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Yakın İlişkilerde Bağlanma Eğilimlerimiz Çalışma Hayatındaki Ses Davranışımızı Etkiler Mi? Bağlanma Stillerinin Çalışan Ses Davranışıyla İlişkilendirilmesi

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, 15 - 28, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.25203/idd.1109535

Abstract

Amaç: Çalışmamızın amacı, Türkiye’deki bireylerin kişisel ilişkilerinde bağlanma eğilimlerinin, çalışma ortamındaki ses davranışıyla ilişkisinde, yöneticiye güven faktörünün aracı etkisi göz önünde bulundurularak incelenmesidir. Tasarım/Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemi Türkiye’de aktif çalışan toplam 225 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada, çalışanların ses davranışları, yöneticiye güven seviyeleri ve ikili ilişkilerinde bağlanma eğilimlerini saptamak amacıyla güvenilirlik analizleri yapılmış olan standartlaştırılmış ölçekler kullanılmıştır. Online platform (Qualtrics) üzerinden gerçekleştirilen çalışmada, anketlerden edinilen sonuçlar korelasyon ve moderasyon analizleriyle değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuçlar: Katılımcılardaki güvenli bağlanma stilleri, yöneticiye güven ve yapıcı ses davranışıyla ilişkili bulunmuştur. Yöneticiye güvenin de olduğu durumda, ilişkilerinde güvenli bağlanma eğilimindeki bireyler işyerinde yapıcı (aktif) ses davranışı yerine kabullenici (pasif) ve daha az savunmacı davranışlar sergiledikleri bulunmuştur. Güvensiz (kaçıngan ya da kaygılı) bağlanma eğiliminin ise, yöneticiye güveninde azaldığı yerde, yine kabullenici ve tartışmadan (savunmadan) uzak davranışlar göstermektedir. Özgün Değer: Bu çalışma ile, yöneticiye güvenin yapıcı sesi Türkiye’deki katılımcılarda arttırıyor olduğu gözlenmiş; adayların yakın ilişkilerdeki bağlanma eğilimlerinin değerlendirilmesinin kurumların işe alım süreçlerinde kritik bir girdi sağlayabileceği öngörülmüştür. Çalışan sesi için yöneticiye güvenin merkezde olduğu görülen bu çalışmada; özellikle güvensiz bağlanma eğilimlerinin yapıcı (aktif) ses önünde engel teşkil etmektedir. Bu durumun, organizasyonların küresel dünyada daha yenilikçi ve rekabetçi olmalarını engelleyici olabileceği tartışılmıştır. Çalışmamız, ses davranışı ve bağlanma stilleri arasındaki ilişkiyi yöneticiye güveni de göz önünde bulundurarak inceleyen özgün bir çalışmadır.

References

  • Adler, S., & Golan, J. (1981). Lateness as a withdrawal behavior. Journal of applied psychology, 66(5), 544.
  • Ainsworth, M. D. (1970). Criteria for classification of one-year-olds in terms of the balance between exploratory and attachment behavior at home. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www. psychologysunysb. edu/attahcment/measures/content/home_secure_ba se_patterns. pdf.Ashford, S. J., Rothbard, N. P., Piderit, S. K., & Dutton, J. E. (1998). Out on a limb: The role of context and impression management in selling gender-equity issues. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23-57.
  • Avery, D. R., & Quiñones, M. A. (2002). Disentangling the effects of voice: the incremental roles of opportunity, behavior, and instrumentality in predicting procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 81.
  • Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands‐resources model: State of the art. Journal of managerial psychology. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of personality and social psychology, 61(2), 226.
  • Botero, I. C., & Van Dyne, L. (2009). Employee voice behavior: Interactive effects of LMX and power distance in the United States and Colombia. Management Communication Quarterly, 23(1), 84-104.
  • Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Volume II: Separation, anxiety and anger. In Attachment and loss: Volume II: Separation, anxiety and anger (pp. 1-429). London: The Hogarth press and the institute of psycho-analysis. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: retrospect and prospect. American journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664.
  • Bowlby, E. J. M., Smits, C. H. M., & Miesen, H. M. L. (1986). Attachment, Life-span and Old-age. Van Loghum Slaterus. Cawley, D. A. (2019). Might significant events have the potential to trigger assessment of the needs (palliative and supportive) of COPD patients and carers? [PhD Thesis]. University of Kent,.
  • Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of personality and social psychology, 58(4), 644.
  • Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007a). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 909.
  • Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007b). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 909.
  • Crawshaw, J., & Game, A. (2010). Organizational career management: The role of line manager caregiving and employee relational models. In 70th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
  • Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of management journal, 54(3), 461-488.
  • Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open?. Academy of management journal, 50(4), 869-884.
  • Dutton, J. E., Ashford, S. J., O’neill, R. M., Hayes, E., & Wierba, E. E. (1997). Reading the wind: How middle managers assess the context for selling issues to top managers. Strategic management journal, 18(5), 407-423.
  • Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
  • Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of management journal, 26(4), 596-607.
  • Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2001). Predictors of caregiving in adult intimate relationships: an attachment theoretical perspective. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(6), 972.
  • Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The experiences in close relationships—Relationship Structures Questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological assessment, 23(3), 615.
  • Frazier, M. L., & Fainshmidt, S. (2012). Voice climate, work outcomes, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment: A multilevel examination. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 691-715.
  • Hammer, T. H., Landau, J. C., & Stern, R. N. (1981). Absenteeism when workers have a voice: The case of employee ownership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(5), 561.
  • Harms, P. D. (2011). Adult attachment styles in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 285-296. Harms, P. D., Bai, Y., & Han, G. H. (2016). How leader and follower attachment styles are mediated by trust. Human Relations, 69(9), 1853-1876.
  • Harvey, J. B. (1988). The Abilene paradox and Other meditations. On management. Lexington, MA: Lexington BookS. Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states (C. 25). Harvard university press.
  • Hofstede, G. (2013). Hierarchical power distance in forty countries. Organizations alike and unlike: International and interinstitutional studies in the sociology of organizations, 97-119.
  • Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. (2005). Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 459-482.
  • Karataş, S., & Demir, İ. (2019). Attachment Avoidance and Anxiety in Adolescence: Turkish Adaptation of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures Scale. Psychological Reports, 122(4), 1372–1394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294118785562
  • Krosgaard, M. A., Brodt, S. E., & Whitener, E. M. (2002). Trust in the face of conflict: The role of managerial trustworthy behavior and organizational context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 312.
  • Kwon, B., Farndale, E., & Park, J. G. (2016). Employee voice and work engagement: Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?. Human Resource Management Review, 26(4), 327-337.
  • Leiter, M. P., & Laschinger, H. K. S. (2011). Psychological safety, respect, and values: Foundations of a psychologically healthy workplace. In Research Presentation in the Second World Congress on Positive Psychology Philadelphia, PA.
  • LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of applied psychology, 83(6), 853.
  • Liang, J., Farh, C. I., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management journal, 55(1), 71-92.
  • Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of applied psychology, 84(1), 123.
  • Miceli, M. P., Near, J. P., & Dworkin, T. M. (2008). Whistle-blowing in organizations. Psychology Press.
  • Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. Guilford Press.
  • Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.
  • Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management annals, 5(1), 373-412.
  • Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management review, 25(4), 706-725.
  • Sağlam, M. , Ülgen, B. & Mohammadi Bazargani, S. (2019). The Research on the Voice and Silence Behaviours of Iranian and Turkish Employees According to Their Demographic Characteristics, Ege Academic Review, 19 (2) , 205-220 . DOI: 10.21121/eab.511920
  • Schlenker, B. R., & Weigold, M. F. (1989). Self-identification and accountability.
  • Shaver, P. R., & Fraley, R. C. (2008). Attachment, loss, and grief: Bowlby’s views and current controversies.
  • Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., & Chun, D. S. (2008). Adult attachment theory, emotion regulation, and prosocial behavior. Regulating emotions: Culture, social necessity, and biological inheritance, 121-145.
  • Simmons, B. L., Gooty, J., Nelson, D. L., & Little, L. M. (2009). Secure attachment: Implications for hope, trust, burnout, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(2), 233-247.
  • Sorensen, N. A., & Oyserman, D. (2009). Collectivism, effects on relationships.
  • Takeuchi, R., Chen, Z., & Cheung, S. Y. (2012). Applying uncertainty management theory to employee voice behavior: An integrative investigation. Personnel Psychology, 65(2), 283-323.
  • Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1189-1203.
  • Van den Bos, K., & Lind, E. A. (2002). Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. İçinde Advances in experimental social psychology (C. 34, ss. 1-60). Elsevier.
  • Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management journal, 41(1), 108-119.
  • Vîrgă, D., Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., van Beek, I., & Sulea, C. (2019). Attachment styles and employee performance: The mediating role of burnout. The Journal of psychology, 153(4), 383-401.
  • Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (1988). Managing participation: A critical dimension of leadership. Journal of Management Development.
  • Wasti, S. A., Tan, H. H., Brower, H. H., & Önder, Ç. (2007). Cross-cultural measurement of supervisor trustworthiness: An assessment of measurement invariance across three cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(5), 477-489.
  • Wei, X., Zhang, Z. X., & Chen, X. P. (2015). I will speak up if my voice is socially desirable: A moderated mediating process of promotive versus prohibitive voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1641.
  • You, H. S., & Malley-Morrison, K. (2000). Young adult attachment styles and intimate relationships with close friends: A cross-cultural study of Koreans and Caucasian Americans. Journal of Cross-cultural psychology, 31(4), 528-534.

Does Our Personal Attachments Affect Our Voice in the Worklife? The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Employee Voice

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, 15 - 28, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.25203/idd.1109535

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between attachment and employee voice behavior in Turkey to underline the importance of personal factors on employee voice behavior. It is known that individuals' attachment styles have a crucial impact on their interpersonal relationships, included workplace relationships, and attitudes. Additionally, employee’s trust levels to supervisors were examined to understand whether trust moderates the relationship between attachment and employee voice behavior in a high power distance country, Turkey. Methods: The sample of the study consists of a total of 225 participants living in Turkey. In the current study, standardized scales were used to determine the employee voice, attachment in close relationships, and trust to supervisors of the employees. The study carried out on the online platform (Qualtrics) and the results, obtained from the questionnaires, were evaluated with correlation, regression and moderation analysis. Results: As a result of the regression and correlation analyses, we found a significant association between attachment, trust to manager and voice behaviors. Individuals with avoidant and anxious attachment tended to show more acquiescent and defensive voice, which is reverse for secure attachment. In case where trust to manager is higher, secure attached individuals have shown more acquiescent (passive) and less defensive voice rather than prosocial (active) voice. When trust is lower, insecure ones (avoidant or anxious) in their personal lives have shown more acquiescent and defensive voice. Originality: In this study, it was observed that trust to manager significantly associated with prosocial voice in Turkey; thus, it is predicted that the evaluation of the attachment styles of the candidates can provide a critical input in the recruitment processes of the institutions. Where trust toward the manager is found to be in center, insecure attachments may become an obstacle in front of prosocial voices. It is discussed where this situation can be an obstacle for organizations, regarding being innovative and competitive in the global world. Our study is original that includes trust to manager in the relationship between personal attachments and employee voice.

References

  • Adler, S., & Golan, J. (1981). Lateness as a withdrawal behavior. Journal of applied psychology, 66(5), 544.
  • Ainsworth, M. D. (1970). Criteria for classification of one-year-olds in terms of the balance between exploratory and attachment behavior at home. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www. psychologysunysb. edu/attahcment/measures/content/home_secure_ba se_patterns. pdf.Ashford, S. J., Rothbard, N. P., Piderit, S. K., & Dutton, J. E. (1998). Out on a limb: The role of context and impression management in selling gender-equity issues. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23-57.
  • Avery, D. R., & Quiñones, M. A. (2002). Disentangling the effects of voice: the incremental roles of opportunity, behavior, and instrumentality in predicting procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 81.
  • Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands‐resources model: State of the art. Journal of managerial psychology. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of personality and social psychology, 61(2), 226.
  • Botero, I. C., & Van Dyne, L. (2009). Employee voice behavior: Interactive effects of LMX and power distance in the United States and Colombia. Management Communication Quarterly, 23(1), 84-104.
  • Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Volume II: Separation, anxiety and anger. In Attachment and loss: Volume II: Separation, anxiety and anger (pp. 1-429). London: The Hogarth press and the institute of psycho-analysis. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: retrospect and prospect. American journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664.
  • Bowlby, E. J. M., Smits, C. H. M., & Miesen, H. M. L. (1986). Attachment, Life-span and Old-age. Van Loghum Slaterus. Cawley, D. A. (2019). Might significant events have the potential to trigger assessment of the needs (palliative and supportive) of COPD patients and carers? [PhD Thesis]. University of Kent,.
  • Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of personality and social psychology, 58(4), 644.
  • Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007a). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 909.
  • Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007b). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 909.
  • Crawshaw, J., & Game, A. (2010). Organizational career management: The role of line manager caregiving and employee relational models. In 70th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
  • Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of management journal, 54(3), 461-488.
  • Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open?. Academy of management journal, 50(4), 869-884.
  • Dutton, J. E., Ashford, S. J., O’neill, R. M., Hayes, E., & Wierba, E. E. (1997). Reading the wind: How middle managers assess the context for selling issues to top managers. Strategic management journal, 18(5), 407-423.
  • Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
  • Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of management journal, 26(4), 596-607.
  • Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2001). Predictors of caregiving in adult intimate relationships: an attachment theoretical perspective. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(6), 972.
  • Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The experiences in close relationships—Relationship Structures Questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological assessment, 23(3), 615.
  • Frazier, M. L., & Fainshmidt, S. (2012). Voice climate, work outcomes, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment: A multilevel examination. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 691-715.
  • Hammer, T. H., Landau, J. C., & Stern, R. N. (1981). Absenteeism when workers have a voice: The case of employee ownership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(5), 561.
  • Harms, P. D. (2011). Adult attachment styles in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 285-296. Harms, P. D., Bai, Y., & Han, G. H. (2016). How leader and follower attachment styles are mediated by trust. Human Relations, 69(9), 1853-1876.
  • Harvey, J. B. (1988). The Abilene paradox and Other meditations. On management. Lexington, MA: Lexington BookS. Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states (C. 25). Harvard university press.
  • Hofstede, G. (2013). Hierarchical power distance in forty countries. Organizations alike and unlike: International and interinstitutional studies in the sociology of organizations, 97-119.
  • Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. (2005). Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 459-482.
  • Karataş, S., & Demir, İ. (2019). Attachment Avoidance and Anxiety in Adolescence: Turkish Adaptation of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures Scale. Psychological Reports, 122(4), 1372–1394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294118785562
  • Krosgaard, M. A., Brodt, S. E., & Whitener, E. M. (2002). Trust in the face of conflict: The role of managerial trustworthy behavior and organizational context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 312.
  • Kwon, B., Farndale, E., & Park, J. G. (2016). Employee voice and work engagement: Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?. Human Resource Management Review, 26(4), 327-337.
  • Leiter, M. P., & Laschinger, H. K. S. (2011). Psychological safety, respect, and values: Foundations of a psychologically healthy workplace. In Research Presentation in the Second World Congress on Positive Psychology Philadelphia, PA.
  • LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of applied psychology, 83(6), 853.
  • Liang, J., Farh, C. I., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management journal, 55(1), 71-92.
  • Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of applied psychology, 84(1), 123.
  • Miceli, M. P., Near, J. P., & Dworkin, T. M. (2008). Whistle-blowing in organizations. Psychology Press.
  • Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. Guilford Press.
  • Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.
  • Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management annals, 5(1), 373-412.
  • Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management review, 25(4), 706-725.
  • Sağlam, M. , Ülgen, B. & Mohammadi Bazargani, S. (2019). The Research on the Voice and Silence Behaviours of Iranian and Turkish Employees According to Their Demographic Characteristics, Ege Academic Review, 19 (2) , 205-220 . DOI: 10.21121/eab.511920
  • Schlenker, B. R., & Weigold, M. F. (1989). Self-identification and accountability.
  • Shaver, P. R., & Fraley, R. C. (2008). Attachment, loss, and grief: Bowlby’s views and current controversies.
  • Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., & Chun, D. S. (2008). Adult attachment theory, emotion regulation, and prosocial behavior. Regulating emotions: Culture, social necessity, and biological inheritance, 121-145.
  • Simmons, B. L., Gooty, J., Nelson, D. L., & Little, L. M. (2009). Secure attachment: Implications for hope, trust, burnout, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(2), 233-247.
  • Sorensen, N. A., & Oyserman, D. (2009). Collectivism, effects on relationships.
  • Takeuchi, R., Chen, Z., & Cheung, S. Y. (2012). Applying uncertainty management theory to employee voice behavior: An integrative investigation. Personnel Psychology, 65(2), 283-323.
  • Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1189-1203.
  • Van den Bos, K., & Lind, E. A. (2002). Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. İçinde Advances in experimental social psychology (C. 34, ss. 1-60). Elsevier.
  • Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management journal, 41(1), 108-119.
  • Vîrgă, D., Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., van Beek, I., & Sulea, C. (2019). Attachment styles and employee performance: The mediating role of burnout. The Journal of psychology, 153(4), 383-401.
  • Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (1988). Managing participation: A critical dimension of leadership. Journal of Management Development.
  • Wasti, S. A., Tan, H. H., Brower, H. H., & Önder, Ç. (2007). Cross-cultural measurement of supervisor trustworthiness: An assessment of measurement invariance across three cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(5), 477-489.
  • Wei, X., Zhang, Z. X., & Chen, X. P. (2015). I will speak up if my voice is socially desirable: A moderated mediating process of promotive versus prohibitive voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1641.
  • You, H. S., & Malley-Morrison, K. (2000). Young adult attachment styles and intimate relationships with close friends: A cross-cultural study of Koreans and Caucasian Americans. Journal of Cross-cultural psychology, 31(4), 528-534.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Psychology, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sibel ÇALIŞKAN> (Primary Author)
BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6029-6833
Türkiye


Ela ÜNLER>
BAHCESEHIR UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5944-1463
Türkiye


Neris GÜVEN>
BAHCESEHIR UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-0875-5494
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1

Cite

APA Çalışkan, S. , Ünler, E. & Güven, N. (2022). Yakın İlişkilerde Bağlanma Eğilimlerimiz Çalışma Hayatındaki Ses Davranışımızı Etkiler Mi? Bağlanma Stillerinin Çalışan Ses Davranışıyla İlişkilendirilmesi . İş'te Davranış Dergisi , 7 (1) , 15-28 . DOI: 10.25203/idd.1109535

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