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Öğrencilerin Stres, Depresyon, Kaygı ve Kariyer İyimserliğinde Şehir Farkı: Ampirik bir Araştırma

Year 2023, Issue: 20 - December, 2023, 73 - 88, 15.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.20860/ijoses.1373033

Abstract

Eğitim hayatı öğrenciler için stresli olabilmektedir. Özellikle iş yaşamına bir adım daha yaklaşan üniversite öğrencileri için bu süreç giderek daha stresli bir hal alabilmektedir. Yaşadıkları stresi kontrol altına alamadıklarında bu stres zamanla depresyon ve kaygıya dönüşebilmektedir. Stres, depresyon ve kaygı düzeyi yükseldikçe öğrencilerin kariyer konusunda iyimserlikleri etkilenebilmektedir. Öğrencilerin eğitim gördükleri şehrin de stres, depresyon ve kaygı düzeyini etkilediği düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı kariyer planları yapan üniversite öğrencilerinin yaşadıkları stres, depresyon, kaygı ve kariyer iyimserliklerinde bölgesel bir etki olup olmadığını tespit etmektir. Araştırmanın amacı kapsamında birbirinden farklı gelişmişlik düzeylerine sahip iki şehirde (İstanbul-Şırnak) faaliyet gösteren iki farklı üniversitede öğrenim gören üniversite öğrencileriyle anket yapılmasına karar verilmiştir. Öğrenciler arasında stres, depresyon, kaygı ve kariyer iyimserlikleri arasında fark olup olmadığını tespit edebilmek için Bağımsız Gruplar T-Testi yapılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda öğrencilerin stres, depresyon ve kaygı ortalamaları arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır. Ancak kariyer iyimserlikleri açısından aldıkları ortalamalar arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmuş olup, İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren üniversite öğrencilerinin kariyer iyimserlik düzeyleri Şırnak’taki öğrencilerden daha yüksek çıkmıştır.

References

  • Acker, R. v. & Wehby, J. H. (2000). Exploring the social contexts ınfluencing student success or failure: Introduction. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 93-96.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Aydın, Ş. (2004a). Otel İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Stres Faktörleri: 4-5 Yıldızlı Otel İşletmeleri Uygulaması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(4), 1-21.
  • Aydın, Ş. (2004b). Örgütsel stres yönetimi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(3), 49-74.
  • Butler, G. (1993). Definitions of stress. Occasional paper (Royal College of General Practitioners), (61), 1.
  • Chithprabha, K. & Kanekar, S. (1995). A comparison of urban and rural students on scholastic and related variables. The Journal of Social Psychology, 117-118.
  • Conejero, I., Olié, E., Calati, R., Ducasse, D., & Courtet, P. (2018). Psychological pain, depression, and suicide: Recent evidences and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 1-9.
  • Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Bartrum, D. (2002). Multidimensional properties of the LOT-R: Effects of optimism and pessimism on career and well-being related variables in adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 10(1), 42-61.
  • Çelik, Y. (2016). SPSS ile istatistik, biyoistatistik ve modern bilimsel araştırma. İstanbul: Hünkar Ofset.
  • Elie-Dit-Cosaque, C., Pallud, J. & Kalika, M. (2011). The influence of individual, contextual, and social factors on perceived behavioral control of information technology: A field theory approach. Journal of Management Information, 201-234.
  • Fischer, C. S. (1975). Toward a subcultural theory of urbanism. American Journal of Sociology, 1319-1341.
  • Gürbüz, S. & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri: Felsefe-yöntem-analiz. Ankara: Seçkin Yayınevi.
  • Hammen, C. (2005). Stress an Depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293–319.
  • Hodson, C. B. & Sander, H. A. (2014). Relationships between urban vegetation and academic achievement vary with social and environmental context. Landscape and Urban Planning.
  • İlter, İ. (2021). Lisans öğrencilerinin akademik başarıları ve kariyer kararı öz-yeterliklerinin lisansüstü eğitim niyetlerine etkisi. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, 11(1), 1-13.
  • Kalafat, T. (2012). Kariyer geleceği ölçeği (KARGEL): Türk örneklemi için psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(38), 169-179.
  • Keller, E. M. & Owens, G. P. (2020). Traditional rural values and posttraumatic stress among rural and urban undergraduates. Plos one, 1-17.
  • Korkmaz, M. (2005). İlköğretim okullarında örgütsel sağlık ile öğrenci başarısı arasındaki ilişki. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 529-548.
  • Korte, C. (1980). Urban-Nonurban differences in social behavior and social psychological models of urban impact. Journal of Social Issues, 36(3), 29-51.
  • Lamb, M. (2012). A self system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language learning, 62(4), 997-1023.
  • Lawrence, A. A. & Vimala, A. (2012). School environment and academic achievement of standard IX students. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 210-215.
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Lindorfer, B. (2020). Personality theory in gestalt theoretical psychotherapy: Kurt Lewin’s field theory and his theory of systems in tension revisited. Gestalt Theory, 29-46.
  • Mahan, P. L., Mahan, M. P., Park, N.-J., Shelton, C., Brown, K. C., & Weaver, M. T. (2010). Work Environment Stressors, Social Support, Anxiety, and Depression Among Secondary School Teachers. AAOHN Journal, 58(5), 197-205.
  • Maina, G., Mauri, M., & Rossi, A. (2016). Anxiety and depression. Journal of Psychopathology, 22, 236-250.
  • McCracken, J. D. & Barcinas, J. D. (1991). Differences between rural and urban schools, student characteristics, and student aspirations in Ohio. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 29-40.
  • McInnis, O. A., & Young, M. M. (2015). Urban and rural student substance use. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
  • Oguztürk, Ö. (2008). Differences in quality of life in rural and urban populations. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 346-350.
  • Onyishi, I. E., & Ogbodo, E. (2012). The contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 38(1), 1-11.
  • Os, J. v., Kenis, G., & Rutten, B. P. (2010). The environment and schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), 203-212.
  • Putwain, D. (2007). Researching academic stress andanxiety in students: somemethodological considerations. British Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 207-219.
  • Ramli, M., Adlina, S., Suthahar, A., Edariah, A., Ariff, F. M., Narimah, A., Karuthan, C. (2008). Depression among secondary school students: A comparison between urban and rural populations in a Malaysian community. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 55-61.
  • Robinson, L. (1990). Stress and anxiety. Nursing Clinics of North America, 25(4), 935-943.
  • Romans, S., Cohen, M., & Forte, T. (2011). Rates of depression and anxiety in urban and rural Canada. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 46, 567-575.
  • Rottinghaus, P. J., Day, S. X. & Borgen, F. H. (2005). The career futures ınventory: A measure of career-related adaptability and optimism. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1), 3-24.
  • Serinkan, C., Kaymakçı, K., Alişan, U., & Avcık, C. (2012). Kamu sektöründe örgütsel stres ve kariyer: Denizli'de yapılan bir araştırma. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(1), 21-32.
  • Streiner, D. (1994). Figuring out factors: The use and misuse of factor analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39(3), 135-140.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2021). https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Yuksekogretim-Istihdam-Gostergeleri-2022-49600#:~:text=Lisans%20mezunlar%C4%B1%20i%C3%A7in%20ilk%20i%C5%9F,%2C0%20ay)%20olarak%20ger%C3%A7ekle%C5%9Fti. adresinden erişildi. (Erişim Tarihi: 12.11.2023).
  • Tripathy, M., & Sahu, B. (2021). A comparative study on mental health of rural and urban students. International Educational Scientific Research Journal, 7, 67-77.
  • Wang, P.-Y. (2013). Examining the digital divide between rural and urban schools: Technology availability, teachers’ integration level and students’ perception. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2(2), 127-139.
  • Wang, X., Cai, L., Qian, J., & Peng, J. (2014). Social support moderates stress effects on depression. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 8(1), 1-5.
  • Yang, L., & Venezia, S. (2020). The impact of financial aid on associate degree attainment for rural community college students: A comparison of rural, urban, and suburban patterns. Community College Review, 48(4), 423-454.
  • Yılmaz, Ö., Boz, H. & Arslan, A. (2017). Depresyon anksiyete stres ölçeğinin (DASS 21) Türkçe kısa formunun geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması. Finans Ekonomi ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2(2), 78-91.
  • Zhao, G., Ye, J., Li, Z. & Xue, S. (2017). How and why do Chinese urban students outperform their rural counterparts? China Economic Review, 103-123.

City Difference on Students’ Stress, Depression, Anxiety, and Career Optimism: An Empirical Research

Year 2023, Issue: 20 - December, 2023, 73 - 88, 15.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.20860/ijoses.1373033

Abstract

Education life can be stressful for students. Especially for university students who are getting closer to the world of work, this process can become increasingly stressful. When they cannot control the stress they experience, it can eventually turn into depression and anxiety. As stress, depression, and anxiety levels increase, students' optimism about their careers can be affected. It is believed that the city where students receive their education also affects the level of stress, depression, and anxiety. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a regional impact on the stress, depression, anxiety, and career optimism experienced by university students who are making career plans. Surveys were conducted in two different universities operating in two cities (İstanbul-Şırnak) with different levels of development. Independent Samples T-Test was conducted to determine if there was a difference between students in terms of mentioned variables. The analysis found no significant difference between the averages of students' stress, depression, and anxiety. However, a significant difference was found in terms of career optimism, with university students in Istanbul having higher levels of career optimism than students in Şırnak.

References

  • Acker, R. v. & Wehby, J. H. (2000). Exploring the social contexts ınfluencing student success or failure: Introduction. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 93-96.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Aydın, Ş. (2004a). Otel İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Stres Faktörleri: 4-5 Yıldızlı Otel İşletmeleri Uygulaması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(4), 1-21.
  • Aydın, Ş. (2004b). Örgütsel stres yönetimi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(3), 49-74.
  • Butler, G. (1993). Definitions of stress. Occasional paper (Royal College of General Practitioners), (61), 1.
  • Chithprabha, K. & Kanekar, S. (1995). A comparison of urban and rural students on scholastic and related variables. The Journal of Social Psychology, 117-118.
  • Conejero, I., Olié, E., Calati, R., Ducasse, D., & Courtet, P. (2018). Psychological pain, depression, and suicide: Recent evidences and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 1-9.
  • Creed, P. A., Patton, W., & Bartrum, D. (2002). Multidimensional properties of the LOT-R: Effects of optimism and pessimism on career and well-being related variables in adolescents. Journal of Career Assessment, 10(1), 42-61.
  • Çelik, Y. (2016). SPSS ile istatistik, biyoistatistik ve modern bilimsel araştırma. İstanbul: Hünkar Ofset.
  • Elie-Dit-Cosaque, C., Pallud, J. & Kalika, M. (2011). The influence of individual, contextual, and social factors on perceived behavioral control of information technology: A field theory approach. Journal of Management Information, 201-234.
  • Fischer, C. S. (1975). Toward a subcultural theory of urbanism. American Journal of Sociology, 1319-1341.
  • Gürbüz, S. & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri: Felsefe-yöntem-analiz. Ankara: Seçkin Yayınevi.
  • Hammen, C. (2005). Stress an Depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293–319.
  • Hodson, C. B. & Sander, H. A. (2014). Relationships between urban vegetation and academic achievement vary with social and environmental context. Landscape and Urban Planning.
  • İlter, İ. (2021). Lisans öğrencilerinin akademik başarıları ve kariyer kararı öz-yeterliklerinin lisansüstü eğitim niyetlerine etkisi. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, 11(1), 1-13.
  • Kalafat, T. (2012). Kariyer geleceği ölçeği (KARGEL): Türk örneklemi için psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(38), 169-179.
  • Keller, E. M. & Owens, G. P. (2020). Traditional rural values and posttraumatic stress among rural and urban undergraduates. Plos one, 1-17.
  • Korkmaz, M. (2005). İlköğretim okullarında örgütsel sağlık ile öğrenci başarısı arasındaki ilişki. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 529-548.
  • Korte, C. (1980). Urban-Nonurban differences in social behavior and social psychological models of urban impact. Journal of Social Issues, 36(3), 29-51.
  • Lamb, M. (2012). A self system perspective on young adolescents’ motivation to learn English in urban and rural settings. Language learning, 62(4), 997-1023.
  • Lawrence, A. A. & Vimala, A. (2012). School environment and academic achievement of standard IX students. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 210-215.
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Lindorfer, B. (2020). Personality theory in gestalt theoretical psychotherapy: Kurt Lewin’s field theory and his theory of systems in tension revisited. Gestalt Theory, 29-46.
  • Mahan, P. L., Mahan, M. P., Park, N.-J., Shelton, C., Brown, K. C., & Weaver, M. T. (2010). Work Environment Stressors, Social Support, Anxiety, and Depression Among Secondary School Teachers. AAOHN Journal, 58(5), 197-205.
  • Maina, G., Mauri, M., & Rossi, A. (2016). Anxiety and depression. Journal of Psychopathology, 22, 236-250.
  • McCracken, J. D. & Barcinas, J. D. (1991). Differences between rural and urban schools, student characteristics, and student aspirations in Ohio. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 29-40.
  • McInnis, O. A., & Young, M. M. (2015). Urban and rural student substance use. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
  • Oguztürk, Ö. (2008). Differences in quality of life in rural and urban populations. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 346-350.
  • Onyishi, I. E., & Ogbodo, E. (2012). The contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 38(1), 1-11.
  • Os, J. v., Kenis, G., & Rutten, B. P. (2010). The environment and schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), 203-212.
  • Putwain, D. (2007). Researching academic stress andanxiety in students: somemethodological considerations. British Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 207-219.
  • Ramli, M., Adlina, S., Suthahar, A., Edariah, A., Ariff, F. M., Narimah, A., Karuthan, C. (2008). Depression among secondary school students: A comparison between urban and rural populations in a Malaysian community. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 55-61.
  • Robinson, L. (1990). Stress and anxiety. Nursing Clinics of North America, 25(4), 935-943.
  • Romans, S., Cohen, M., & Forte, T. (2011). Rates of depression and anxiety in urban and rural Canada. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 46, 567-575.
  • Rottinghaus, P. J., Day, S. X. & Borgen, F. H. (2005). The career futures ınventory: A measure of career-related adaptability and optimism. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1), 3-24.
  • Serinkan, C., Kaymakçı, K., Alişan, U., & Avcık, C. (2012). Kamu sektöründe örgütsel stres ve kariyer: Denizli'de yapılan bir araştırma. Organizasyon ve Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(1), 21-32.
  • Streiner, D. (1994). Figuring out factors: The use and misuse of factor analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39(3), 135-140.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2021). https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Yuksekogretim-Istihdam-Gostergeleri-2022-49600#:~:text=Lisans%20mezunlar%C4%B1%20i%C3%A7in%20ilk%20i%C5%9F,%2C0%20ay)%20olarak%20ger%C3%A7ekle%C5%9Fti. adresinden erişildi. (Erişim Tarihi: 12.11.2023).
  • Tripathy, M., & Sahu, B. (2021). A comparative study on mental health of rural and urban students. International Educational Scientific Research Journal, 7, 67-77.
  • Wang, P.-Y. (2013). Examining the digital divide between rural and urban schools: Technology availability, teachers’ integration level and students’ perception. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 2(2), 127-139.
  • Wang, X., Cai, L., Qian, J., & Peng, J. (2014). Social support moderates stress effects on depression. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 8(1), 1-5.
  • Yang, L., & Venezia, S. (2020). The impact of financial aid on associate degree attainment for rural community college students: A comparison of rural, urban, and suburban patterns. Community College Review, 48(4), 423-454.
  • Yılmaz, Ö., Boz, H. & Arslan, A. (2017). Depresyon anksiyete stres ölçeğinin (DASS 21) Türkçe kısa formunun geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması. Finans Ekonomi ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2(2), 78-91.
  • Zhao, G., Ye, J., Li, Z. & Xue, S. (2017). How and why do Chinese urban students outperform their rural counterparts? China Economic Review, 103-123.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sociology of Culture, Sociology (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Süreyya ECE 0000-0002-2110-8091

Early Pub Date December 12, 2023
Publication Date December 15, 2023
Submission Date October 8, 2023
Acceptance Date December 2, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Issue: 20 - December, 2023

Cite

APA ECE, S. (2023). Öğrencilerin Stres, Depresyon, Kaygı ve Kariyer İyimserliğinde Şehir Farkı: Ampirik bir Araştırma. Uluslararası Sosyal Ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi(20), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.20860/ijoses.1373033

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