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Diş Eti Oluğu Kanı ve Tıbbi Diagnostik Değeri

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 39 - 45, 22.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.29228/erd.25

Abstract

Diş hekimliği kapsadığı alan nedeniyle birçok tıp dalı ile birlikte çalışmayı zorunlu kılmaktadır. Bu ilişkinin bir diğer önemi dental tedavilerde tıbbi ortak noktalarının bulunmasıdır. Birçok oral ve sistemik tablo çift yönlü bir ilişki içerisindedir. Hastalar bazen durumları ile ilgili yeterli bilgiye sahip olmayabilirler veya hastalıkları teşhis edilmemiş olabilir. Özellikle bazı sistemik hastalıkların mevcudiyeti dental tedavinin modifiye edilmesini gerektirebilir. Uygulamada, muayenede bilinen bazı önemli hastalık parametreleri ölçülmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu açıdan bakıldığında diş eti oluğu kanı bu konuda göreceli olarak çalışılmış bir parametredir. Diş eti oluğu kanı özellikle periodontal hastalığı bulunanlarda rutin muayene sırasında görülebilmektedir. Non-invazif yollarla elde edilen bu kanın muayenede bazı testlere imkân verdiği gösterilmiştir. Bu geleneksel derlemede diş eti oluğu kanı ve tıbbi diagnostik değeri tartışılacaktır.

References

  • 1. Banerjee S, Ganguly R, Pal TK. Gingival crevicular blood: A noninvasive pathway to determine blood glucose level in periodontal patients. Indian J Dent Sci 2017; 9:220-224.
  • 2. Beikler T, Kuczek A, Petersilka G, Flemmig TF: In-Dental-Office Screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 216–218.
  • 3. Bhavsar MV, Brahmbhatt NA, Sahayata V, Bhavsar NV. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test. Int J Dent Hyg 2016; 14: 92-97.
  • 4. Carmagnola D, Demarosi F, Lodi G, Sardella A, Pontiroli A, Carrassi A. Screening for the undiagnosed diabetes at dental chair-side of an Italian university clinic. A pilot prospective study. Minerva Stomatol 2012; 61: 467-476.
  • 5. Casanova L, Hughes FJ, Preshaw PM. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a two-way relationship. Br Dent J 2014; 217: 433-437.
  • 6. Chapple IL, Genco R; working group 2 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Periodontol 2013; 84:S106-112.
  • 7. Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, Bartold PM, Dommisch H, Eickholz P, et al.Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol 2018; 89:S74-S84. 8. Consensus statement on self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 1987;10: 95-99.
  • 9. Datta S, Devaraj CG. Detection of blood glucose level through gingival crevicular blood- A pilot study. J Res Med Den Sci 2015: 3: 69-72.
  • 10. Davenport RH Jr, Simpson DM, Hassell TM. Histometric comparison of active and inactive lesions of advanced periodontitis. J Periodontol 1982; 53:285-295. 11. de Souza PH, de Toledo BE, Rapp GE, Zuza EP, Neto CB, Mendes AJ. Reliability of bleeding and non-bleeding on probing to gingival histological features. J Int Acad Periodontol 2003; 5: 71-76.
  • 12. Debnath P, Govila V, Sharma M, Saini A, Pandey S. Glucometric assessment of gingival crevicular blood in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: A randomized clinical trial. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2015; 5: 2-6.
  • 13. Gaikwad S, Jadhav V, Gurav A, Shete AR, Dearda HM. Screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood with the help of a self-monitoring device. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2013; 43: 37-40.
  • 14. Gupta A, Gupta N, Garg R, Jain N, Atreja G, Walia SS. Developing a chair side, safe and non-invasive procedure for assessment of blood glucose level using gingival crevicular bleeding in dental clinics. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014; 5: 329-332.
  • 15. Hatipoglu H, Yaylak F, Gungor Y. A brief review on the periodontal health in metabolic syndrome patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2015; 9:124-126.
  • 16. Herman WH, Taylor GW, Jacobson JJ, Burke R, Brown MB. Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in dental offices. J Public Health Dent 2015; 75: 175-182.
  • 17. Intaranonvilai S,Promsudthi A. Gingival crevicular blood glucose in chronic periodontitis patients. M Dent J 2016; 36: 317-327.
  • 18. Jain S, Shashikanth MC, Sur J, Khan F, Mujoo S, Dewangan D. Correlation of blood glucose level in gingival crevicular blood and finger capillary blood using glucometer. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2015; 27: 338-342.
  • 19. Javaid MA, Ahmed AS, Durand R, Tran SD. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016; 6: 66-75.
  • 20. Kaur H, Singh B, Sharma A. Assessment of blood glucose using gingival crevicular blood in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a chair side method. J Clin Diagn Res 2013; 7: 3066-3069.
  • 21. Khader YS, Al-Zu'bi BN, Judeh A, Rayyan M. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. Int J Dent Hyg 2006; 4: 179-182.
  • 22. Kim J, Amar S. Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: a bidirectional relationship. Odontology 2006; 94:10-21.
  • 23. Kinane DF, Stathopoulou PG, Papapanou PN. Periodontal diseases. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017; 3: 17038.
  • 24. Lang NP, Bartold PM. Periodontal health. J Periodontol 2018; 89: S9-S16.
  • 25. Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of dia¬betes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 329-334.
  • 26. Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017; 11:72-80.
  • 27. Parihar S, Tripathi R, Parihar AV, Samadi FM, Chandra A, Bhavsar N. Estimation of gingival crevicular blood glucose level for the screening of diabetes mellitus: A simple yet reliable method. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016; 6: 198-203.
  • 28. Parker RC, Rapley JW, Isley W, Spencer P, Killoy WJ. Gingival crevicular blood for assessment of blood glucose in diabetic patients. J Periodontol 1993; 64: 666-672.
  • 29. Penmetsa GS, Devi JB, Dwarakanath CD. Assessment of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with periodontitis: A three-way method using gingival crevicular, capillary, and venous blood. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2016; 2: 1-4.
  • 30. Pesce MA, Strauss SM, Rosedale M, Netterwald J, Wang H. Measurement of HbA1c in Gingival Crevicular Blood Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Procedure. Lab Med 2015; 46: 290-298.
  • 31. Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005; 366:1809-1820.
  • 32. Preshaw PM, Alba AL, Herrera D, Jepsen S, Konstantinidis A, Makrilakis K, Taylor R. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia 2012; 55: 21-31.
  • 33. Rajesh KS, Irshana R, Arun Kumar MS, Hegde S. Effectiveness of glucometer in screening diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. Contemp Clin Dent 2016; 7: 182-185.
  • 34. Rapone B, Ferrara E, Santacroce L, Topi S, Converti I, Gnoni A, Scarano A, Scacco S. Gingival Crevicular Blood as a Potential Screening Tool: A Cross Sectional Comparative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 7356.
  • 35. Sarlati F, Pakmehr E, Khoshru K, Akhondi N. Gingival crevicular blood for assessment of blood glucose levels. J Periodontol Implant Dent 2010; 2: 17-24.
  • 36. Satyanarayan A, Arun M, Kumar AS, Jayanti I, Divakaran M, Sakri MR. Gingival Crevicular Blood: Assessment of Blood Glucose Levels among Diabetic Patients. Int J Prevent Public Health Sci 2017; 2: 13-15.
  • 37. Sharma D, Dahiya V, Shukla P, Shukla P, Malhotra G, Joshi CS. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Crevicular Blood Glucose Levels Pre- and Postscaling and Root Planing with Capillary Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018; 5: 15-20.
  • 38. Shetty N, Shankarapillai R, Mathur LK, Manohar B, Mathur A, Jain M. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013; 17: 472-477.
  • 39. Shylaja MD, Punde PA, Sam G, Khan SN, Latheef AA, Thorat AJ. Noninvasive Technique for Estimating Blood Glucose Levels among Diabetic Patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17: 248-252.
  • 40. Sibyl S, Bennadi D, Kshetrimayum N, Manjunath M. Correlations between gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary blood glucose: A preliminary report. J Lab Physicians 2017;9: 260-263.
  • 41. Singh S, Bhardwaj A, Chopra P, Masamatti S. To compare the efficacy of plasma glucose level, finger capillary blood, and gingival crevicular blood to measure blood glucose level in chronic periodontitis patients. Indian J Dent Sci 2019; 11: 71-76.
  • 42. Stanko P, Izakovicova Holla L. Bidirectional association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. A review. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2014;158: 35-38.
  • 43. Strauss SM, Rosedale MT, Pesce MA, Rindskopf DM, Kaur N, Juterbock CM, Wolff MS, Malaspina D, Danoff A. The potential for glycemic control monitoring and screening for diabetes at dental visits using oral blood. Am J Public Health 2015; 105:796-801.
  • 44. Strauss SM, Tuthill J, Singh G, Rindskopf D, Maggiore JA, Schoor R, Brodsky A, Einhorn A, Hochstein A, Russell S, Rosedale M. A novel intraoral diabetes screening approach in periodontal patients: results of a pilot study. J Periodontol 2012; 83: 699-706.
  • 45. Strauss SM, Wheeler AJ, Russell SL, Brodsky A, Davidson RM, Gluzman R, Li L, Malo RG, Salis B, Schoor R, Tzvetkova K. The potential use of gingival crevicular blood for measuring glucose to screen for diabetes: an examination based on characteristics of the blood collection site. J Periodontol 2009; 80: 907-914.
  • 46. Suneetha K, Rambabu T. Gingival crevicular blood glucose assessment as a chairside test for diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis: A clinical study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16: 665-666.
  • 47. Waghmare AS, Chawla RL, Savitha B, Vhanmane PB. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2011; 3: 53-57.
  • 48. Wolff L, Dahlén G, Aeppli D. Bacteria as Risk Markers for Periodontitis. J Periodontol 1994; 65: 498-510.
  • 49. Wu J, Lin L, Zhang R, Liu S, Sun W. Can gingival crevicular blood effectively screen for diabetes in Chinese patients with moderate to severe periodontitis? A pilot study. J Dent Sci 2021; 16: 1-6.
  • 50. Yamaguchi M, Kawabata Y, Kambe S, Wårdell K, Nystrom FH, Naitoh K, Yoshida H. Non-invasive monitoring of gingival crevicular fluid for estimation of blood glucose level. Med Biol Eng Comput 2004; 42: 322-327.

Gingival Crevicular Blood And Its Medical Diagnostic Value

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 39 - 45, 22.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.29228/erd.25

Abstract

Dentistry makes it compulsory to work with many medical branches due to the area it covers. Another important aspect of this relationship is finding common points in treatments. Many oral and systemic disease/circumstances are in a bidirectional relationship. Patients sometimes do not have enough information about their condition or their disease may not be diagnosed. Particularly, the presence of certain systemic diseases may require modification of dental treatment. In practice, some known major disease parameters are tried to measure in the dental office. From this point of view, gingival crevicular blood is relatively studied in this regard. Gingival crevicular blood is seen during routine examination, especially in those with periodontal disease. It has been shown that this blood, which is obtained by non-invasive methods, allows some tests in the office. In this traditional review, gingival crevicular blood and its diagnostic value will be discussed.

References

  • 1. Banerjee S, Ganguly R, Pal TK. Gingival crevicular blood: A noninvasive pathway to determine blood glucose level in periodontal patients. Indian J Dent Sci 2017; 9:220-224.
  • 2. Beikler T, Kuczek A, Petersilka G, Flemmig TF: In-Dental-Office Screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 216–218.
  • 3. Bhavsar MV, Brahmbhatt NA, Sahayata V, Bhavsar NV. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test. Int J Dent Hyg 2016; 14: 92-97.
  • 4. Carmagnola D, Demarosi F, Lodi G, Sardella A, Pontiroli A, Carrassi A. Screening for the undiagnosed diabetes at dental chair-side of an Italian university clinic. A pilot prospective study. Minerva Stomatol 2012; 61: 467-476.
  • 5. Casanova L, Hughes FJ, Preshaw PM. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a two-way relationship. Br Dent J 2014; 217: 433-437.
  • 6. Chapple IL, Genco R; working group 2 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases. J Periodontol 2013; 84:S106-112.
  • 7. Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, Bartold PM, Dommisch H, Eickholz P, et al.Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol 2018; 89:S74-S84. 8. Consensus statement on self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 1987;10: 95-99.
  • 9. Datta S, Devaraj CG. Detection of blood glucose level through gingival crevicular blood- A pilot study. J Res Med Den Sci 2015: 3: 69-72.
  • 10. Davenport RH Jr, Simpson DM, Hassell TM. Histometric comparison of active and inactive lesions of advanced periodontitis. J Periodontol 1982; 53:285-295. 11. de Souza PH, de Toledo BE, Rapp GE, Zuza EP, Neto CB, Mendes AJ. Reliability of bleeding and non-bleeding on probing to gingival histological features. J Int Acad Periodontol 2003; 5: 71-76.
  • 12. Debnath P, Govila V, Sharma M, Saini A, Pandey S. Glucometric assessment of gingival crevicular blood in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: A randomized clinical trial. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2015; 5: 2-6.
  • 13. Gaikwad S, Jadhav V, Gurav A, Shete AR, Dearda HM. Screening for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood with the help of a self-monitoring device. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2013; 43: 37-40.
  • 14. Gupta A, Gupta N, Garg R, Jain N, Atreja G, Walia SS. Developing a chair side, safe and non-invasive procedure for assessment of blood glucose level using gingival crevicular bleeding in dental clinics. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014; 5: 329-332.
  • 15. Hatipoglu H, Yaylak F, Gungor Y. A brief review on the periodontal health in metabolic syndrome patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2015; 9:124-126.
  • 16. Herman WH, Taylor GW, Jacobson JJ, Burke R, Brown MB. Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in dental offices. J Public Health Dent 2015; 75: 175-182.
  • 17. Intaranonvilai S,Promsudthi A. Gingival crevicular blood glucose in chronic periodontitis patients. M Dent J 2016; 36: 317-327.
  • 18. Jain S, Shashikanth MC, Sur J, Khan F, Mujoo S, Dewangan D. Correlation of blood glucose level in gingival crevicular blood and finger capillary blood using glucometer. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2015; 27: 338-342.
  • 19. Javaid MA, Ahmed AS, Durand R, Tran SD. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016; 6: 66-75.
  • 20. Kaur H, Singh B, Sharma A. Assessment of blood glucose using gingival crevicular blood in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: a chair side method. J Clin Diagn Res 2013; 7: 3066-3069.
  • 21. Khader YS, Al-Zu'bi BN, Judeh A, Rayyan M. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. Int J Dent Hyg 2006; 4: 179-182.
  • 22. Kim J, Amar S. Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: a bidirectional relationship. Odontology 2006; 94:10-21.
  • 23. Kinane DF, Stathopoulou PG, Papapanou PN. Periodontal diseases. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017; 3: 17038.
  • 24. Lang NP, Bartold PM. Periodontal health. J Periodontol 2018; 89: S9-S16.
  • 25. Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of dia¬betes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 329-334.
  • 26. Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017; 11:72-80.
  • 27. Parihar S, Tripathi R, Parihar AV, Samadi FM, Chandra A, Bhavsar N. Estimation of gingival crevicular blood glucose level for the screening of diabetes mellitus: A simple yet reliable method. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016; 6: 198-203.
  • 28. Parker RC, Rapley JW, Isley W, Spencer P, Killoy WJ. Gingival crevicular blood for assessment of blood glucose in diabetic patients. J Periodontol 1993; 64: 666-672.
  • 29. Penmetsa GS, Devi JB, Dwarakanath CD. Assessment of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with periodontitis: A three-way method using gingival crevicular, capillary, and venous blood. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2016; 2: 1-4.
  • 30. Pesce MA, Strauss SM, Rosedale M, Netterwald J, Wang H. Measurement of HbA1c in Gingival Crevicular Blood Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Procedure. Lab Med 2015; 46: 290-298.
  • 31. Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005; 366:1809-1820.
  • 32. Preshaw PM, Alba AL, Herrera D, Jepsen S, Konstantinidis A, Makrilakis K, Taylor R. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia 2012; 55: 21-31.
  • 33. Rajesh KS, Irshana R, Arun Kumar MS, Hegde S. Effectiveness of glucometer in screening diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood. Contemp Clin Dent 2016; 7: 182-185.
  • 34. Rapone B, Ferrara E, Santacroce L, Topi S, Converti I, Gnoni A, Scarano A, Scacco S. Gingival Crevicular Blood as a Potential Screening Tool: A Cross Sectional Comparative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 7356.
  • 35. Sarlati F, Pakmehr E, Khoshru K, Akhondi N. Gingival crevicular blood for assessment of blood glucose levels. J Periodontol Implant Dent 2010; 2: 17-24.
  • 36. Satyanarayan A, Arun M, Kumar AS, Jayanti I, Divakaran M, Sakri MR. Gingival Crevicular Blood: Assessment of Blood Glucose Levels among Diabetic Patients. Int J Prevent Public Health Sci 2017; 2: 13-15.
  • 37. Sharma D, Dahiya V, Shukla P, Shukla P, Malhotra G, Joshi CS. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Crevicular Blood Glucose Levels Pre- and Postscaling and Root Planing with Capillary Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2018; 5: 15-20.
  • 38. Shetty N, Shankarapillai R, Mathur LK, Manohar B, Mathur A, Jain M. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013; 17: 472-477.
  • 39. Shylaja MD, Punde PA, Sam G, Khan SN, Latheef AA, Thorat AJ. Noninvasive Technique for Estimating Blood Glucose Levels among Diabetic Patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17: 248-252.
  • 40. Sibyl S, Bennadi D, Kshetrimayum N, Manjunath M. Correlations between gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary blood glucose: A preliminary report. J Lab Physicians 2017;9: 260-263.
  • 41. Singh S, Bhardwaj A, Chopra P, Masamatti S. To compare the efficacy of plasma glucose level, finger capillary blood, and gingival crevicular blood to measure blood glucose level in chronic periodontitis patients. Indian J Dent Sci 2019; 11: 71-76.
  • 42. Stanko P, Izakovicova Holla L. Bidirectional association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. A review. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2014;158: 35-38.
  • 43. Strauss SM, Rosedale MT, Pesce MA, Rindskopf DM, Kaur N, Juterbock CM, Wolff MS, Malaspina D, Danoff A. The potential for glycemic control monitoring and screening for diabetes at dental visits using oral blood. Am J Public Health 2015; 105:796-801.
  • 44. Strauss SM, Tuthill J, Singh G, Rindskopf D, Maggiore JA, Schoor R, Brodsky A, Einhorn A, Hochstein A, Russell S, Rosedale M. A novel intraoral diabetes screening approach in periodontal patients: results of a pilot study. J Periodontol 2012; 83: 699-706.
  • 45. Strauss SM, Wheeler AJ, Russell SL, Brodsky A, Davidson RM, Gluzman R, Li L, Malo RG, Salis B, Schoor R, Tzvetkova K. The potential use of gingival crevicular blood for measuring glucose to screen for diabetes: an examination based on characteristics of the blood collection site. J Periodontol 2009; 80: 907-914.
  • 46. Suneetha K, Rambabu T. Gingival crevicular blood glucose assessment as a chairside test for diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis: A clinical study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16: 665-666.
  • 47. Waghmare AS, Chawla RL, Savitha B, Vhanmane PB. Screening of gingival crevicular blood glucose and capillary finger blood glucose in the diagnosis of diabetes. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2011; 3: 53-57.
  • 48. Wolff L, Dahlén G, Aeppli D. Bacteria as Risk Markers for Periodontitis. J Periodontol 1994; 65: 498-510.
  • 49. Wu J, Lin L, Zhang R, Liu S, Sun W. Can gingival crevicular blood effectively screen for diabetes in Chinese patients with moderate to severe periodontitis? A pilot study. J Dent Sci 2021; 16: 1-6.
  • 50. Yamaguchi M, Kawabata Y, Kambe S, Wårdell K, Nystrom FH, Naitoh K, Yoshida H. Non-invasive monitoring of gingival crevicular fluid for estimation of blood glucose level. Med Biol Eng Comput 2004; 42: 322-327.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Dental
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Hasan HATİPOĞLU> (Primary Author)
KÜTAHYA SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DİŞ HEKİMLİĞİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-1709-554X
Türkiye

Publication Date June 22, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Hatipoğlu, H. (2022). Diş Eti Oluğu Kanı ve Tıbbi Diagnostik Değeri . European Journal of Research in Dentistry , 6 (1) , 39-45 . DOI: 10.29228/erd.25