Year 2021, Volume 8 , Issue 1, Pages 71 - 77 2021-03-31

Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode

Ebru GÖKMEŞE [1] , Özlem KURTOĞLU [2] , Faruk GOKMEŞE [3]


A new differential pulse voltammetric method for the determination of clozapine in drug dosage forms has been described. In this study, the amount of clozapine in commercial forms has been determined at bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode by taking advantage of the electrochemical oxidation of it. The glassy carbon electrode was modified with BiCl3 to prepare the bismuth film electrode. The acetate buffer solution at pH = 5.00 was selected as the supporting electrolyte in where the maximum current was observed for clozapine at the bismuth film electrode. The effect of pH on peak current and peak potential of clozapine was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and the effect of scan rate on the peak current was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). With this developed voltammetric method, the detection limit for clozapine in the working range of 1×10-6 M and 10×10-6 M was found to be 6.112×10-9. The amount of clozapine in the drug tablets was stated after the determination of analytical parameters. The recovery study was executed to check the accuracy and precision of the applied method.
Clozapine, bismuth film, drug analysis, modified electrode, differential pulse voltammetry
  • Mohamed A, Sheikka MA. Spectrophotometric determination of clozapine based on its oxidation with bromate in a micellar medium. IL Farmaco, 59 (2004) 907. DOI: 10.1016/j.farmac.2004.07.008.
  • Hammam E, Tawfik A, Ghoneim AA. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric quantification of the antipsychotic drug clozapine in bulk form, pharmaceutical formulation and human serum at a mercury electrode. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biomedical Analysis 36 (2004) 149. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2004.04.012.
  • Güven FM, Birsöz S. Klozapin ve Şizofreni Sağaltımındaki Yeri. Klinik Psikiyatri 4 (2001) 124-128.
  • Lieberman JA, Saltz BL, Johns CA, Pollack S, Borenstein M, Kane J. The effects of clozapine on tardive dyskinesia. The British Journal of Psychiatry 158 (1991) 503. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.158.4.503.
  • Freudenreich O, Henderson DC, Walsh JP, Culhane M.A., Goff DC. Risperidone augmentation for schizophrenia partially responsive to clozapine: A double-blind, placebo-contolled trial. Schizophrenia Research 92 (2007) 90. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2006.12.030
  • Guitton C, Kinowski JM, Regis A., Bressolle F. Determination of clozapine and its major metabolites in human plasma and red blood cells by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection. Journal of Chromatography B 690 (1997) 211-222. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4347(96)00362-3.
  • Taha EA, Soliman SM, Abdellatef HE, Ayad MM. Colorimetric methods for the determination of some tricyclic antidepressant drugs in their pure and dosage forms, Mikrochimica Acta 140 (2002) 175-182. DOI:10.1007/s00604-002-0904.
  • Gosser Jr. DK, Cyclic Voltammetry: Simulation and analysis of reaction mechanisms, VCH Publishers, New York, 1983, ISBN: 978-1560810261.
  • Mashhadizadeh MH, Afshar E. Electrochemical investigation of clozapine at TiO2 nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode and simultaneous adsorptive voltammetric determination of two antipsychotic drugs. Electrochimica Acta 87 (2013) 816. DOI: 10.4103/2229-5186.79345.
  • Weber JM, Volke J. 75 years in the polarography of pharmaceuticals and physiologically active substances. Pharmazie 46 (1991) 853.
  • Edno L, Combourieu I, Cazenave M, Tignol J. Assay for quantitation of clozapine and its metabolite N-desmethyl clozapine in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 16 (1997) 311. DOI: 10.1016/s0731-7085(97)00048-4.
  • Raggi MA, Bugamelli F, Mandrioli R, Sabbioni C, Volterra V, Fanali S. Rapid capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of clozapine and desmethylclozapine in human plasma, Journal of Chromatography A 916 (2001) 289-296. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00520-9.
  • Elqudaby HM, Mohamed GG, El-Din GMG. Electrochemical behaviour of trimebutine at activated glassy carbon electrode and its direct determination in ürine and pharmaceutics by square wave and differential pulse voltammetry. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 9 (2014) 856-869.
  • Demirbilek E, Saglıkoglu G, Yılmaz S. Electrochemical investigation of isoniazid on poly (p-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) film modified glassy carbon electrode. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 10 (2015) 4428-4438.
  • Shahrokhian S, Kamalzadeh Z, Hamzehloei A. Electrochemical determination of clozapine on MWCNTs/New coccine doped PPY modified GCE: An experimental design approach, Bioelectrochemistry 90 (2013) 36. DOI: 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2012.10.002.
  • Tammari E, Neshadali A, Lotfi S, Veisi H. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on magnetic nanocomposite Fe3O4/β-Alanine/Pd modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of the nanomolar level of clozapine in biological model and pharmaceutical samples. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemistry 241 (2017) 879. DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.11.014.
  • Gökmeşe F, Gökmeşe E, Emire Z. A simple and rapid method for preparing carbon nanopore electrode ensemble coating a glassy carbon electrode with chromate. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 3 (2016) 1. DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000025.
  • Bard AJ, Faulkner LR. Electrochemical Methods; Fundamentals and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 2001, ISBN: 0-471-04372-9, page 833.
  • Shrivastava A., Gupta VB. Methods for the determination of limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Chronicles of Young Scientists 2 (2011) 21. DOI: 10.4103/2229-5186.79345.
  • K. Farhadi, A. Karimpour, Electrochemical behavior and determination of clozapine on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electrochemical oxidation, Anal. Sci. 23, (2007) 479.
  • N.P. Shetti, D.S. Nayak, S.J. Malode, R.M. Kulkarni, An electrochemical sensor for clozapine at ruthenium doped TiO2 nanoparticles modified electrode, Sensors and Actuators B: Chem., 247 (2017) 858.
Primary Language en
Subjects Basic Sciences
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5807-3494
Author: Ebru GÖKMEŞE (Primary Author)
Institution: HITIT UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-4647-3172
Author: Özlem KURTOĞLU
Institution: HİTİT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-0275-3941
Author: Faruk GOKMEŞE
Institution: HITIT UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : January 20, 2021
Acceptance Date : March 6, 2021
Publication Date : March 31, 2021

Bibtex @research article { hjse865685, journal = {Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-4171}, address = {Hitit Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Kuzey Kampüsü Çevre Yolu Bulvarı 19030 Çorum / TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Hitit University}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {71 - 77}, doi = {10.17350/HJSE19030000215}, title = {Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode}, key = {cite}, author = {Gökmeşe, Ebru and Kurtoğlu, Özlem and Gokmeşe, Faruk} }
APA Gökmeşe, E , Kurtoğlu, Ö , Gokmeşe, F . (2021). Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering , 8 (1) , 71-77 . DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000215
MLA Gökmeşe, E , Kurtoğlu, Ö , Gokmeşe, F . "Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode" . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 8 (2021 ): 71-77 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hjse/issue/61101/865685>
Chicago Gökmeşe, E , Kurtoğlu, Ö , Gokmeşe, F . "Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 8 (2021 ): 71-77
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode AU - Ebru Gökmeşe , Özlem Kurtoğlu , Faruk Gokmeşe Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000215 DO - 10.17350/HJSE19030000215 T2 - Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 71 EP - 77 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - -2148-4171 M3 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000215 UR - https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000215 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode %A Ebru Gökmeşe , Özlem Kurtoğlu , Faruk Gokmeşe %T Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode %D 2021 %J Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering %P -2148-4171 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000215 %U 10.17350/HJSE19030000215
ISNAD Gökmeşe, Ebru , Kurtoğlu, Özlem , Gokmeşe, Faruk . "Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 8 / 1 (March 2021): 71-77 . https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000215
AMA Gökmeşe E , Kurtoğlu Ö , Gokmeşe F . Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode. Hittite J Sci Eng. 2021; 8(1): 71-77.
Vancouver Gökmeşe E , Kurtoğlu Ö , Gokmeşe F . Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering. 2021; 8(1): 71-77.
IEEE E. Gökmeşe , Ö. Kurtoğlu and F. Gokmeşe , "Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Clozapine in Drug Dosage Forms at Bismuth Film Electrode", Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 71-77, Mar. 2021, doi:10.17350/HJSE19030000215