Year 2021, Volume , Issue 23, Pages 70 - 80 2021-04-30

An Experimental Study on Structural and Thermal Stability of Water-Based Drilling Fluids
Su Bazlı Sondaj Sıvılarının Yapısal ve Isıl Kararlılığı Üzerine Deneysel Bir Çalışma

Ali ETTEHADİ [1]


Thermal stability of water-based drilling fluids is an essential factor especially through drilling geothermal and deep oil and gas wells. The chemical and physical properties of a drilling fluid system are substantially affected by high temperature and consequently lead to excessive gelation and formation damage issues. As a result of high temperature, formation damage might result from high fluid losses and reaction with formation fluid salts and hydroxides. This study is an attempt to investigate the thermal stability of clay base drilling fluids using thermal cycle testing. This test is a part of stability testing that allows determining if a fluid system remains stable under various conditions. This type of test can be applied to the drilling fluid systems and puts the sample through a series of extreme and rapid temperature change encountering in during fluid circulation in a geothermal well. Less toxicity as well as commercial and economical availability of clays make them an inevitable component for drilling fluid systems. A type of sepiolite clay taken from Eskisehir in Turkey and Wyoming bentonite as the API reference clay were considered to prepare freshwater weighted, unweighted, and solid contaminated fluid systems. API recommended and oscillation amplitude sweep tests were firstly carried out to evaluate the mechanical stability of selected fluid systems. The samples were then subjected to five thermal cycles from 25 °C to 150 °C. The relative change of the viscosity value compared to the value at the start of the thermal cycles was used as a measure of the structural changes in the fluid systems. The sample that shows a small value for the relative structural change at the end of the thermal cycles has the lowest decrease in the viscosity and hence the highest thermal stability. Discovery Hybrid Rheometer (DHR-II) was used to apply the oscillation and thermal cycle testing. Results revealed that sepiolite based muds formulated in this study tolerate stability problems resulted from high and rapid temperature variation. Obtained appropriate thermal rheological properties as well as thermal cycle test results are strong indicators for the effectiveness of sepiolite muds. This study can help the oil and geothermal industry to be more familiar with a high-temperature stable sepiolite clay to prepare high-performance drilling fluids.
Jeotermal, derin petrol ve gaz kuyularının sondaj operasyonlarında su bazlı sondaj çamurların termal stabilitesi (ısıl kararlılığı) oldukça önemli bir parametredir. Sondaj akışkanının kimyasal ve fiziksel özellikleri, yüksek sıcaklıktan önemli ölçüde etkilenmekte ve sonuç olarak bu durum aşırı jelleşme ve formasyon hasarı sorunlarına yol açmaktadır. Yüksek sıcaklığın sonucu olarak, formasyon hasarı, yüksek sıvı kayıpları ve sondaj sıvısının formasyondaki tuzlu su ve hidroksitlerle etkileşiminden kaynaklanabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, kil bazlı sondaj çamurlarının termal stabilitesi termal döngü testini kullanark incelenmiştir. Bu test, akışkan yapısının farklı koşullar altında kararlı kalıp kalmadığını gösteren etkin bir stabilite (kararlılık) testi olarak bilinmektedir. Bu test, jeotermal ve derin petrol ve gaz kuyularında sondaj akışkanının karşılaştığı ani ve hızlı sıcaklık artışlarını canlandırmak için sondaj akışkanına bu çalışma kapsamında uygulanmıştır. Çok az toksik etki göstermesinden, ekonomik uygunluğundan ve kolay bulunabilirliğinden dolayı killer sondaj akışkan sistemleri için kaçınılmaz bir katkı maddesi olarak tanınmaktadır. Eskişehir, Türkiye’den alınan sepiyolit kili ve API referanslı Wyoming bentonite kili, saf su kullanılarak; ağırlaştırılmış, ağırlaştırılmamış ve kirletilmiş çamur örnekleri hazırlanmıştır. Osilasyon genlik süpürme testleri öncelikle seçilen akışkan örneklerinin mekanik kararlılığını incelemek için uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca hazırlanan örnekler 25 °C den 150 °C ye kadar artarak oluşan beş termal döngü testine tabi tutulmuştur. Termal döngü testinin başlangıcındaki değere kıyasla viskozite değerinin göreceli değişimi, akışkan sistemlerindeki yapısal değişikliklerin bir ölçüsü olarak kullanılmıştır. Termal döngü testinin sonucuna göre, en az değeri göreli yapısal değişim gösteren çamur örneği, viskozitede en küçük düşüşe ve dolayısıyla en yüksek termal stabiliteye sahiptir. Discovery Hybrid Rheometer (DHR-II) aleti, osilasyon ve termal döngü testlerini uygulamak için kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre, formüle edilen sepiyolit çamurunun yüksek ve ani sıcaklık değişimlerine karşı stabilitesini (kararlılığını) koruduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Elde edilen uygun termal reolojik özellikler ve termal döngü test sonuçları, sepiyolit çamurlarının etkinliği için güçlü bir göstergedir. Bu çalışma, yüksek performanslı sondaj sıvıları hazırlamak için yüksek sıcaklığa duyarlı olan sepiyolit kilinin petrol ve jeotermal endüstrisinde daha fazla tanıtımına ve kullanılmasına yardımcı olmaktadır.
  • Abduo, M. I., A. S. Dahab, Hesham Abuseda, Abdulaziz M. AbdulAziz, and M. S. Elhossieny. 2016. “Comparative Study of Using Water-Based Mud Containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based Mud in HPHT Fields.” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 25 (4): 459–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.10.008.
  • AEM. 2014. “(Anadolu Endustri Mineralleri) Having the License Rights of Sepiolite Clay Deposits in Sivrihisar, Eskisehir, Turkey.” (Address: Istinye Cad. ABC Yolu Lara Sok. Seba Home No: 4/1, Istinye, Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey, Phone/Fax:+90 216 3234097).
  • Ahmadu, Abdullahi A., Aminu A. Yahaya, Ghasem Nasr, Emmanuel Udofia Akpan, Bello Saidu, and Godpower C. Enyi. 2019. “Water-Based Drilling Fluids for High-Temperature Applications and Water-Sensitive and Dispersible Shale Formations.” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 175 (November 2018): 1028–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2019.01.002.
  • Altun, Gursat, and Ali Ettehadi Osgouei. 2014. “Investigation and Remediation of Active-Clay Contaminated Sepiolite Drilling Muds.” Applied Clay Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.10.002.
  • Altun, Gursat, Ali Ettehadi Osgouei, Mustafa Hakan Ozyurtkan, and Umran Serpen. 2015. “Sepiolite Based Muds as an Alternate Drilling Fluid for Hot Environments.” Proceedings World Geothermal Congress.
  • Altun, Gursat, Ali Ettehadi Osgouei, and Umran Serpen. 2010. “Controlling Rheological and Fluid Loss Properties of Sepiolite Based Muds under Elevated Temperatures.” In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia, April, 25–29.
  • Altun, Gursat, and Umran Serpen. 2005. “Investigating Improved Rheological and Fluid Loss Performance of Sepiolite Muds under Elevated Temperatures.” In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress.
  • Amani, Mahmood, Mohammed Al-Jubouri, and Arash Shadravan. 2012. “Comparative Study of Using Oil-Based Mud versus Water-Based Mud in HPHT Fields.” Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development 4 (2): 18–27.
  • Barnes, Howard a. 1999. “The Yield Stress-a Review or ’Greek’-Everything Flows?” Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 81 (1–2): 133–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0257(98)00094-9.
  • Bourgoyne Jr, Adam T, Keith K Millheim, Martin E Chenevert, and Farrile S Young Jr. 1986. “Applied Drilling Engineering. Volume 2.”
  • Carney, Leroy L., and Necip Guven. 2007. “Investigation of Changes in the Structure of Clays During Hydrothermal Study of Drilling Fluids.” Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 20 (05): 385–90. https://doi.org/10.2118/7896-pa.
  • Carney, Leroy L, and Necip Guven. 1982. “Investigation of High-Temperature Fluid Loss Control Agents in Geothermal Drilling Fluids.” In SPE California Regional Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  • Carney, Leroy L, and Robert L Meyer. 1976. “A New Approach to High Temperature Drilling Fields.” In SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  • Carson, Charles C, and Y T Lin. 1982. “Impact of Common Problems in Geothermal Drilling and Completion.” Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA).
  • Dahab, A S %J Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. 1991. “Thermal Stability of Drilling Fluids Prepared from Saudi Palygorskite” 30 (03).
  • Guven, N, D J Panfil, and L L Carney. 1988. “Comparative Rheology of Water-Based Drilling Fluids with Various Clays.” In International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  • Hilscher, Larry W, and William R Clements. 1982. “High-Temperature Drilling Fluid for Geothermal and Deep Sensitive Formations.” In SPE California Regional Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  • Moller, Peder, Abdoulaye Fall, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Didi Derks, Daniel %J Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical Bonn Physical, and Engineering Sciences. 2009. “An Attempt to Categorize Yield Stress Fluid Behaviour” 367 (1909): 5139–55.
  • Moussa, M M, and M A Al-Marhoun. 1985. “Dynamic Measurement of Drilling Fluid Rheology at Elevated Temperature and Pressure.” In Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  • Needaa, Al-malki, Pourafshary Peyman, Al-hadrami Hamoud, and Abdo Jamil. 2016. “Controlling Bentonite-Based Drilling Mud Properties Using Sepiolite Nanoparticles.” Petroleum Exploration and Development 43 (4): 717–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(16)30084-2.
  • Otte, C, D S Pye, and N J Stefanides. 1990. “The Applicability of Geothermal Drilling Experience to Super-Deep Drilling.” In Super-Deep Continental Drilling and Deep Geophysical Sounding, 16–32. Springer.
  • Serpen, U. 1999. “Use of Sepiolite Clay and Other Minerals for Developing Geothermal Drilling Fluids.” Applied Mechanics and Engineering 4 (spec.): 309–13.
  • Serpen, U, M Haciislamoglu, and O Tuna. 1992. “Use of Sepiolite Resources of Turkey in Geothermal Muds.” In Proceedings, 9th International Petroleum Congress of Turkey, Ankara, 17–21.
  • Serpen, Umran. 2000. “Investigation on Geothermal Drilling Muds with High Temperature Stability.” In Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress, Kyushu-Tohuku, Japan, May.
  • Tehrani, Ahmadi %J Annual Transactions-Nordic Rheology Society. 2007. “Behaviour of Suspensions and Emulsions in Drilling Fluids” 15: 17.
  • Zilch, H E, M J Otto, and D S Pye. 1991. “The Evolution of Geothermal Drilling Fluid in the Imperial Valley.” In SPE Western Regional Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-4213-7510
Author: Ali ETTEHADİ (Primary Author)
Institution: İZMİR KATİP ÇELEBİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK)
Project Number 217M723
Thanks The authors would like to sincerely thank the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK-217M723) as the lead sponsor of this R&D project.
Dates

Publication Date : April 30, 2021

APA Ettehadi, A . (2021). An Experimental Study on Structural and Thermal Stability of Water-Based Drilling Fluids . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , (23) , 70-80 . DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.843568