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Production of reduced calorie purple basil iced tea

Year 2021, Volume 25, Issue 2, 163 - 171, 23.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.798081

Abstract

In this study, the sensory acceptability of low-calorie iced teas developed with purple basil extract (MRE) and sugar alcohols was investigated. The reference formulation (T3) (MRE: citric acid: sucrose, 1.5: 0.15: 8,%, (v: w: w) / v)) was determined as a result of the preliminary sensory evaluations of iced teas prepared in 9 different formulations with MRE, citric acid and sucrose. Low calorie iced teas prepared using sorbitol (T4) and xylitol (T5) were compared with the reference sample (T3) in sensory aspects. According to the results of the sensory analysis, it was determined by the panelists that iced teas produced with sugar alcohols highlight the aroma and taste of basil more than those produced using sucrose, and they received more appreciation. It has been concluded that purple basil iced tea can be a good alternative to other iced or hot beverages due to the fact that it contains phenolic compounds of basil and its calorie reduction due to the use of sugar alcohols.

References

  • Alaşalvar, H., & Çam, M. (2020). Ready to drink iced teas from microencapsulated spearmint ( Mentha spicata L .) and peppermint ( Mentha piperita L .) extracts : physicochemical , bioactive and sensory characterization. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14(3), 1366-1375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00386-4
  • Bello, F., Vázquez, D. E., Almirón, N., Cocco, M., & Meier, G. E. (2015). Sensorial Analysis as an Instrument for Color Measurement in “Satsuma” and “Nova” Mandarın Fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 1065(1065), 1491–1496. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1065.189
  • Butt, M. S., Pasha, I., Tufail, F., & Anjum, F. M. (2002). Use of low absorptive sweeteners in cakes. International J Agriculture and Biology, 4(2), 249–251.
  • Cammenga, H. K., Figura, L. O., & Zielasko, B. (1996). Thermal behaviour of some sugar alcohols. Journal of Thermal Analysis, 47(2), 427–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01983984
  • Cemeroğlu, B. S., Gıda Analizleri, Ankara Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi, Ankara, 2013.
  • Cheng, N., Barbano, D. M., & Drake, M. A. (2018). Hunter versus CIE color measurement systems for analysis of milk-based beverages. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(6), 4891–4905. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14197
  • de Beer, D., Pauck, C. E., Aucamp, M., Liebenberg, W., Stieger, N., van der Rijst, M., & Joubert, E. (2018). Phenolic and physicochemical stability of a functional beverage powder mixture during storage: effect of the microencapsulant inulin and food ingredients. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(8), 2925–2934. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8787
  • DellaValle, D. M., Malek, A. M., Hunt, K. J., Peter, J. Vs., Greenberg, D., & Marriott, B. P. (2018). Low-calorie sweeteners in foods, beverages, and food and beverage additions: NHANES 2007-2012. Current Developments in Nutrition, 2(12), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy024
  • Diffy, V.B., & G.H. Anderson, (1998). Use of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 580–7.
  • Flanigan, P. M., & Niemeyer, E. D. (2014). Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Food Chemistry, 164, 518–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.061
  • Gaikwad, K. (2012). Studies on the Development and Shelf Life of Low Calorie Herbal Aonla- Ginger RTS Beverage by Using Artificial Sweeteners. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 4(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000200
  • Godswill, A. C. (2017). Sugar Alcohols : Chemistry , Production , Health Concerns and Nutritional Importance of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Erythritol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 3(2), 31–66.
  • Grembecka, M. (2015). Sugar alcohols—their role in the modern world of sweeteners: a review. European Food Research and Technology, 241(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2437-7
  • Gürkan, H., Boran, O. S., & Hayaloğlu, A. A. (2019). Influence of purple basil extract (Ocimum basilicum L.) on chemical composition, rheology and antioxidant activity of set-type yoghurt. Mljekarstvo, 69(1), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.15567
  • Kim, S., Kim, M., Song, Y. B., Cho, M. K., & Song, Y. O. (2016). Development of low calorie roasted radish tea beverage with anti-oxidant activity. Food Science and Biotechnology, 25, 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0107-6
  • Koroch, A. R., Simon, J. E., & Juliani, H. R. (2017). Essential oil composition of purple basils, their reverted green varieties (Ocimum basilicum) and their associated biological activity. Industrial Crops and Products, 107(2017), 526–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.04.066
  • Kroger, M., Meister, K., & Kava, R. (2006). Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: A review of the safety issues. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 5(2), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00081.x
  • Özünlü, O., & Ergezer, H. (2019). İnfüzyon Yöntemi Kullanılarak Kurutulmuş Enginar Çanak Yaprağı Katkılı Soğuk Yeşil Çay Üretimi. Akademik Gıda, 17(4), 458–467. https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.667257
  • Pedro, A. C., Moreira, F., Granato, D., & Rosso, N. D. (2016). Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 88(2), 1055–1068. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620150197
  • Phippen, W. B., & Simon, J. E. (1998). Anthocyanins in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5), 1734–1738. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970887r
  • Prinsi, B., Morgutti, S., Negrini, N., Faoro, F., & Espen, L. (2020). Insight into composition of bioactive phenolic compounds in leaves and flowers of green and purple basil. Plants, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010022
  • Samaniego-Vaesken, M. de L., Partearroyo, T., Cano, A., Urrialde, R., & Varela-Moreiras, G. (2019). Novel database of declared low- and no-calorie sweeteners from foods and beverages available in Spain. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 82, 103234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103234
  • Sylvetsky, A. C., & Rother, K. I. (2016). Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners. Physiology and Behavior, 164, 446–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.03.030
  • Szymanowska, U., Złotek, U., Karas̈, M., & Baraniak, B. (2015). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil leaves induced by selected abiotic elicitors. Food Chemistry, 172, 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.043
  • Toğrul, Ö. & Hayoğlu, İ. (2020). Yeni bir izotonik içecek olarak; nar, kızılcık ve karadut suları ile zenginleştirilmiş elma suyu üretim olanakları. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, 24(2): 165-173. DOI: 10.29050/harranziraat.622179
  • Warshaw, H. S., & Powers, M. A. (1999). A search for answers about foods with polyols. The Diabetes Educator, 25, 307–21
  • Wu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Han, J., Liu, Y., Hu, Y., & Ni, L. (2014). Extraction and preliminary purification of anthocyanins from grape juice in aqueous two-phase system. Separation and Purification Technology, 124, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.01.025
  • Yu, P., Yeo, A. S. L., Low, M. Y., & Zhou, W. (2014). Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile. Food Chemistry, 155, 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.046
  • Złotek, U., Szychowski, K. A., & Świeca, M. (2017). Potential in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer effect of arachidonic acid-elicited basil leaves. Journal of Functional Foods, 36, 290–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.07.024
  • Złotek, U., Szymanowska, U., Karaś, M., & Świeca, M. (2016). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of phenolics from purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves induced by jasmonic, arachidonic and β-aminobutyric acid elicitation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 163–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12970

Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi

Year 2021, Volume 25, Issue 2, 163 - 171, 23.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.798081

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, mor reyhan ekstraktı (MRE) ve şeker alkolleri ile geliştirilen düşük kalorili soğuk çayların duyusal kabul edilebilirlikleri araştırılmıştır. MRE, sitrik asit ve sakaroz ile 9 farklı formülasyonda hazırlanan soğuk çayların ön duyusal değerlendirmeleri sonucu referans formülasyon (T3) (MRE: sitrik asit: sakaroz, 1.5: 0.15: 8, %, (v: w: w) / v)) belirlenmiştir. Sorbitol (T4) ve ksilitol (T5) kullanılarak hazırlanan düşük kalorili soğuk çaylar referans örnek (T3) ile duyusal açıdan karşılaştırılmıştır. Duyusal analiz sonuçlarına göre şeker alkolleri ile üretilen soğuk çayların sakaroz kullanılarak üretilene göre reyhanın aroma ve tadını daha çok öne çıkardığı ve daha çok beğeni aldıkları panelistlerce belirlenmiştir. Mor reyhan soğuk çayı, hem reyhanın sahip olduğu fenolik bileşikleri içermesi hem de şeker alkolleri kullanımı sonucu kalorisinin azaltılması ile diğer soğuk ya da sıcak olarak tüketilen içeceklere iyi bir alternatif olabilecek nitelikte bir içecek olabileceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

References

  • Alaşalvar, H., & Çam, M. (2020). Ready to drink iced teas from microencapsulated spearmint ( Mentha spicata L .) and peppermint ( Mentha piperita L .) extracts : physicochemical , bioactive and sensory characterization. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14(3), 1366-1375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00386-4
  • Bello, F., Vázquez, D. E., Almirón, N., Cocco, M., & Meier, G. E. (2015). Sensorial Analysis as an Instrument for Color Measurement in “Satsuma” and “Nova” Mandarın Fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 1065(1065), 1491–1496. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1065.189
  • Butt, M. S., Pasha, I., Tufail, F., & Anjum, F. M. (2002). Use of low absorptive sweeteners in cakes. International J Agriculture and Biology, 4(2), 249–251.
  • Cammenga, H. K., Figura, L. O., & Zielasko, B. (1996). Thermal behaviour of some sugar alcohols. Journal of Thermal Analysis, 47(2), 427–434. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01983984
  • Cemeroğlu, B. S., Gıda Analizleri, Ankara Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi, Ankara, 2013.
  • Cheng, N., Barbano, D. M., & Drake, M. A. (2018). Hunter versus CIE color measurement systems for analysis of milk-based beverages. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(6), 4891–4905. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14197
  • de Beer, D., Pauck, C. E., Aucamp, M., Liebenberg, W., Stieger, N., van der Rijst, M., & Joubert, E. (2018). Phenolic and physicochemical stability of a functional beverage powder mixture during storage: effect of the microencapsulant inulin and food ingredients. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(8), 2925–2934. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8787
  • DellaValle, D. M., Malek, A. M., Hunt, K. J., Peter, J. Vs., Greenberg, D., & Marriott, B. P. (2018). Low-calorie sweeteners in foods, beverages, and food and beverage additions: NHANES 2007-2012. Current Developments in Nutrition, 2(12), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy024
  • Diffy, V.B., & G.H. Anderson, (1998). Use of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 580–7.
  • Flanigan, P. M., & Niemeyer, E. D. (2014). Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Food Chemistry, 164, 518–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.061
  • Gaikwad, K. (2012). Studies on the Development and Shelf Life of Low Calorie Herbal Aonla- Ginger RTS Beverage by Using Artificial Sweeteners. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 4(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000200
  • Godswill, A. C. (2017). Sugar Alcohols : Chemistry , Production , Health Concerns and Nutritional Importance of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Erythritol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 3(2), 31–66.
  • Grembecka, M. (2015). Sugar alcohols—their role in the modern world of sweeteners: a review. European Food Research and Technology, 241(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2437-7
  • Gürkan, H., Boran, O. S., & Hayaloğlu, A. A. (2019). Influence of purple basil extract (Ocimum basilicum L.) on chemical composition, rheology and antioxidant activity of set-type yoghurt. Mljekarstvo, 69(1), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.15567
  • Kim, S., Kim, M., Song, Y. B., Cho, M. K., & Song, Y. O. (2016). Development of low calorie roasted radish tea beverage with anti-oxidant activity. Food Science and Biotechnology, 25, 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0107-6
  • Koroch, A. R., Simon, J. E., & Juliani, H. R. (2017). Essential oil composition of purple basils, their reverted green varieties (Ocimum basilicum) and their associated biological activity. Industrial Crops and Products, 107(2017), 526–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.04.066
  • Kroger, M., Meister, K., & Kava, R. (2006). Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: A review of the safety issues. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 5(2), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00081.x
  • Özünlü, O., & Ergezer, H. (2019). İnfüzyon Yöntemi Kullanılarak Kurutulmuş Enginar Çanak Yaprağı Katkılı Soğuk Yeşil Çay Üretimi. Akademik Gıda, 17(4), 458–467. https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.667257
  • Pedro, A. C., Moreira, F., Granato, D., & Rosso, N. D. (2016). Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 88(2), 1055–1068. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620150197
  • Phippen, W. B., & Simon, J. E. (1998). Anthocyanins in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(5), 1734–1738. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970887r
  • Prinsi, B., Morgutti, S., Negrini, N., Faoro, F., & Espen, L. (2020). Insight into composition of bioactive phenolic compounds in leaves and flowers of green and purple basil. Plants, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010022
  • Samaniego-Vaesken, M. de L., Partearroyo, T., Cano, A., Urrialde, R., & Varela-Moreiras, G. (2019). Novel database of declared low- and no-calorie sweeteners from foods and beverages available in Spain. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 82, 103234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2019.103234
  • Sylvetsky, A. C., & Rother, K. I. (2016). Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners. Physiology and Behavior, 164, 446–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.03.030
  • Szymanowska, U., Złotek, U., Karas̈, M., & Baraniak, B. (2015). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil leaves induced by selected abiotic elicitors. Food Chemistry, 172, 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.043
  • Toğrul, Ö. & Hayoğlu, İ. (2020). Yeni bir izotonik içecek olarak; nar, kızılcık ve karadut suları ile zenginleştirilmiş elma suyu üretim olanakları. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, 24(2): 165-173. DOI: 10.29050/harranziraat.622179
  • Warshaw, H. S., & Powers, M. A. (1999). A search for answers about foods with polyols. The Diabetes Educator, 25, 307–21
  • Wu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Han, J., Liu, Y., Hu, Y., & Ni, L. (2014). Extraction and preliminary purification of anthocyanins from grape juice in aqueous two-phase system. Separation and Purification Technology, 124, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.01.025
  • Yu, P., Yeo, A. S. L., Low, M. Y., & Zhou, W. (2014). Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile. Food Chemistry, 155, 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.046
  • Złotek, U., Szychowski, K. A., & Świeca, M. (2017). Potential in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer effect of arachidonic acid-elicited basil leaves. Journal of Functional Foods, 36, 290–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.07.024
  • Złotek, U., Szymanowska, U., Karaś, M., & Świeca, M. (2016). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of phenolics from purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves induced by jasmonic, arachidonic and β-aminobutyric acid elicitation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 163–170. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12970

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date Haziran 2021
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri
Authors

Esmanur KARATAŞOĞLU
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-2662-4044
Türkiye


Emine DEMİREL
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-1829-5241
Türkiye


Tülay ŞAHİN
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3050-3819
Türkiye


Serap BERKTAŞ (Primary Author)
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ (DR)
0000-0002-5195-0685
Türkiye


Mustafa ÇAM
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-1258-0834
Türkiye

Publication Date June 23, 2021
Application Date September 21, 2020
Acceptance Date April 6, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 25, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { harranziraat798081, journal = {Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2148-5003}, eissn = {2587-1358}, address = {}, publisher = {Harran University}, year = {2021}, volume = {25}, pages = {163 - 171}, doi = {10.29050/harranziraat.798081}, title = {Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi}, key = {cite}, author = {Karataşoğlu, Esmanur and Demirel, Emine and Şahin, Tülay and Berktaş, Serap and Çam, Mustafa} }
APA Karataşoğlu, E. , Demirel, E. , Şahin, T. , Berktaş, S. & Çam, M. (2021). Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi , 25 (2) , 163-171 . DOI: 10.29050/harranziraat.798081
MLA Karataşoğlu, E. , Demirel, E. , Şahin, T. , Berktaş, S. , Çam, M. "Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi" . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 25 (2021 ): 163-171 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/harranziraat/issue/62656/798081>
Chicago Karataşoğlu, E. , Demirel, E. , Şahin, T. , Berktaş, S. , Çam, M. "Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi". Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 25 (2021 ): 163-171
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi AU - Esmanur Karataşoğlu , Emine Demirel , Tülay Şahin , Serap Berktaş , Mustafa Çam Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.798081 DO - 10.29050/harranziraat.798081 T2 - Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 163 EP - 171 VL - 25 IS - 2 SN - 2148-5003-2587-1358 M3 - doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.798081 UR - https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.798081 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Harran Journal of Agricultural and Food Science Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi %A Esmanur Karataşoğlu , Emine Demirel , Tülay Şahin , Serap Berktaş , Mustafa Çam %T Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi %D 2021 %J Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2148-5003-2587-1358 %V 25 %N 2 %R doi: 10.29050/harranziraat.798081 %U 10.29050/harranziraat.798081
ISNAD Karataşoğlu, Esmanur , Demirel, Emine , Şahin, Tülay , Berktaş, Serap , Çam, Mustafa . "Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi". Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi 25 / 2 (June 2021): 163-171 . https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.798081
AMA Karataşoğlu E. , Demirel E. , Şahin T. , Berktaş S. , Çam M. Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 25(2): 163-171.
Vancouver Karataşoğlu E. , Demirel E. , Şahin T. , Berktaş S. , Çam M. Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 25(2): 163-171.
IEEE E. Karataşoğlu , E. Demirel , T. Şahin , S. Berktaş and M. Çam , "Kalorisi azaltılmış mor reyhan soğuk çayı üretimi", Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 163-171, Jun. 2021, doi:10.29050/harranziraat.798081

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