012). İlköğretim ikinci kademe türkçe derslerinde medya okuryazarlığı: Bir eylem araştırması [Media literacy education in primary school second grade Turkish lessons: An action research]. Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
  • Tüzel, S. (2013). Çok katmanlı okuryazarlık öğretimine ilişkin Türkçe öğretmen adaylarının görüşlerinin incelenmesi [An investigation of prospective Turkish teachers’ views regarding multimodal literacy teaching]. Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama, 9(2), 133-151.
  • Tüzel, S. ve Tok, M. (2013). Öğretmen adaylarının dijital yazma deneyimlerinin incelenmesi [Investigation of teacher candidates’ experiences in digital writing]. Tarih Okulu Dergisi, 6(15), 577-596. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.14225/Joh292
  • Walsh, M. (2010). Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice? Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 33(3), 211-239.
  • Wolfe, S. & Flewitt, R. (2010). New technologies, new multimodal literacy practices and young children’s metacognitive development. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40(4), 387-399.

Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 61, 0 - 0, 01.04.2016

Abstract

References

  • Bearne, E. & Wolstencroft, H. (2007). Visual approaches to teaching writing: Multimodal literacy 5-11. London: Sage Publications.
  • Bowen, T. & Whithous, C. (2013). ‘‘What else is possible’’ multimodal composing and genre in the teaching of writing. In T. Bowen & C. Whithous (Eds.), Multimodal literacies and emerging genres (pp. 1-15). Pittsburg: Pittsburg Press.
  • Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Comrey, A. L. & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2. edition). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • DeVellis, R. F. (2003) Scale development (2. edition). California: Sage Publication Inc.
  • Erkuş, A. (2012). Psikolojide ölçme ve ölçek geliştirme-I: Temel kavramlar ve işlemler [Measurement and scale development in psychology-I: Basic concepts and processes]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, literacy and learning: A multimodal approach. New York: Routledge.
  • Jöreskog, K. G. & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the simplis command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.
  • Karasar, N. (2013). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific method of research] (25. baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151.
  • Kellner, D. (2000). New technologies/new literacies: reconstructing education for the new millennium. Teacher Education, 11(3), 245-265.
  • Kline, P. (1986). A handbook of test construction: Introduction to psychometric design. New York, NY, US: Methuen.
  • Klein, R. K. & & Shinas, V. H. (2012). 21st Century literacies in teacher education: Investigating multimodal texts in the context of an online graduate-level literacy and technology course. Mid-South Educational Research Association, 19(1), 60-74.
  • Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.
  • Kurudayıoğlu M. & Tüzel, S. (2010). 21. Yüzyıl okuryazarlık türleri, değişen metin algısı ve Türkçe öğretimi [The types of literacy of the 21st century, changing text comprehension and Turkish teaching]. Türklük Bilimi Araştırmaları,28 283-289. Retrieved from
  • http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/tubar/article/view/5000073085/500006730
  • McKee, L. (2013). Print litercy opportunities for young children in a multimodal literacy ensemble. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London.
  • Narey, M. J. (2009). Introduction. In M.J. Narey (Ed.), Making meaning construction multimodal perspectives of language, literacy and learning through arts-based early childhood education (pp. 1-6). New York: Springer.
  • Neville, M. (2006). Teaching multimodal literacy using the learning by design approach to pedagogy: Case studies from selected queensland schools. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne.
  • Özçelik, D. A. (2010). Test hazırlama kılavuzu [Test preparation guide] (4. baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Pahl, K. & Rowsell, J. (2006). Introduction. In K. Pahl & J. Rowsell (Eds.), Travel notes from the new literacy studies instances of practice (pp. 1-39). Ontario: Cromwell Press.
  • Raykov, T. & Marcoulides, G. A. (2008). An introduction to applied multivariate analysis. New York: Routledge Taylor &Francis Group.
  • Rowsell, J. & Walsh, M. (2011). Rethinking literacy education in new times: Multimodality, multiliteracies & new literacies. Brock Education, 21(1), 53-62.
  • Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal Eşitlik Modelleri: Temel Kavramlar ve Örnek Uygulamalar [Structural equation models: Basic concepts and model implementations]. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5. edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2010). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi [Measurement of attitudes and data analysis with SPSS] (4. baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Tüzel, S. (2012). İlköğretim ikinci kademe türkçe derslerinde medya okuryazarlığı: Bir eylem araştırması [Media literacy education in primary school second grade Turkish lessons: An action research]. Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
  • Tüzel, S. (2013). Çok katmanlı okuryazarlık öğretimine ilişkin Türkçe öğretmen adaylarının görüşlerinin incelenmesi [An investigation of prospective Turkish teachers’ views regarding multimodal literacy teaching]. Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama, 9(2), 133-151.
  • Tüzel, S. ve Tok, M. (2013). Öğretmen adaylarının dijital yazma deneyimlerinin incelenmesi [Investigation of teacher candidates’ experiences in digital writing]. Tarih Okulu Dergisi, 6(15), 577-596. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.14225/Joh292
  • Walsh, M. (2010). Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice? Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 33(3), 211-239.
  • Wolfe, S. & Flewitt, R. (2010). New technologies, new multimodal literacy practices and young children’s metacognitive development. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40(4), 387-399.

Details

Journal Section Articles
Authors

Berker BULUT


Hacer ULU


Adnan Kan

Publication Date April 1, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 61

Cite

Bibtex @ { ejer324166, journal = {Eurasian Journal of Educational Research}, issn = {1302-597X}, eissn = {2528-8911}, address = {}, publisher = {Anı Yayıncılık}, year = {2016}, volume = {0}, pages = {0 - 0}, doi = {}, title = {Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability}, key = {cite}, author = {Bulut, Berker and Ulu, Hacer and Kan, Adnan} }
APA Bulut, B. , Ulu, H. & Kan, A. (2016). Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research , 0 (61) , 0-0 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/30026/324166
MLA Bulut, B. , Ulu, H. , Kan, A. "Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability" . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 0 (2016 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/30026/324166>
Chicago Bulut, B. , Ulu, H. , Kan, A. "Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 0 (2016 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability AU - Berker Bulut , Hacer Ulu , Adnan Kan Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - DO - T2 - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - 0 IS - 61 SN - 1302-597X-2528-8911 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability %A Berker Bulut , Hacer Ulu , Adnan Kan %T Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability %D 2016 %J Eurasian Journal of Educational Research %P 1302-597X-2528-8911 %V 0 %N 61 %R %U
ISNAD Bulut, Berker , Ulu, Hacer , Kan, Adnan . "Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 0 / 61 (April 2016): 0-0 .
AMA Bulut B. , Ulu H. , Kan A. Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 0(61): 0-0.
Vancouver Bulut B. , Ulu H. , Kan A. Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2016; 0(61): 0-0.
IEEE B. Bulut , H. Ulu and A. Kan , "Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability", Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, vol. 0, no. 61, pp. 0-0, Apr. 2016

EJER aşağıdaki dizinlerde yer almaktadır:

  • 13451
  • 13456
  • 13458
  • 13459
  • 13460
  • 13462
  • 13463