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USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY

Year 2023, Volume: 12 Issue: 1, 42 - 52, 30.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.18036/estubtdc.1211466

Abstract

ABSTRACT Heavy metals constitute the largest part of air pollution. Heavy metals, the concentration of which in the environment is constantly increasing and which can remain intact in nature for a long time, are a great threat to living things. In addition, due to the fact that it causes bioaccumulation in the structure of living things, the detection of heavy metal concentration is very important. However, living things in areas where traffic is heavy are exposed to exhaust fumes, and this significantly negatively affects the health of living things. In our study, the areas where heavy traffic are concentrated in Ankara were determined and the possibilities of using linden trees, which were planted abundantly in the middle refuges, as a biomonitor for the change in heavy metal hunters were investigated. Changes of Pb, Fe, Cd, Cr and As elements in soil and plant samples were analyzed in ICP-MS device. SPSS 22 Statistical Package Program was used to evaluate the obtained data. The Tilia tomentosa Moench. parts (leaf, flower and branch) are evaluated, it is seen that the heavy metal amounts in the unwashed samples are higher than the washed samples for all heavy metals. The highest metal concentration among the stations was Fe (40681 µgg-1) collected from Gazi station, the lowest concentration was Cd (4.9 µgg-1) collected from the Mogan station on soils.

Supporting Institution

Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi

Thanks

This study was supported by the Research Fund of the University of Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli. The Project number is TEZ22F5.

References

  • [1] Turkyilmaz A, Cetin M, Sevik H, Isinkaralar K, Saleh EAA. Variation of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Certain Landscaping Plants Due to Traffic Density. Environ, Develop Sustain, 2018a; 1-14.
  • [2] Isinkaralar O, Isinkaralar K, Ekizler A, Ilkdoğan C. Changes in the Amounts of CO₂ and Particulate Matter in Kastamonu Province Depending on Weather Conditions and Locations. J Chem Biolog Physic Sci 2017; 7(3): 643- 650.
  • [3] Karaçağıl D. İstanbul’da Belirlenmiş Sahil Şeritlerinde Toprak Kalitesi ve Ağır Metal Kirliliği. MSc, Başakşehir University, İstanbul, Turkey, 2013.
  • [4] Baycu G, Tolunay D, Özdem H, Günebakan S, Ecophysilogical and Seasonal Variations in Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni Concentrations in the Leaves of Urban Deciduous Trees in İstanbul. Environ Pollut 2006; 143:545-554.
  • [5] Çavuşoğlu K. Cupressus sempervirens L. ve Cedrus libani A.Rich. Yapraklarında Taşıtların Sebep olduğu Kurşun (Pb) Kirliliğinin Araştırılması. BAÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 2005; 7(2): 37-56.
  • [6] Batır M.B. Kurşun (Pb) ve Bakır (Cu) Ağır Metal Stresi Uygulanan Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.) Tohumlarının Fidelerinde Oluşan DNA Değişikliklerinin Belirlenmesi. MSc, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eşkişehir, Turkey, 2014.
  • [7] Yeli C, Çakmakcı T, Şahin Ü, Tüfenkçi Ş. Ağır Metallerin Toprak, Bitki, Su ve İnsan Sağlığına Etkileri. Türk Doğa ve Fen Dergisi 2020; 9:103-114.
  • [8] Ávila- Pérez P, Ortiz-Oliveros H.B, Zarazúa-Ortega G, Tejeda- Vega S, Villava A, Sánchez-Muñoz R. Determining of Risk Areas due to Exposure to Heavy Metals in the Toluca Valley Using Epiphytic Mosses as a Biomonitor. Jo Environ Manage 2019; 241:138-148.
  • [9] Shaban N, Abdou K, Hassan N.E.H. Impact of Toxic Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Herbal Proucts. Beni-Suef Uni J Bassic Appl Sci 2016; 5(1): 102- 106.
  • [10] Koedrith P, Kim H, Weon J.I, Se Y.R. Toxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity. Int J Hyg Environ Healty 2013; 216(5): 587-598.
  • [11] Zeng X, Xijin X, Boezen M.H, Hou X. Children with health impairment by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area. Chemosphere 2015; 148: 408- 415.
  • [12] Cansaran A, Yildirim C, Karavin N. Availability of Maclura polifera (Rafin). Schneider as biomonitor for the Heavy Metal Pollution. Bangladesh J Bot 2016; 45(3): 723-726.
  • [13] Madejón P, Marañón T, Murillo J.M. Biomonitoring of trace elements in the leaves and fruits of wild olive and holm oak trees. Sci Total Environ 2006; 355:187-203.
  • [14] Yap CK, Fitri M, Mazyhar Y, Tan SG. Effects of Metal Contaminated Soils on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Diffirent Parts of Centella asiatica: A Laboratory Study. Sains Malays 2010; 39(3): 347-352.
  • [15] Abril G.A, Wonnaz E.D, Malteas A.C, Invernizzi R, Plá R.R, Pignata ML. Characterization of Atmospheric Emission Sources of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Through a Localscole Monitoring Network Using T. capillars. Ecol Indic 2014; 40: 153-161.
  • [16] Sevik H, Ozel H.B, Cetin M, Erdem T. Determination of changes in heavy metal accumulation depending on plant species, plant organism and traffic density in some landscape plants. Air Qual Atmos Health 2019; 12(2): 189- 195.
  • [17] Çobanoğlu O. The Possibilaties of Using Blue Spruce (Picea pungens Engelm) as a Bio-Monitor By Measuring the Recent Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Hs Leaves. MSc, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, 2019.
  • [18] Mossi MMM. Determination of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Some of Landscape Plants for Shrub Forms. Ph.D, Kastamonu University, 2018.
  • [19] Koç İ. Using Cedrus atlantica’s annual rings as a biomonitor in observing the change of Ni and Co concentrations in the atmosphere. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021; 1-7.
  • [20] Vural H. Trafik Kaynaklı Ağır Metal Kirliliğinin Belirlenmesinde Peyzaj Bitkilerinin Biyomonitor Olarak Kullanılabilirliği. TURKJANS 2021; 8(4): 1174–1186.
  • [21] Duffus JH. Heavy metals a meaningless term? (UPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 2002; 74(5): 793-807.
  • [22] Leblebici Z, Kar M. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables irrigated with different water sources and their human daily intake in Nevsehir. J Agric Sci Technol 2018; 20(2): 401-412.
  • [23] Leblebici, Z, Kar M. Başaran L. Assessment of the Heavy Metal Accumulation of Various Green Vegetables Grown in Nevşehir and their Risks Human Health. Environ Monit Assess 2020; 192: 483-490.
  • [24] Rahmani GNH, Sternberg SPK. Bioremoval of lead from water using Lemna minor. Biores Technol 1999; 70(3): 225–230.
  • [25] Pınar B. Bazı Peyzaj Bitkilerinde Ağır Metal Birikiminin Trafik Yoğunluğuna Bağlı Değişimi. MSc, Kastamonu Üniversity, 2019.
  • [26] Baycu G, Tolunay D. İstanbul Kentsel Toprakların Cd, Pb, Zn ve Ni İçerikleri. J Fac For Istanbul U 2009; 59(1): 87-105.
  • [27] Csavina J, Field J, Taylor MP, Gao S, Landázuri A, Betterton E.A, Sáez A.E. A review on the importance of metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust and aerosol from mining operations. Sci Total Environ 2012; 433:58-73.
  • [28] Csavina J, Taylor MP, Félix 0, Rine K.P, Sáez AE, Betterton EA. Size-resolved dust and aerosol contaminants associted with copper and lead smelting emissions: implications for emission management and human health. Sci Total Environ 2014; 493:750-756.
  • [29] Chen Y.M, Gao J, Yuan Y.Q, Ma J, Yu S. Relationship between heavymetal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: implications for metal pollution assessment. Cont Shelf Res 2016; 124:125-133.
  • [30] Shahid M, Khalid S, Abbas G, Shahid N, Nadeem M, Sabir M, Aslam M, Dumat C. Heavy metal stress and crop productivity in: (K.R. Hakeem Ed.) Crop Production and Global Enviranmental Issues SE-1. Springer Intern Publish 2015; 1-25.
  • [31] Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Cetin M. The use of perennial needles as biomonitors for recently accumulated heavy metals. Landsc Ecol Eng 2018; 14(1): 115-120.
  • [32] Seven T, Can B, Darende BN, Ocak S. Hava ve Toprakta Ağır Metal Kirliliği. Nation J Environ Sci Res 2018; 1(2): 91-103.
  • [33] Sharma P, Dubey R.S. Lead toxicity in plants. Broz J Plant Physiol 2005; 17(1):35-52.
  • [34] Kabir AM, Iqbal MZ, Shafiq M. Effects of lead on seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L. Plant Soil Environ 2010; 4: 194-199.
  • [35] Pak O. Kırklareli Sınırları İçerisindeki Otoban Kenarlarında Bulunan Tarım Arazilerinde Bazı Ağır Metal Kirliliğinin Araştırılması. MSc, Namık Kemal University Tekirdağ, 2011.
  • [36] Kahvecioğlu Ö, Kartal G, Güven A, Timur S. Metallerin Çevre Etkileri-1. UCBAD 2003; 136:4-53.
  • [37] Kacar B, Katkat V. Bitki Besleme 1. Baskı, 849, Nobel Yayın, İstanbul, 2006.
  • [38] Gouia H, Garbel MH, Meyer C. Effects of cadmium on activity of nitrate reductase and on other enzymes of the nitrate assimilation pathway in bean. Plant Physiol Biochem 2000; 38: 629-638.
  • [39] Vajpayee P, Dhawan A, Shanker R. Evaluation of the Alkaline Comet Assay Conducted With the Wetlands Plant Bacopa monnieri L. as a Model for Ecogenotoxicity Assessment. Environ Molecul Mutagen 2006; 47: 483- 489.
  • [40] Kimbrough DE, Cohen Y, Winer AM, Creelman L, Mabuni C. A ciritical assessment of chromium in the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci 2009; 29(1):1-49.
  • [41] Abedin MJ, Cotter- Howells J, Meharg AA. Arsenic Accumulation and Metabolism in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Soil 2002; 240:311-319.
  • [42] FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards Codex Stan-179, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003.
  • [43] Turkey Soil Pollution Control Regulation (TSP 24609) From the Ministry of Environment, Official Gazzette, No: 24609, Date: 10.12.2001.
  • [44] Naser HM, Sultana S, Mahmud NU, Gomes R, Noor S. Heavy metal levels in vegetables with growth stage and plant species variations. Bangladesh J Agric Res 2012; 36(4): 563–574.

USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY

Year 2023, Volume: 12 Issue: 1, 42 - 52, 30.01.2023
https://doi.org/10.18036/estubtdc.1211466

Abstract

ABSTRACT


Heavy metals constitute the largest part of air pollution. Heavy metals, the concentration of which in the environment is constantly increasing and which can remain intact in nature for a long time, are a great threat to living things. In addition, due to the fact that it causes bioaccumulation in the structure of living things, the detection of heavy metal concentration is very important. However, living things in areas where traffic is heavy are exposed to exhaust fumes, and this significantly negatively affects the health of living things. In our study, the areas where heavy traffic are concentrated in Ankara were determined and the possibilities of using linden trees, which were planted abundantly in the middle refuges, as a biomonitor for the change in heavy metal hunters were investigated. Changes of Pb, Fe, Cd, Cr and As elements in soil and plant samples were analyzed in ICP-MS device. SPSS 22 Statistical Package Program was used to evaluate the obtained data. The Tilia tomentosa Moench. parts (leaf, flower and branch) are evaluated, it is seen that the heavy metal amounts in the unwashed samples are higher than the washed samples for all heavy metals. The highest metal concentration among the stations was Fe (40681 µgg-1) collected from Gazi station, the lowest concentration was Cd (4.9 µgg-1) collected from the Mogan station on soils.

References

  • [1] Turkyilmaz A, Cetin M, Sevik H, Isinkaralar K, Saleh EAA. Variation of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Certain Landscaping Plants Due to Traffic Density. Environ, Develop Sustain, 2018a; 1-14.
  • [2] Isinkaralar O, Isinkaralar K, Ekizler A, Ilkdoğan C. Changes in the Amounts of CO₂ and Particulate Matter in Kastamonu Province Depending on Weather Conditions and Locations. J Chem Biolog Physic Sci 2017; 7(3): 643- 650.
  • [3] Karaçağıl D. İstanbul’da Belirlenmiş Sahil Şeritlerinde Toprak Kalitesi ve Ağır Metal Kirliliği. MSc, Başakşehir University, İstanbul, Turkey, 2013.
  • [4] Baycu G, Tolunay D, Özdem H, Günebakan S, Ecophysilogical and Seasonal Variations in Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni Concentrations in the Leaves of Urban Deciduous Trees in İstanbul. Environ Pollut 2006; 143:545-554.
  • [5] Çavuşoğlu K. Cupressus sempervirens L. ve Cedrus libani A.Rich. Yapraklarında Taşıtların Sebep olduğu Kurşun (Pb) Kirliliğinin Araştırılması. BAÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 2005; 7(2): 37-56.
  • [6] Batır M.B. Kurşun (Pb) ve Bakır (Cu) Ağır Metal Stresi Uygulanan Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.) Tohumlarının Fidelerinde Oluşan DNA Değişikliklerinin Belirlenmesi. MSc, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eşkişehir, Turkey, 2014.
  • [7] Yeli C, Çakmakcı T, Şahin Ü, Tüfenkçi Ş. Ağır Metallerin Toprak, Bitki, Su ve İnsan Sağlığına Etkileri. Türk Doğa ve Fen Dergisi 2020; 9:103-114.
  • [8] Ávila- Pérez P, Ortiz-Oliveros H.B, Zarazúa-Ortega G, Tejeda- Vega S, Villava A, Sánchez-Muñoz R. Determining of Risk Areas due to Exposure to Heavy Metals in the Toluca Valley Using Epiphytic Mosses as a Biomonitor. Jo Environ Manage 2019; 241:138-148.
  • [9] Shaban N, Abdou K, Hassan N.E.H. Impact of Toxic Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Herbal Proucts. Beni-Suef Uni J Bassic Appl Sci 2016; 5(1): 102- 106.
  • [10] Koedrith P, Kim H, Weon J.I, Se Y.R. Toxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity. Int J Hyg Environ Healty 2013; 216(5): 587-598.
  • [11] Zeng X, Xijin X, Boezen M.H, Hou X. Children with health impairment by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area. Chemosphere 2015; 148: 408- 415.
  • [12] Cansaran A, Yildirim C, Karavin N. Availability of Maclura polifera (Rafin). Schneider as biomonitor for the Heavy Metal Pollution. Bangladesh J Bot 2016; 45(3): 723-726.
  • [13] Madejón P, Marañón T, Murillo J.M. Biomonitoring of trace elements in the leaves and fruits of wild olive and holm oak trees. Sci Total Environ 2006; 355:187-203.
  • [14] Yap CK, Fitri M, Mazyhar Y, Tan SG. Effects of Metal Contaminated Soils on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Diffirent Parts of Centella asiatica: A Laboratory Study. Sains Malays 2010; 39(3): 347-352.
  • [15] Abril G.A, Wonnaz E.D, Malteas A.C, Invernizzi R, Plá R.R, Pignata ML. Characterization of Atmospheric Emission Sources of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Through a Localscole Monitoring Network Using T. capillars. Ecol Indic 2014; 40: 153-161.
  • [16] Sevik H, Ozel H.B, Cetin M, Erdem T. Determination of changes in heavy metal accumulation depending on plant species, plant organism and traffic density in some landscape plants. Air Qual Atmos Health 2019; 12(2): 189- 195.
  • [17] Çobanoğlu O. The Possibilaties of Using Blue Spruce (Picea pungens Engelm) as a Bio-Monitor By Measuring the Recent Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Hs Leaves. MSc, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, 2019.
  • [18] Mossi MMM. Determination of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Some of Landscape Plants for Shrub Forms. Ph.D, Kastamonu University, 2018.
  • [19] Koç İ. Using Cedrus atlantica’s annual rings as a biomonitor in observing the change of Ni and Co concentrations in the atmosphere. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021; 1-7.
  • [20] Vural H. Trafik Kaynaklı Ağır Metal Kirliliğinin Belirlenmesinde Peyzaj Bitkilerinin Biyomonitor Olarak Kullanılabilirliği. TURKJANS 2021; 8(4): 1174–1186.
  • [21] Duffus JH. Heavy metals a meaningless term? (UPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 2002; 74(5): 793-807.
  • [22] Leblebici Z, Kar M. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables irrigated with different water sources and their human daily intake in Nevsehir. J Agric Sci Technol 2018; 20(2): 401-412.
  • [23] Leblebici, Z, Kar M. Başaran L. Assessment of the Heavy Metal Accumulation of Various Green Vegetables Grown in Nevşehir and their Risks Human Health. Environ Monit Assess 2020; 192: 483-490.
  • [24] Rahmani GNH, Sternberg SPK. Bioremoval of lead from water using Lemna minor. Biores Technol 1999; 70(3): 225–230.
  • [25] Pınar B. Bazı Peyzaj Bitkilerinde Ağır Metal Birikiminin Trafik Yoğunluğuna Bağlı Değişimi. MSc, Kastamonu Üniversity, 2019.
  • [26] Baycu G, Tolunay D. İstanbul Kentsel Toprakların Cd, Pb, Zn ve Ni İçerikleri. J Fac For Istanbul U 2009; 59(1): 87-105.
  • [27] Csavina J, Field J, Taylor MP, Gao S, Landázuri A, Betterton E.A, Sáez A.E. A review on the importance of metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust and aerosol from mining operations. Sci Total Environ 2012; 433:58-73.
  • [28] Csavina J, Taylor MP, Félix 0, Rine K.P, Sáez AE, Betterton EA. Size-resolved dust and aerosol contaminants associted with copper and lead smelting emissions: implications for emission management and human health. Sci Total Environ 2014; 493:750-756.
  • [29] Chen Y.M, Gao J, Yuan Y.Q, Ma J, Yu S. Relationship between heavymetal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: implications for metal pollution assessment. Cont Shelf Res 2016; 124:125-133.
  • [30] Shahid M, Khalid S, Abbas G, Shahid N, Nadeem M, Sabir M, Aslam M, Dumat C. Heavy metal stress and crop productivity in: (K.R. Hakeem Ed.) Crop Production and Global Enviranmental Issues SE-1. Springer Intern Publish 2015; 1-25.
  • [31] Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Cetin M. The use of perennial needles as biomonitors for recently accumulated heavy metals. Landsc Ecol Eng 2018; 14(1): 115-120.
  • [32] Seven T, Can B, Darende BN, Ocak S. Hava ve Toprakta Ağır Metal Kirliliği. Nation J Environ Sci Res 2018; 1(2): 91-103.
  • [33] Sharma P, Dubey R.S. Lead toxicity in plants. Broz J Plant Physiol 2005; 17(1):35-52.
  • [34] Kabir AM, Iqbal MZ, Shafiq M. Effects of lead on seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L. Plant Soil Environ 2010; 4: 194-199.
  • [35] Pak O. Kırklareli Sınırları İçerisindeki Otoban Kenarlarında Bulunan Tarım Arazilerinde Bazı Ağır Metal Kirliliğinin Araştırılması. MSc, Namık Kemal University Tekirdağ, 2011.
  • [36] Kahvecioğlu Ö, Kartal G, Güven A, Timur S. Metallerin Çevre Etkileri-1. UCBAD 2003; 136:4-53.
  • [37] Kacar B, Katkat V. Bitki Besleme 1. Baskı, 849, Nobel Yayın, İstanbul, 2006.
  • [38] Gouia H, Garbel MH, Meyer C. Effects of cadmium on activity of nitrate reductase and on other enzymes of the nitrate assimilation pathway in bean. Plant Physiol Biochem 2000; 38: 629-638.
  • [39] Vajpayee P, Dhawan A, Shanker R. Evaluation of the Alkaline Comet Assay Conducted With the Wetlands Plant Bacopa monnieri L. as a Model for Ecogenotoxicity Assessment. Environ Molecul Mutagen 2006; 47: 483- 489.
  • [40] Kimbrough DE, Cohen Y, Winer AM, Creelman L, Mabuni C. A ciritical assessment of chromium in the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci 2009; 29(1):1-49.
  • [41] Abedin MJ, Cotter- Howells J, Meharg AA. Arsenic Accumulation and Metabolism in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Soil 2002; 240:311-319.
  • [42] FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards Codex Stan-179, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003.
  • [43] Turkey Soil Pollution Control Regulation (TSP 24609) From the Ministry of Environment, Official Gazzette, No: 24609, Date: 10.12.2001.
  • [44] Naser HM, Sultana S, Mahmud NU, Gomes R, Noor S. Heavy metal levels in vegetables with growth stage and plant species variations. Bangladesh J Agric Res 2012; 36(4): 563–574.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Environmental Sciences
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Rüfeyde IŞIK This is me 0000-0002-3381-4196

Zeliha LEBLEBİCİ 0000-0002-6127-3809

Project Number TEZ22F5
Publication Date January 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 12 Issue: 1

Cite

APA IŞIK, R., & LEBLEBİCİ, Z. (2023). USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji, 12(1), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.18036/estubtdc.1211466
AMA IŞIK R, LEBLEBİCİ Z. USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji. January 2023;12(1):42-52. doi:10.18036/estubtdc.1211466
Chicago IŞIK, Rüfeyde, and Zeliha LEBLEBİCİ. “USING Tilia Tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY”. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji 12, no. 1 (January 2023): 42-52. https://doi.org/10.18036/estubtdc.1211466.
EndNote IŞIK R, LEBLEBİCİ Z (January 1, 2023) USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji 12 1 42–52.
IEEE R. IŞIK and Z. LEBLEBİCİ, “USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY”, Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 42–52, 2023, doi: 10.18036/estubtdc.1211466.
ISNAD IŞIK, Rüfeyde - LEBLEBİCİ, Zeliha. “USING Tilia Tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY”. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji 12/1 (January 2023), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.18036/estubtdc.1211466.
JAMA IŞIK R, LEBLEBİCİ Z. USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji. 2023;12:42–52.
MLA IŞIK, Rüfeyde and Zeliha LEBLEBİCİ. “USING Tilia Tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY”. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji, vol. 12, no. 1, 2023, pp. 42-52, doi:10.18036/estubtdc.1211466.
Vancouver IŞIK R, LEBLEBİCİ Z. USING Tilia tomentosa IN HEAVY METAL POLLUTION MONITORING IN ANKARA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi - C Yaşam Bilimleri Ve Biyoteknoloji. 2023;12(1):42-5.