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The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 36 - 47, 08.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.977393

Abstract

Today, over 90 percent of world trade is carried out via maritime transportation by 90,000 vessels. Like all modes of transportation that use fossil fuels, ship emissions that significantly contribute to global climate change and acidification. In this aspect, the shipping industry is responsible for a significant proportion of the global climate change problem. According to data of International Maritime Organization (IMO), more than 3% of global carbon dioxide emissions can be attributed to ocean-going ships. Furthermore, in European coastal areas, shipping emissions contribute with 1–7% of ambient air PM10 levels, 1–14% of PM2.5, and at least 11% of PM1 (Viana et al., 2014). Strait of Istanbul is the unique waterway between Black Sea countries and the rest of the world. As a result of the its intensive international maritime traffic, it is a serious emission factor for the city. Studies have shown that only ship emissions cause 4500 deaths per year in the Marmara region. In this study, it is discussed whether international maritime traffic is an effective factor on PM10 emissions by comparing number of passing ship from Strait of Istanbul and pm10 values between 2014 and 2018.

References

  • Bayırhan et al, (2019). Modelling of Ship Originated Exhaust Gas Emissions in the Istanbul Strait. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics (IJEGEO), 6(3): 238-243 DOI:10.30897/ijegeo.641397
  • Demir, K. (2018). İstanbul Boğazı Yerel Deniz Trafiği Kaynaklı Egzoz Emisyonları Üzerine Değerlendirme, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Deniz, C., Durmuşoğlu Y. (2008). Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Sci Total Environ. 2008 Feb 1;390(1):255-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.033.
  • DNV, (2013). Det Norske Veritas, Report Escort Tug Effectiveness in the Bosphorus Strait, Chevron Products UK LTD, REPORT NO./DNV REG NO.: 2013-9178 / 1-6YRAF0, REV 1, 2013-04-25
  • EC, (2019). Air Quality Standards https://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards.htm
  • EEA, (2014). Particulate matter (PM10) - Annual limit value for the protection of human health, https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/particulate-matter-pm10-annual-limit-value-for-theprotection- of-human-health-3
  • Ekmekçioğlu A., Kuzu, S.L., Ünlügençoğlu, K., Çelebi, U.B. (2020). Assessment of shipping emission factors through monitoring and modelling studies, Science of The Total Environment Volume 743, 15 November 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140742
  • Güven N. (2008). Boğazlar Bölgesinden Geçen Petrol ve Petrol Ürünleri Taşıyan Tankerlerin Çevresel Zararlarının Tanımlanması ve Baca Emisyonlarının Belirlenmesi, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye
  • Güzel, T.D., Alp, K. (2020). Modeling of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in Istanbul by 2050, Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 11, Issue 12, December 2020, (pp.2190-2201) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.08.034
  • KEGM, (2020). Directorate General of Coastal Safety, “Türk Boğazları Gemi Geçiş İstatistikleri,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Maritime Statistics, http://www.kiyiemniyeti.gov.tr/resmi_istatistikler https://atlantis.udhb.gov.tr/istatistik/gemi_gecis.aspx
  • Kılıç A. (2014). Marmara Bölgesi’ndeki Deniz ve Hava Taşımacılığından Kaynaklanan Emisyon Envanterinin Oluşturulması ve Hava Kirliliğinin Modellenmesi (Doktora Tezi) İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye
  • Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul, (2011). Date retrieved: 9.12.2019, for the original full text of the “Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of İstanbul in Turkish language, address: Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul in Turkish language, address: http://denizmevzuat.udhb.gov.tr/dosyam/%C4%B0STANBUL%20L%C4%B0MAN%20BA%C5%9EKA NLI%C4%9EI%20YEREL%20DEN%C4%B0Z%20TRAF%C4%B0%C4%9E%C4%B0%20REHBER%C4%B0.doc
  • Özsoy, E. (2016). Introduction to Geographical, Historical and Scientific Importance of the Turkish Straits System, the Sea of Marmara Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance, Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Publication No: 42, Istanbul 2016
  • Querol X., Viana M., Hammingh P., Colette A., Degraeuwe B., Vlieger I., Aardenne J. (2014). Impact of maritime transport emissions on coastal air quality in Europe, Atmospheric Environment, 2014
  • Tuna G., Elbir T. (2013). “Kanal İstanbul Projesi Sonrası İstanbul Boğazı’nda Gemi Trafiğinden Kaynaklanan Hava Kalitesinde Beklenen Değişimlerin İncelenmesi”, Hava Kirliliği Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2 (2013) 1–10
  • Turkish Straits Navigation Guide, (2015). Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, Istanbul
  • Unal Y., Toros H., Deniz A., Incecik S., (2011). “Influence of meteorological factors and emission sources on spatial and temporal variations of PM10 concentrations in Istanbul metropolitan area” Atmospheric Environment, October 2019
  • Viana M., Fann N., Tobías A., Querol X., Rojas-Rueda D., Plaza A., Aynos G., J.A. Conde, L., Fernández, J., Fernández C. (2014). Supporting Information Environmental and health benefits from designating the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits as an emission control area (ECA), Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 6, 3304–3313, Publication Date: February 20, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1021/es5049946

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 36 - 47, 08.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.977393

Abstract

References

  • Bayırhan et al, (2019). Modelling of Ship Originated Exhaust Gas Emissions in the Istanbul Strait. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics (IJEGEO), 6(3): 238-243 DOI:10.30897/ijegeo.641397
  • Demir, K. (2018). İstanbul Boğazı Yerel Deniz Trafiği Kaynaklı Egzoz Emisyonları Üzerine Değerlendirme, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Deniz, C., Durmuşoğlu Y. (2008). Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Sci Total Environ. 2008 Feb 1;390(1):255-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.033.
  • DNV, (2013). Det Norske Veritas, Report Escort Tug Effectiveness in the Bosphorus Strait, Chevron Products UK LTD, REPORT NO./DNV REG NO.: 2013-9178 / 1-6YRAF0, REV 1, 2013-04-25
  • EC, (2019). Air Quality Standards https://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards.htm
  • EEA, (2014). Particulate matter (PM10) - Annual limit value for the protection of human health, https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/particulate-matter-pm10-annual-limit-value-for-theprotection- of-human-health-3
  • Ekmekçioğlu A., Kuzu, S.L., Ünlügençoğlu, K., Çelebi, U.B. (2020). Assessment of shipping emission factors through monitoring and modelling studies, Science of The Total Environment Volume 743, 15 November 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140742
  • Güven N. (2008). Boğazlar Bölgesinden Geçen Petrol ve Petrol Ürünleri Taşıyan Tankerlerin Çevresel Zararlarının Tanımlanması ve Baca Emisyonlarının Belirlenmesi, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye
  • Güzel, T.D., Alp, K. (2020). Modeling of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in Istanbul by 2050, Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 11, Issue 12, December 2020, (pp.2190-2201) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.08.034
  • KEGM, (2020). Directorate General of Coastal Safety, “Türk Boğazları Gemi Geçiş İstatistikleri,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Maritime Statistics, http://www.kiyiemniyeti.gov.tr/resmi_istatistikler https://atlantis.udhb.gov.tr/istatistik/gemi_gecis.aspx
  • Kılıç A. (2014). Marmara Bölgesi’ndeki Deniz ve Hava Taşımacılığından Kaynaklanan Emisyon Envanterinin Oluşturulması ve Hava Kirliliğinin Modellenmesi (Doktora Tezi) İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye
  • Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul, (2011). Date retrieved: 9.12.2019, for the original full text of the “Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of İstanbul in Turkish language, address: Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul in Turkish language, address: http://denizmevzuat.udhb.gov.tr/dosyam/%C4%B0STANBUL%20L%C4%B0MAN%20BA%C5%9EKA NLI%C4%9EI%20YEREL%20DEN%C4%B0Z%20TRAF%C4%B0%C4%9E%C4%B0%20REHBER%C4%B0.doc
  • Özsoy, E. (2016). Introduction to Geographical, Historical and Scientific Importance of the Turkish Straits System, the Sea of Marmara Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance, Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Publication No: 42, Istanbul 2016
  • Querol X., Viana M., Hammingh P., Colette A., Degraeuwe B., Vlieger I., Aardenne J. (2014). Impact of maritime transport emissions on coastal air quality in Europe, Atmospheric Environment, 2014
  • Tuna G., Elbir T. (2013). “Kanal İstanbul Projesi Sonrası İstanbul Boğazı’nda Gemi Trafiğinden Kaynaklanan Hava Kalitesinde Beklenen Değişimlerin İncelenmesi”, Hava Kirliliği Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2 (2013) 1–10
  • Turkish Straits Navigation Guide, (2015). Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, Istanbul
  • Unal Y., Toros H., Deniz A., Incecik S., (2011). “Influence of meteorological factors and emission sources on spatial and temporal variations of PM10 concentrations in Istanbul metropolitan area” Atmospheric Environment, October 2019
  • Viana M., Fann N., Tobías A., Querol X., Rojas-Rueda D., Plaza A., Aynos G., J.A. Conde, L., Fernández, J., Fernández C. (2014). Supporting Information Environmental and health benefits from designating the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits as an emission control area (ECA), Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 6, 3304–3313, Publication Date: February 20, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1021/es5049946

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Gizem KODAK (Primary Author)
University of Kyrenia
0000-0002-1845-7901
Türkiye

Publication Date September 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ijegeo977393, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {36 - 47}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.977393}, title = {The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)}, key = {cite}, author = {Kodak, Gizem} }
APA Kodak, G. (2022). The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 9 (3) , 36-47 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.977393
MLA Kodak, G. "The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)" . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 9 (2022 ): 36-47 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijegeo/issue/68801/977393>
Chicago Kodak, G. "The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 9 (2022 ): 36-47
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) AU - Gizem Kodak Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.977393 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.977393 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 36 EP - 47 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.977393 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.977393 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) %A Gizem Kodak %T The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) %D 2022 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.977393 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.977393
ISNAD Kodak, Gizem . "The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 9 / 3 (September 2022): 36-47 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.977393
AMA Kodak G. The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus). International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2022; 9(3): 36-47.
Vancouver Kodak G. The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus). International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2022; 9(3): 36-47.
IEEE G. Kodak , "The Role of International Maritime Traffic on PM10 Pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus)", International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 36-47, Sep. 2022, doi:10.30897/ijegeo.977393