Year 2017, Volume 4 , Issue 2, Pages 94 - 102 2017-05-15

Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast

Levent Bat [1] , Elif Arıcı [2] , Murat Sezgin [3] , Fatih Şahin [4]


Sinop considered the mid-point of the Black Sea in Turkey and is located on Boztepe peninsula which is the most extended point of Turkish Black Sea coastline towards north. The fact that three sides of the peninsula are surrounded by sea has made fisheries a significant means of income. Fishery has an important place in the economy of Sinop. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the levels of eight heavy metals (aluminium, arsenic, copper, zinc, mercury, lead, cadmium and iron) in the edible tissues of Scophthalmus maximus, Spicara maena, Chelidonichthys lucerna, Alosa fallax and Scorpaena porcus caught in Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The samples were obtained during the fishing season in 2013 directly from the Turkish fishing vessels. Hg, Cd and Pb were not detected in the edible part of all fish samples.  The metal levels in edible tissues were no exceeded the standard guideline values Estimated hazard index (HI) suggest that these metals in the edible tissues of the fish do not toxic for consumers, where the HIs of all the considered metals were below the value of 1.

Black Sea, heavy metals, estimated daily intake (EDI), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI)
  • Ahmed, Q., Bat, L., Yousuf F, Arıcı E. 2016. Heavy metals in Acanthopagrus arabicus Iwatsuki, 2013 from Karachi coasts, Pakistan and potential risk of human health. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4 (1), 203-208.
  • Akoto, O., Bismark Eshun, F., Darko, G., Adei, E. 2014. Concentrations and health risk assessments of heavy metals in fish from the Fosu Lagoon. Int. J. Environ. Res., 8(2), 403-410.
  • Algan O, Gazioğlu C, Çağatay N, Yücel ZY, Gönençgil B. (1999). Sediment and water influxes into the Black Sea by Anatolian rivers. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 43: 61–79.
  • Algan O., Gazioğlu C., Yücel Z., Çağatay N., Gönençgil B., (2000). Sediment and Freshwater Discharges of the Anatolian River into the Black Sea, IOC-BSRC Workshop «Black Sea Fluxes», Workshop Report No. 145. Paris: UNESCO, 38–50.
  • ATSDR. 2005. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual (Update). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta, Georgia, pp.357.
  • Balkıs, N., Aksu, A., Hiçsönmez, H. (2012). Metal levels in biota from the Southern Black Sea, Turkey. Journal of the Black Sea / Mediterranean Environment, 18 (2):134-143.
  • Bat, L., Şahin, F., Satılmış, H. H., Üstün, F., Özdemir, Z.B., Kıdeyş, A. E., Shulman, G. E. 2007. The changed ecosystem of the Black Sea and its impact on anchovy fisheries. (in Turkish). Journal of FisheriesSciences.com, 1 (4), 191-227. doi: 10.3153/jfscom.2007024
  • Bat, L., Sezgin, M., Üstün, F., Şahin, F. 2012. Heavy metal concentrations in ten species of fishes caught in Sinop coastal waters of the Black Sea, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12, 371-376; doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v12_2_24
  • Bat L. 2014. Heavy metal pollution in the Black Sea. In: Düzgüneş E, Öztürk B, Zengin M. (Eds.). Turkish Fisheries in the Black Sea. Published by Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Publication number: 40, ISBN: 987-975-8825-32-5 Istanbul, Turkey, p. 71-107.
  • Council of Europe. 2001. Council of Europe’s policy statements concerning materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. Policy Statement concerning materials and alloys. Technical Document. Guidelines on metals and alloys used as food contact materials. (09.03.2001), Strasbourg. pp. 67
  • EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). 2010. Scientific Opinion on Lead in Food. EFSA Journal, 8 (4), 1570. 151 pp., doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1570. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu
  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2012a. Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA Journal, 10 (1), 2551. 37 pp., doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2551. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal
  • EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). 2012b. Scientific Opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food. EFSA Journal, 10 (12), 2985, 241 pp., doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2985. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal
  • European Commission Regulation (EC). 2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, No 1881.
  • FAO/WHO. 2010. Summary report of the seventy-third meeting of JECFA, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Geneva.
  • Güven, KC., Nesimigil, F., Cumalı, S., Yalçın, A., Gazioğlu, C. and Çoban, M. (2010). Anionic Detergent LAS pollution and Discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007. J. Black Sea/Medit. Environ., 16(1):5-24.
  • Khan, S., Farooq, R., Shahbaz, S., Khan, M.A., Sadique, M. 2009. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of Vegetables. World Appl Sci J., 6 (12), 1602-1606.
  • Kideys, A.E. 1994. Recent dramatic changes in the Black Sea ecosystem: The reason for the sharp decline in Turkish anchovy fisheries. J. Mar. Syst., 5, 171-181. doi: 10.1016/0924-7963(94)90030-2
  • National Academy of Science. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p. 298
  • Nisbet, C., Terzi, G., Pilger, O., Sarac, N. 2010. Determination of heavy metal levels in fish sample collected from the Middle Black Sea. Kafkas Üniv.Veteriner Fak. Dergisi, 16 (1), 119-125. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2009.982
  • OECD. 2014. http://www.oecd.org/turkey. Country note on national fisheries management systems, Turkey. (Accessed 6th of March 2014).
  • Polikarpov, G.G., Egorov, V.N., Gulin, S.B., Mirzoyeva, N.Yu. 2004. Pollution of the Black sea and suggestions on solutions. (In: The Black Sea Foundation for Education Culture and Protection of Nature, Ed. M.S. Çelikkale) Workshop A glance to the Black Sea, 31 October 2003, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 91-128.
  • Topçuoğlu, S., Erentürk, N., Saygı, N., Kut, D., Esen, N., Başsarı, A., Seddigh, E. 1990. Trace metal levels of fish from the Marmara and Black Sea. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 29, 95–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02772249009357623
  • Topçuoğlu, S., Ergül, H.A., Baysal, A., Ölmez, E., Kut, D. 2003. Determination radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in biota and sediment samples from Pazar and Rize stations in the eastern Black Sea. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 12 (7), 695-699.
  • TFC (Turkish Food Codex). 2002. Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications about determination of the maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs of Turkish Food Codex (in Turkish). (Notification No: 2002/63), Issue: 24885.
  • TUIK, Turkish Fishery Statistics. 2014. Available online: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/
  • Tüzen, M. 2003. Determination of heavy metals in fish samples of the middle Black Sea (Turkey) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 80, 119–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00264-9
  • Ukoha, P.O., Ekere, N.R., Udeogu, U.V., Agbazue, V.E. 2014. Potential health risk assessment of heavy metals [Cd, Cu and Fe] concentrations in some imported frozen fish species consumed in Nigeria. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 12 (2), 366-374.
  • UNEP (The United Nations Environment Programme). (1984). Determination of Total Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in Selected Marine Organisms by flameless AAS. Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, 11 Rev 1.
  • U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. A Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC, EPA/630/P-02/002F.
  • U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2011a. Exposure factors handbook: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-09/052F. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, and online at http://www.epa.gov/ncea/efh.
  • U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2011b. Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-10/030. Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA and online at http://www.epa.gov/ncea.
  • WHO. 1996. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. ISBN 92 4 156173 4 (NLM Classification: QU 130), Geneva.
  • Yilmaz, A.B. 2003. Levels of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissue of Mugil cephalus and Trachurus mediterraneus from Iskenderun Bay. Turk. Environ. Res., 92, 277–281.
  • Yüce H. and Gazioğlu C. (2006). "Maritime Security Challenges Ahead in the Black Sea", Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, Vol.12 (3): 233-250.
  • Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Second edition. Prentice Hall, Int., New Jersey.
  • Zhuang, P., Li, Z., McBride, M.B., Zou, B. 2013. Health risk assessment for consumption of fish originating from ponds near Dabaoshan mine, South China. Environ Sci Pollut Res., 20 (8), 5844-5854. doi:10.1007/s11356-013-1606-0
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Author: Levent Bat

Author: Elif Arıcı

Author: Murat Sezgin

Author: Fatih Şahin

Dates

Publication Date : May 15, 2017

Bibtex @research article { ijegeo312584, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2017}, volume = {4}, pages = {94 - 102}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.312584}, title = {Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast}, key = {cite}, author = {Bat, Levent and Arıcı, Elif and Sezgin, Murat and Şahin, Fatih} }
APA Bat, L , Arıcı, E , Sezgin, M , Şahin, F . (2017). Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 4 (2) , 94-102 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.312584
MLA Bat, L , Arıcı, E , Sezgin, M , Şahin, F . "Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 (2017 ): 94-102 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijegeo/issue/29218/312584>
Chicago Bat, L , Arıcı, E , Sezgin, M , Şahin, F . "Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 (2017 ): 94-102
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast AU - Levent Bat , Elif Arıcı , Murat Sezgin , Fatih Şahin Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.312584 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.312584 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 94 EP - 102 VL - 4 IS - 2 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.312584 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.312584 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast %A Levent Bat , Elif Arıcı , Murat Sezgin , Fatih Şahin %T Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast %D 2017 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 4 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.312584 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.312584
ISNAD Bat, Levent , Arıcı, Elif , Sezgin, Murat , Şahin, Fatih . "Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 / 2 (May 2017): 94-102 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.312584
AMA Bat L , Arıcı E , Sezgin M , Şahin F . Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2017; 4(2): 94-102.
Vancouver Bat L , Arıcı E , Sezgin M , Şahin F . Heavy Metal Levels in Commercial Fishes Caught in the southern Black Sea coast. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2017; 4(2): 102-94.