Research Article
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İlkokullarda Açık Teneffüs Alanlarının Mekansal Kullanımları ve Yeterlilikleri Üzerine Bir İrdeleme: Üsküdar Örneği

Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1, 74 - 96, 28.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.626407

Abstract

Türkiye’de eğitim sistemi yıllar içerisinde pek çok kez değişim göstermiştir. Uygulanan müfredat, sınav sistemi, okulların kimliği çok sık değişmekte; buna karşılık eğitim yapılarımız bu değişime her zaman yanıt verememektedir. Mekân yetersizlikleri sonucu, bazı okullarda öğrencilerin ders dışı kullandıkları birimler kısıtlandırılmakta ve böylelikle derslik mekânları arttırılmaktadır. Bu durum, daha çok öğrencinin kullandığı daha yüksek katlı yapılar ve daha az açık alanları beraberinde getirmektedir. Okullarda yapılan gözlem ve araştırmalar sonucu, teneffüs mekânlarının mimari olumsuzluklar ve yetersizlikler barındırdığı fark edilmiştir. Çalışma bu tespit çerçevesinde ele alınmıştır. İlkokul bahçelerinin planlama ve tasarım kriterlerinin ulusal, uluslararası ve akademik standartlar bakımından analizi yapılarak, yeterlilik düzeylerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda literatürde eksik olarak görülen noktalardan biri ülkemizde kentleşme problemlerinin en çok görüldüğü, en kalabalık şehrimiz olan İstanbul’da yer alan ilkokul bahçeleri hakkında yapılan çalışmaların azlığıdır.  Çalışma bu doğrultuda İstanbul ilinin Üsküdar ilçesinde yer alan resmi ilkokulları inceleyerek literatüre katkı sağlamayı hedeflemektedir. Gerçekleştirilen alan çalışmasında nicel ve nitel araştırma yöntemleri birlikte kullanılmıştır. Okulların proje çizimlerinin temininin ardından, farklı gün ve saatlerde yerinde gözlem ve eskiz çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, okul bahçelerindeki mevcut eksiklikler tanımlanmıştır.

References

  • Aksu, Ö. V. & Demirel Ö. (2011). The design and land usage of the primary school gardens in Trabzon. Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Forestry Journal, 12, 40-46.
  • Algan, H. & Uslu, C. (2009). Designing Primary Schoolyards with the Stakeholder Participation: Adana Sample.’’ Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, 22(2), 129-140.
  • Bradley, L.K. (1995). Tierra Buena, the creation of urban wildlife habitat in an elementary school in the inner city. Children's Environments, 12(2), 102-110.
  • Bunting, T.E. & Cousins L.R. (1985). Environmental dispositions among school-age children: A preliminary Investigation. Environment and Behavior, 17(6), 725-68.
  • Burke, C. (2005). Play in focus: children researching their own spaces and places for play. Children, Youth and Environments, 15(1), 27-53.
  • Çetiner, A. (1972). Şehircilik Çalışmalarında Donatım İlkeleri. Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University Printing House.
  • Erdönmez, İ. M. Ö. (2007). Landscape Designing Norms for Elemantary School Gardens. Istanbul University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 57(1), 107-122.
  • Harvey, M.R. (1989). The Relationship between children's experiences with vegetation on school grounds and their environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(2), 9-15.
  • http://www.toxel.com/tech/2011/03/12/pop-up-street-furniture/> erişim tarihi 23.10.2017
  • http://flexiblecity.wordpress.com/2011/03/27/urban-furniture/> erişim tarihi 14.09.2017
  • Karabey, H. (2004). Eğitim Yapıları: Geleceğin Okullarını Planlamak ve Tasarlamak Çağdaş Yaklaşımlar, İlkeler. Literature Publishing, Istanbul.
  • Kelkit, A. & Özel, E. (2003). A research on the determination of physical planning of school gardens in Çanakkale city. Pakistan Journal of Applied Science, 3(4), 240-246.
  • Kellert, S.R. (1985). Attitudes toward animals: age-related development among children. Journal of Environmental Education, 16(3), 29-39.
  • MEB. (2015) Eğitim Yapıları Asgari Tasarım Standartları 2015 Yılı Kılavuzu. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, Ankara.
  • Moore, G. T. (1986). Effects of the spatial definition of behavior settings on children’s behavior: a quasi-experimental field study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6(3), 205-231.
  • Özdemir, A. & Yılmaz, O. (2009). Investigation of the Effects of Primary School Gardens on Child Development and Healthy Life. Journal of National Education, 181, 121-130.
  • Özgen, Y. & Aytuğ, A. (1992). A review of children's playgrounds and tools in terms of user trends. Istanbul University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 42(2), 99-118.
  • Özyaba, M. (1998). Define of Design Criterias and The Standarts of Open Areas of Elemantary School. MSc. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical Unversity, Trabzon.
  • Özyorgun A. & Batuk F. (2007). Trabzon Explication of Public Facility Standards of Primary Schools and The Application by GIS TMMOB HKMO National CBS Congress, Karadeniz Technical University, October.
  • Pellegrini, A. D. (2005). Recess: Its role in education and development. Psychology Press, London.
  • Stoneham, J. (1996). Grounds for Sharing: A Guide to Developing Special School Sites. Learning through Landscape Trust, United Kingdom.
  • Temel, S. C. (2018). Site Plan Decisions of Primary Schools and Effects on The Design of Open-Closed Break Areas as a Place of Education. MSc. Thesis, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul.
  • Titman, W. (1994). Special places; special people: The hidden curriculum of school grounds. Godalming: World Wide Fund for Nature.
  • Yılmaz, O. & Ertürk, F. (2016). Çanakkale Kent Merkezindeki Kamusal Açık Yeşil Alanlardan Okul Bahçelerinin Yeterlilikleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(2), 45-55.
  • Yüce, N. (2009). The Assesment of Convenience of the Physical Conditions In Elementary Schools To Educational Programs And Student Requirements. MSc. Thesis, Yeditepe University, Istanbul.
  • Zengin, F. (2015). Evaluation of Primary Schools’ Open Space Performance and Design Principles for Schoolyards. PhD Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul.

Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar

Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1, 74 - 96, 28.01.2020
https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.626407

Abstract

The education system in Turkey has shown many changes over the years. Curriculum applied, examination system, schools' identity change very often; however, our educational structures are not always able to respond to these changes. As a result of the lack of space, apart from the classrooms, the units used by students in some schools are restricted thus the number of classrooms is increased as a solution. This situation leads to higher-rise buildings and less open spaces used by more students. As a result of the observations and researches carried out in the schools, it has been noticed that the places used for breaks have architectural disadvantages as well as inadequacies. The study has been handled within the framework of this outcome. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the planning and design criteria of primary school gardens in terms of national, international and academic standards, and to determine their proficiency levels. One of the points that are considered to be incomplete in the literature in this regard is the scarcity of studies on primary school gardens in Istanbul, which has the greatest urbanization problem in our country as being the most populous city of Turkey.  In this direction, the study aimed to contribute to the literature by examining the public primary schools in Üsküdar district of Istanbul. In the field study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. Following the supply of the project drawings of the schools, on-site observation and sketch studies were carried out on different days and hours. As a result of the study, the current situation and deficiencies in school gardens were identified.

References

  • Aksu, Ö. V. & Demirel Ö. (2011). The design and land usage of the primary school gardens in Trabzon. Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Forestry Journal, 12, 40-46.
  • Algan, H. & Uslu, C. (2009). Designing Primary Schoolyards with the Stakeholder Participation: Adana Sample.’’ Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, 22(2), 129-140.
  • Bradley, L.K. (1995). Tierra Buena, the creation of urban wildlife habitat in an elementary school in the inner city. Children's Environments, 12(2), 102-110.
  • Bunting, T.E. & Cousins L.R. (1985). Environmental dispositions among school-age children: A preliminary Investigation. Environment and Behavior, 17(6), 725-68.
  • Burke, C. (2005). Play in focus: children researching their own spaces and places for play. Children, Youth and Environments, 15(1), 27-53.
  • Çetiner, A. (1972). Şehircilik Çalışmalarında Donatım İlkeleri. Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University Printing House.
  • Erdönmez, İ. M. Ö. (2007). Landscape Designing Norms for Elemantary School Gardens. Istanbul University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 57(1), 107-122.
  • Harvey, M.R. (1989). The Relationship between children's experiences with vegetation on school grounds and their environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(2), 9-15.
  • http://www.toxel.com/tech/2011/03/12/pop-up-street-furniture/> erişim tarihi 23.10.2017
  • http://flexiblecity.wordpress.com/2011/03/27/urban-furniture/> erişim tarihi 14.09.2017
  • Karabey, H. (2004). Eğitim Yapıları: Geleceğin Okullarını Planlamak ve Tasarlamak Çağdaş Yaklaşımlar, İlkeler. Literature Publishing, Istanbul.
  • Kelkit, A. & Özel, E. (2003). A research on the determination of physical planning of school gardens in Çanakkale city. Pakistan Journal of Applied Science, 3(4), 240-246.
  • Kellert, S.R. (1985). Attitudes toward animals: age-related development among children. Journal of Environmental Education, 16(3), 29-39.
  • MEB. (2015) Eğitim Yapıları Asgari Tasarım Standartları 2015 Yılı Kılavuzu. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, Ankara.
  • Moore, G. T. (1986). Effects of the spatial definition of behavior settings on children’s behavior: a quasi-experimental field study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6(3), 205-231.
  • Özdemir, A. & Yılmaz, O. (2009). Investigation of the Effects of Primary School Gardens on Child Development and Healthy Life. Journal of National Education, 181, 121-130.
  • Özgen, Y. & Aytuğ, A. (1992). A review of children's playgrounds and tools in terms of user trends. Istanbul University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 42(2), 99-118.
  • Özyaba, M. (1998). Define of Design Criterias and The Standarts of Open Areas of Elemantary School. MSc. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical Unversity, Trabzon.
  • Özyorgun A. & Batuk F. (2007). Trabzon Explication of Public Facility Standards of Primary Schools and The Application by GIS TMMOB HKMO National CBS Congress, Karadeniz Technical University, October.
  • Pellegrini, A. D. (2005). Recess: Its role in education and development. Psychology Press, London.
  • Stoneham, J. (1996). Grounds for Sharing: A Guide to Developing Special School Sites. Learning through Landscape Trust, United Kingdom.
  • Temel, S. C. (2018). Site Plan Decisions of Primary Schools and Effects on The Design of Open-Closed Break Areas as a Place of Education. MSc. Thesis, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul.
  • Titman, W. (1994). Special places; special people: The hidden curriculum of school grounds. Godalming: World Wide Fund for Nature.
  • Yılmaz, O. & Ertürk, F. (2016). Çanakkale Kent Merkezindeki Kamusal Açık Yeşil Alanlardan Okul Bahçelerinin Yeterlilikleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(2), 45-55.
  • Yüce, N. (2009). The Assesment of Convenience of the Physical Conditions In Elementary Schools To Educational Programs And Student Requirements. MSc. Thesis, Yeditepe University, Istanbul.
  • Zengin, F. (2015). Evaluation of Primary Schools’ Open Space Performance and Design Principles for Schoolyards. PhD Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Architecture
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Selda Cansu TEMEL> (Primary Author)
Karabük Üniversitesi
0000-0001-5712-9778
Türkiye

Publication Date January 28, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { grid626407, journal = {GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal}, eissn = {2619-9556}, address = {Çankaya Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Balgat Kampüsü, Öğretmenler Caddesi, No: 14, 06530 Balgat/ANKARA/TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Cankaya University}, year = {2020}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, pages = {74 - 96}, doi = {10.37246/grid.626407}, title = {Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar}, key = {cite}, author = {Temel, Selda Cansu} }
APA Temel, S. C. (2020). Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar . GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal , 3 (1) , 74-96 . DOI: 10.37246/grid.626407
MLA Temel, S. C. "Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar" . GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 3 (2020 ): 74-96 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/grid/issue/52111/626407>
Chicago Temel, S. C. "Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar". GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 3 (2020 ): 74-96
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar AU - Selda CansuTemel Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.37246/grid.626407 DO - 10.37246/grid.626407 T2 - GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 74 EP - 96 VL - 3 IS - 1 SN - -2619-9556 M3 - doi: 10.37246/grid.626407 UR - https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.626407 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar %A Selda Cansu Temel %T Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar %D 2020 %J GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal %P -2619-9556 %V 3 %N 1 %R doi: 10.37246/grid.626407 %U 10.37246/grid.626407
ISNAD Temel, Selda Cansu . "Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar". GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 3 / 1 (January 2020): 74-96 . https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.626407
AMA Temel S. C. Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar. GRID. 2020; 3(1): 74-96.
Vancouver Temel S. C. Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar. GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal. 2020; 3(1): 74-96.
IEEE S. C. Temel , "Spatial Usage and Qualifications of Outdoor Recreation Areas in Primary Schools: A Case Study From Üsküdar", GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 74-96, Jan. 2020, doi:10.37246/grid.626407