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Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 37 - 44, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000253

Abstract

References

  • 1. Gold NA, Mirza TM, Avva U. Alcohol sanitizer. StatPearls Publishing. Treasure Island (FL), (2020)
  • 2. Nyamwweya NN, Abuga KO. Alcohol-Based hand sanitizers – A multidimensional perspective. Preprints (2020)
  • 3. Hilburn J, Hammond BS, Fendler EJ, Groziak PA. Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility. American Journal of Infection Control 31-2, (2003) 109–116.
  • 4. WHO. Guide to local production: WHO-recommended handrub formulations (PDF). April (2010). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  • 5. Thomson E, Bullied A. Production of Ethanol-based hand sanitizer in breweries during the COVID-19 crisis, Technical Quarterly 57, (2020) 47-52.
  • 6. WHO. Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, Part I, Chapter 10, (2019) 28.
  • 7. Biyosidal ürünlerin kullanım usul ve esasları hakkında yönetmelik. (2019) https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/07/20190704-2.html (date of access: 01 Aug 2021)
  • 8. Pragst F, Auwaerter V, Sporkert F, Spiegel K. Analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as possible markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forensic Science International 121(1-2), (2001) 76–88.
  • 9. Bouche MP, Lambert WE, Van Bocxlaer JF, Piette MH, De Leenheer AP. Quantitative determination of n-propane, isobutane and n-butane by headspace GC-MS in intoxications by inhalation of lighter fluid. J. Anal. Toxicol 26, (2002) 35-42. 10. Stambouli A, El Bouri A, Bouayoun T, Bellimam MA. Headspace-GC/MS detection of TATP traces in post-explosion debris, Forensic Science International 146 S (2004) 191-194.
  • 11. Wang Y, McCaffrey J, Norwood DL. Recent advances in headspace gas chromatography. Journal of liquid chromatography related technologies 31 (2008), 1823-1851.
  • 12. Joshi M, Rigsby K, Almirall JR. Analysis of the headspace composition of smokeless powders using GC-MS, GC-𝜇ECD and ion mobility spectrometry. Forensic Science International 208 (2011) 29-36.
  • 13. Desharnais B. Huppé G. Lamarche M, Mireault P, Skinner CD. Cyanide quantification in post-mortem biological matrices by headspace GC-MS. Forensic Science International 222, 1-3, (2012) 346–351.
  • 14. Wu SH, Chi JH, Wu YT, Huang YH, Chu FJ, Horng JJ. Thermal hazard analysis of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by DSC and GC/MS. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 25(2012) 1069-1074.
  • 15. Almog J, Espino D, Tamiri T, Sonenfeld D. Trace analysis of urea nitrate in post-blast debris by GC/MS. Forensic Science International 224 (2013) 80-83.
  • 16. Lennert E, Bridge C. Analysis and classification of smokeless powders by GC-MS and DART-TOFMS. Forensic Science International 292 (2018) 11-22.
  • 17. Bedner M, Murray J, Urbas AA, MacCrehan WA, Wilson, WB. Comparison of measurement methods for alcohol-based hand sanitizers, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2021).
  • 18. Topçu G, Barla A, Gören AC, Bilsel G, Tümen G. Analysis of the essential oil composition of Sideritis albiflora using direct thermal desorption and headspace GC-MS techniques. Turk J Chem, 29 (2005) 525 – 529.
  • 19. Özkahraman B, Tamahkar E, İdil N, Kılıç-Suloglu A, Perçin, I. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid nanoparticle embedded chitosan–gelatin hydrogels for antibiotic release. Drug Development Research (2020).
  • 20. Traoré O, Allaert FA, Fournet-Fayard S, Verrière JL, Laveran H. Comparison of in-vivo antibacterial activity of two skin disinfection procedures for insertion of peripheral catheters: Povidone iodine versus chlorhexidine. Journal of Hospital Infection 44(2), (2000) 147–150.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 37 - 44, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000253

Abstract

With the rapid and alarming spread of the SARS-Cov-2 (Covid-19) virus from the coronavirus family, it was necessary to take serious measures in China at the end of 2019, in the world as of March 2020. The efforts to prevent this global epidemic have started with the legal measures taken by the countries in this regard and the warnings of the World Health Organization (WHO) that the epidemic should be taken seriously. In this process, the success of the use of masks and the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer in preventing the disease has been evaluated and approved by scientists. In terms of the effectiveness of hand sanitizers, it is seen that the main components are ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, which are alcohol derivatives. In this study, 11 commercially purchased hand sanitizer components were identified and listed by Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HS-GC-MS) and their antibacterial activities were studied. Hand sanitizers containing alcohol derivatives were used in the study. As a result of this study, it was observed that 4 out of 11 commercial hand sanitizers were not suitable for the final concentration values of hand sanitizer determined by the World Health Organization (accepted as 80%(v/v) for alcohol derivatives). Apart from this, hand sanitizers numbered 5 and 9 did not show antibacterial properties against E.coli and hand sanitizers numbered 1 and 10 did not show antibacterial properties against S.aureus. This situation shows that the standards of hand sanitizers should be controlled with much more stringent rules.

References

  • 1. Gold NA, Mirza TM, Avva U. Alcohol sanitizer. StatPearls Publishing. Treasure Island (FL), (2020)
  • 2. Nyamwweya NN, Abuga KO. Alcohol-Based hand sanitizers – A multidimensional perspective. Preprints (2020)
  • 3. Hilburn J, Hammond BS, Fendler EJ, Groziak PA. Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility. American Journal of Infection Control 31-2, (2003) 109–116.
  • 4. WHO. Guide to local production: WHO-recommended handrub formulations (PDF). April (2010). Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  • 5. Thomson E, Bullied A. Production of Ethanol-based hand sanitizer in breweries during the COVID-19 crisis, Technical Quarterly 57, (2020) 47-52.
  • 6. WHO. Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, Part I, Chapter 10, (2019) 28.
  • 7. Biyosidal ürünlerin kullanım usul ve esasları hakkında yönetmelik. (2019) https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/07/20190704-2.html (date of access: 01 Aug 2021)
  • 8. Pragst F, Auwaerter V, Sporkert F, Spiegel K. Analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as possible markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forensic Science International 121(1-2), (2001) 76–88.
  • 9. Bouche MP, Lambert WE, Van Bocxlaer JF, Piette MH, De Leenheer AP. Quantitative determination of n-propane, isobutane and n-butane by headspace GC-MS in intoxications by inhalation of lighter fluid. J. Anal. Toxicol 26, (2002) 35-42. 10. Stambouli A, El Bouri A, Bouayoun T, Bellimam MA. Headspace-GC/MS detection of TATP traces in post-explosion debris, Forensic Science International 146 S (2004) 191-194.
  • 11. Wang Y, McCaffrey J, Norwood DL. Recent advances in headspace gas chromatography. Journal of liquid chromatography related technologies 31 (2008), 1823-1851.
  • 12. Joshi M, Rigsby K, Almirall JR. Analysis of the headspace composition of smokeless powders using GC-MS, GC-𝜇ECD and ion mobility spectrometry. Forensic Science International 208 (2011) 29-36.
  • 13. Desharnais B. Huppé G. Lamarche M, Mireault P, Skinner CD. Cyanide quantification in post-mortem biological matrices by headspace GC-MS. Forensic Science International 222, 1-3, (2012) 346–351.
  • 14. Wu SH, Chi JH, Wu YT, Huang YH, Chu FJ, Horng JJ. Thermal hazard analysis of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by DSC and GC/MS. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 25(2012) 1069-1074.
  • 15. Almog J, Espino D, Tamiri T, Sonenfeld D. Trace analysis of urea nitrate in post-blast debris by GC/MS. Forensic Science International 224 (2013) 80-83.
  • 16. Lennert E, Bridge C. Analysis and classification of smokeless powders by GC-MS and DART-TOFMS. Forensic Science International 292 (2018) 11-22.
  • 17. Bedner M, Murray J, Urbas AA, MacCrehan WA, Wilson, WB. Comparison of measurement methods for alcohol-based hand sanitizers, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, (2021).
  • 18. Topçu G, Barla A, Gören AC, Bilsel G, Tümen G. Analysis of the essential oil composition of Sideritis albiflora using direct thermal desorption and headspace GC-MS techniques. Turk J Chem, 29 (2005) 525 – 529.
  • 19. Özkahraman B, Tamahkar E, İdil N, Kılıç-Suloglu A, Perçin, I. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid nanoparticle embedded chitosan–gelatin hydrogels for antibiotic release. Drug Development Research (2020).
  • 20. Traoré O, Allaert FA, Fournet-Fayard S, Verrière JL, Laveran H. Comparison of in-vivo antibacterial activity of two skin disinfection procedures for insertion of peripheral catheters: Povidone iodine versus chlorhexidine. Journal of Hospital Infection 44(2), (2000) 147–150.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Basic Sciences
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Simge VARLIK (Primary Author)
Polis Akademisi
0000-0001-7664-0037
Türkiye


Gülşen BAYRAK
HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-4567-8053
Türkiye


Işık PERÇİN DEMİRÇELİK
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9453-4462
Türkiye


Aybuke A. ISBIR TURAN
POLİS AKADEMİSİ
0000-0002-3650-7810
Türkiye

Thanks Turkish National Police Academy, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Forensic Chemistry Laboratories, Ankara, Turkey, and Hacettepe University, Department of Biology, Ankara 06800, Turkey
Publication Date March 30, 2022
Application Date November 21, 2021
Acceptance Date March 16, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { hjse1025869, journal = {Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-4171}, address = {Hitit Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Kuzey Kampüsü Çevre Yolu Bulvarı 19030 Çorum / TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Hitit University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, pages = {37 - 44}, doi = {10.17350/HJSE19030000253}, title = {Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period}, key = {cite}, author = {Varlık, Simge and Bayrak, Gülşen and Perçin Demirçelik, Işık and Isbır Turan, Aybuke A.} }
APA Varlık, S. , Bayrak, G. , Perçin Demirçelik, I. & Isbır Turan, A. A. (2022). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering , 9 (1) , 37-44 . DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000253
MLA Varlık, S. , Bayrak, G. , Perçin Demirçelik, I. , Isbır Turan, A. A. "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period" . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 37-44 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hjse/issue/69208/1025869>
Chicago Varlık, S. , Bayrak, G. , Perçin Demirçelik, I. , Isbır Turan, A. A. "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 37-44
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period AU - Simge Varlık , Gülşen Bayrak , Işık Perçin Demirçelik , Aybuke A. Isbır Turan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000253 DO - 10.17350/HJSE19030000253 T2 - Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 37 EP - 44 VL - 9 IS - 1 SN - -2148-4171 M3 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000253 UR - https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000253 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period %A Simge Varlık , Gülşen Bayrak , Işık Perçin Demirçelik , Aybuke A. Isbır Turan %T Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period %D 2022 %J Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering %P -2148-4171 %V 9 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000253 %U 10.17350/HJSE19030000253
ISNAD Varlık, Simge , Bayrak, Gülşen , Perçin Demirçelik, Işık , Isbır Turan, Aybuke A. . "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 / 1 (March 2022): 37-44 . https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000253
AMA Varlık S. , Bayrak G. , Perçin Demirçelik I. , Isbır Turan A. A. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Hittite J Sci Eng. 2022; 9(1): 37-44.
Vancouver Varlık S. , Bayrak G. , Perçin Demirçelik I. , Isbır Turan A. A. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering. 2022; 9(1): 37-44.
IEEE S. Varlık , G. Bayrak , I. Perçin Demirçelik and A. A. Isbır Turan , "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Analysis and Antibacterial Tests of Hand Sanitizers Used in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period", Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 37-44, Mar. 2022, doi:10.17350/HJSE19030000253