Research Article
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A Comparison of Arab and Turkish EFL Learners’ Apology Strategies

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 1 - 26, 30.06.2021

Abstract

The primary purpose of this study was to identify and compare apology strategies employed in English by Turkish and Arab EFL students. To this end, this research study further attempted to indicate the preferences of apology strategies used by both groups, making a comparison between Turkish EFL learners’ and Arab EFL learners’ responses in terms of frequency of using different types of apology strategies. To this end, data were collected through a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) which afforded insights into how both Arab and Turkish EFL learners adopt apology strategies in their pragmatic competence in the target language. Findings revealed that the most preferred strategy by both groups was reported to be that of Illocutionary Force Indicating Devices (IFIDs) and that their linguistic repertoire is influenced by factors such as their proficiency level. Based on the findings of the study, further suggestions and implications are provided.

References

  • Aydin, M. (2013). Cross cultural pragmatics: A study of apology speech acts by Turkish speakers, American English speakers and advance nonnative speakers of English in Turkey. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Minnesota State University.
  • Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language tests (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.
  • Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2010). Exploring the pragmatics of interlanguage pragmatics: Definition by design. Pragmatics across languages and cultures, 7, 219-259.
  • Bergman, M. L., & Kasper, G. (1991). The interlanguage of apologizing: Cross-cultural evidence. University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language, 10(2).
  • Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied linguistics, 5(3), 196-213.
  • Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (Eds.), Language and Communication, 2-27. London: Longman.
  • Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
  • Cohen, D. A., &. Olshtain, E. (1981). Developing a measure of sociocultural competence: The case of apology. Language Learning, 31(1), 113-134.
  • Dalmau, M. S., & i Gotor, H. C. (2007). From “Sorry very much” to “I'm ever so sorry”: Acquisitional patterns in L2 apologies by Catalan learners of English. Intercultural Pragmatics, 4(2), 287-315.
  • Deutschmann, M. (2006). Social variation in the use of apology formulae in the British national corpus. In A. Renouf & A. Kehoe (Eds.), The changing face of corpus linguistics (pp. 205–222). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gass, S. M., & J. Neu (1996). Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communication in a second language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Goffman, E. (1971). Remedial work. In Goffman, E. (Eds.), Relations in Public: The Micro politics of Public Order. Allen Lane, London.
  • Çetin, H. (2014). A comparison of Pragmatic Competence Between Turkish and Portuguese EFL Learners via Speech Act Set of Apologies: A Task-Based Perspective. (Master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey). Retrieved from https://dspace.gazi.edu.tr/bitstream/handle/20.500.12602/191686/?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Harlow, L. L. (1990). Do they mean what they say? Sociopragmatic competence and second language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 328-351.
  • Holmes, J. (1990). Apologies in New Zealand English. Language in society, 19(2) 155-199.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1972). On Communicative Competence. In Pride, J. B., & Holmes, J. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics, (pp. 269-293). Baltimore, USA: Penguin Education, Penguin Books Ltd.
  • İstifçi, İ. (2009). The Use of Apologies by EFL Learners. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 15-25.
  • Jung, E. H. S. (2004). Interlanguage pragmatics: Apology speech acts. In C. L. Moder & A. M. Zic. (Eds.), Discourse across language and culture (pp. 99-116). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies, 52, 1.
  • Maeshiba, N., Yoshinaga, N., Kasper, G., & Ross, S. (1996). Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage apologizing. In S.M. Gass & J. Neu (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures (pp.155-187). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Kasper, G. (1992). Pragmatic transfer. Second Language Research, 8(3), 203-231.
  • Olshtain, E., & Cohen A. (1983). Apology: A speech act set. In N. Wolson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 18-36). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
  • Robinson, J. D. (2004). The sequential organization of "explicit" apologies in naturally occurring English. Research on language and social Interaction, 37(3), 291-330.
  • Searle, J.R. (1969). Speech acts. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Suszczyńska, M. (1999). Apologizing in English, Polish and Hungarian: Different languages, different strategies. Journal of pragmatics, 31(8), 1053-1065.
  • Savignon, S. J. (1972). Communicative competence: An experiment in foreign-language teaching. Philadelphia, PA: The Center for Curriculum Development.
  • Savignon, S. J. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Seale, C. (1999). Quality in qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry, 5(4), 465-478.
  • Spall, S. (1998). Peer debriefing in qualitative research: Emerging operational models. Qualitative inquiry, 4(2), 280-292.
  • Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.
  • Tuncel, R, (2011). Apologizing and speech act realizations of Turkish EFL learners. International Conference on Management, Economics and Social Sciences (ICMESS'2011) Bangkok Dec., 2011.
  • Wouk, F. (2006). The language of apologizing in Lombok, Indonesia. Journal of pragmatics, 38(9), 1457-1486.

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 1 - 26, 30.06.2021

Abstract

References

  • Aydin, M. (2013). Cross cultural pragmatics: A study of apology speech acts by Turkish speakers, American English speakers and advance nonnative speakers of English in Turkey. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Minnesota State University.
  • Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language tests (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.
  • Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2010). Exploring the pragmatics of interlanguage pragmatics: Definition by design. Pragmatics across languages and cultures, 7, 219-259.
  • Bergman, M. L., & Kasper, G. (1991). The interlanguage of apologizing: Cross-cultural evidence. University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language, 10(2).
  • Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied linguistics, 5(3), 196-213.
  • Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (Eds.), Language and Communication, 2-27. London: Longman.
  • Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
  • Cohen, D. A., &. Olshtain, E. (1981). Developing a measure of sociocultural competence: The case of apology. Language Learning, 31(1), 113-134.
  • Dalmau, M. S., & i Gotor, H. C. (2007). From “Sorry very much” to “I'm ever so sorry”: Acquisitional patterns in L2 apologies by Catalan learners of English. Intercultural Pragmatics, 4(2), 287-315.
  • Deutschmann, M. (2006). Social variation in the use of apology formulae in the British national corpus. In A. Renouf & A. Kehoe (Eds.), The changing face of corpus linguistics (pp. 205–222). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gass, S. M., & J. Neu (1996). Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communication in a second language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Goffman, E. (1971). Remedial work. In Goffman, E. (Eds.), Relations in Public: The Micro politics of Public Order. Allen Lane, London.
  • Çetin, H. (2014). A comparison of Pragmatic Competence Between Turkish and Portuguese EFL Learners via Speech Act Set of Apologies: A Task-Based Perspective. (Master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey). Retrieved from https://dspace.gazi.edu.tr/bitstream/handle/20.500.12602/191686/?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Harlow, L. L. (1990). Do they mean what they say? Sociopragmatic competence and second language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 328-351.
  • Holmes, J. (1990). Apologies in New Zealand English. Language in society, 19(2) 155-199.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1972). On Communicative Competence. In Pride, J. B., & Holmes, J. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics, (pp. 269-293). Baltimore, USA: Penguin Education, Penguin Books Ltd.
  • İstifçi, İ. (2009). The Use of Apologies by EFL Learners. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 15-25.
  • Jung, E. H. S. (2004). Interlanguage pragmatics: Apology speech acts. In C. L. Moder & A. M. Zic. (Eds.), Discourse across language and culture (pp. 99-116). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies, 52, 1.
  • Maeshiba, N., Yoshinaga, N., Kasper, G., & Ross, S. (1996). Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage apologizing. In S.M. Gass & J. Neu (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures (pp.155-187). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Kasper, G. (1992). Pragmatic transfer. Second Language Research, 8(3), 203-231.
  • Olshtain, E., & Cohen A. (1983). Apology: A speech act set. In N. Wolson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 18-36). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
  • Robinson, J. D. (2004). The sequential organization of "explicit" apologies in naturally occurring English. Research on language and social Interaction, 37(3), 291-330.
  • Searle, J.R. (1969). Speech acts. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Suszczyńska, M. (1999). Apologizing in English, Polish and Hungarian: Different languages, different strategies. Journal of pragmatics, 31(8), 1053-1065.
  • Savignon, S. J. (1972). Communicative competence: An experiment in foreign-language teaching. Philadelphia, PA: The Center for Curriculum Development.
  • Savignon, S. J. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Seale, C. (1999). Quality in qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry, 5(4), 465-478.
  • Spall, S. (1998). Peer debriefing in qualitative research: Emerging operational models. Qualitative inquiry, 4(2), 280-292.
  • Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.
  • Tuncel, R, (2011). Apologizing and speech act realizations of Turkish EFL learners. International Conference on Management, Economics and Social Sciences (ICMESS'2011) Bangkok Dec., 2011.
  • Wouk, F. (2006). The language of apologizing in Lombok, Indonesia. Journal of pragmatics, 38(9), 1457-1486.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Language and Linguistics, Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Eda ELMAS
Yildiz Technical University
0000-0001-6696-6551
Türkiye


Ali ÖZTÜFEKÇİ (Primary Author)
BAHCESEHIR UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-4519-3796
Türkiye


Nihal ÖZDEMİR This is me
ISTANBUL MEDIPOL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-2353-561X
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Application Date May 5, 2020
Acceptance Date June 7, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

APA Elmas, E. , Öztüfekçi, A. & Özdemir, N. (2021). A Comparison of Arab and Turkish EFL Learners’ Apology Strategies . ELT Research Journal , 10 (1) , 1-26 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eltrj/issue/63041/732261