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An Important Euroasian Genus: Scutellaria L.

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, 35 - 46, 07.01.2017

Abstract

Scutellaria is found on every continent except for Antarctica. Especially it is found in Eurasia which has rich areas with the most species. The objective of this study is to focus on the importance of this genus. Scutellaria species need to be set a value upon and evaluated. Because the genus Scutellaria is rich in flavonoids and diterpenoids and has a wide range of pharmacological effects such as antitumor, anti-angiogenesis, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antiviral activities and cancer cell inhibition. Furthermore Scutellaria species have very beautiful blooms. Some countries such as the US and China achieved cultivation of this genus and they grow some species of Scutellaria as a crop production and ornamentals. But in Turkey, cultivation for crop production hasn’t been worked on yet. Scutellaria species can be cultivated so as to gain economic and ecological benefits. Even though the wild populations of Scutellaria is widely distributed in the world, some of these species are becoming rare or threatened with population pressure, environmental pollution, and destruction of their natural habitat. Conservation by cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources. 

References

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  • [2]. Pool, A. (2006). New species of Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) from Mesoamerica.Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 16(3): 388-403.
  • [3]. Çiçek, M. (2012). Scutellaria. In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., Babaç M.T. (eds). Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, İstanbul.
  • [4]. Duke J.A. (1989). CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • [5]. Graham, J.G., Quinn, M.L., Fabricant, D.S., Farnsworth, N.R. (2000). Plants used against cancer–an extension of the work of Jonathan Hartwell. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73(3): 347-377.
  • [6]. Hui, K.M., Huen, M.S., Wang, H.Y., Zheng, H., Sigel, E., Baur, R., Xue, H. (2002). Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochemical Pharmacology, 64(9): 1415-1424.
  • [7]. Kim, B.R., Kim, D.H., Park, R., Kwon, K.B., Ryu, D.G., Kim, Y.C., Kim, K.S. (2001). Effect of an extract of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and its flavonoids on aflatoxin B1 oxidizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Planta Medica, 67(5): 396-399.
  • [8]. Stojakowska, A., Kisiel, W. (1999). Secondary metabolites from a callus culture of Scutellaria columnae. Fitoterapia, 70(3): 324-325.
  • [9]. Weber, M. (2009). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Routledge Oxford University Press, New York.
  • [10]. Werker, E., Ravid, U., Putievsky, E. (1985). Structure of glandular hairs and identification of the main components of their secreted material in some species of the Labiatae. Israel Journal of Botany, 34(1): 31-45.
  • [11]. Zargari A. (1990). Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, pp. 148-150
  • [12]. Ersöz, T., Taşdemir, D., Çalış, İ., Ireland, C.M. (2002). Phenylethanoid glycosides from Scutellara galericulata. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 26(4): 465-472.
  • [13]. Lin, L.Z., Harnly, J.M., Upton, R. (2009). Comparison of the phenolic component profiles of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) and germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys), a potentially hepatotoxic adulterant. Phytochemical Analysis, 20(4): 298-306.
  • [14]. Shang, X., He, X., He, X., Li, M., Zhang, R., Fan, P., Jia, Z. (2010). The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128(2): 279-313.
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  • [16]. Juzepczuk, S.V. (1954). Scutellaria L. In: Shishkin BK, Juzepczuk SV, editors. Flora of the USSR, vol. 20. Moskva-Leningrad. p. 50–150.
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  • [18]. Rechinger, K.H. (1982). Scutellaria L. In: Rechinger KH, editor. Flora Iranica (vol. 150). Graz: Akademische Druck-u.-Verlagsanstalt p. 44–84.
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  • [20]. Huang, Q.S. (1994). Scutellaria L. In: Li XW, Hedge IC, editors. Flora of China, vol. 17. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 75–103.
  • [21]. Rionchardson, I.B.K. (1972). Scutellaria L. In: Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, S.M., Webb, D.A., editors. Flora Europaea (vol. 3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p. 135–137.
  • [22]. Paton, A. (1992). The adaptive significance of calyx and nutlet morphology in Scutellaria. In: Harley, R.M., Reynolds, T. (eds.) Advences in Labiate Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 203–210.
  • [23]. Joshee, N., Parajuli, P., Medina-Bolivar, F., Rimando, A.M., Yadav, A. (2010). Scutellaria Biotechnology: Achievements and Future Prospects. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 67(1): 24–32.
  • [24]. Paton, A. (1990b). The phytogeography of Scutellaria L. Notes RBG Edinb. 46(3): 345-359.
  • [25]. Komarov, V.L. (ed) (1954). Flora of U.S.S.R., Volume 20 (Translated from Russian: Israel Program for Scientific Translations-Jerusalem 1976. Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, pp. 50-150, Moskva-Leningrad.
  • [26]. Post, E.G. (1932). Scutellaria L., In: Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, Volume I. American Press, Beirut. pp. 367-370,
  • [27]. Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1978). Scutellaria L., In: Flora Palaestina, Volume 3 (text). TheIsrael Academy of Sciences and Humanities-Jerusalem Academic Press, Israel pp. 107-109.
  • [28]. Tutin T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M., Webb, D.A. (1972). Flora Europaea Volume 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp. 135-137.
  • [29]. Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus, Volume 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, pp. 1329-1332, Kew.
  • [30]. Çiçek, M., (2008). Türkiye Scutellaria L. (Lamiaceae) Cinsinin Revizyonu. Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Biyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, 281s. (Doktora Tezi).
  • [31]. Radford, A.R., Ahles, H.E., Bell, C.R. (1964). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill.
  • [32]. Li, J. (2007). Flora of China. Harvard Papers in Botany, 13(2): 301-302.
  • [33]. Li, H.W., Hedge, I.C. (1994). Lamiaceae. Flora of China, 17, 50-299.
  • [34]. Williams, P.A. (1992). Ecology of the endangered herb Scutellaria novaezelandiae. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 16(2): 127-135.
  • [35]. The Grand Dictionary of Chinese Herbs, (1977). Shanghai People’s Publishing House (SPPH).
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  • [38]. Han, J., Ye, M., Xu, M., Sun, J., Wang, B., Guo, D. (2007). Characterization of flavonoids in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Huangqin by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 848(2): 355-362.
  • [39]. Gao, J., Sanchez-Medina, A., Pendry, B. A., Hughes, M. J., Webb, G. P., Corcoran, O. (2008). Validation of a HPLC method for flavonoid biomarkers in skullcap (Scutellaria) and its use to illustrate wide variability in the quality of commercial tinctures. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(1): 77-87.
  • [40]. Wang, H.Z., Yu, C.H., Gao, J., Zhao, G.R. (2007). Effects of processing and extracting methods on active components in Radix Scutellariae by HPLC analysis. China journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 32(16): 1637-1640.
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  • [42]. Zhou, Y., Hirotani, M., Yoshikawa, T., Furuya, T. (1997). Flavonoids and phenylethanoids from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis. Phytochemistry, 44(1): 83-87.
  • [43]. Hirotani, M. (1999). Genetic transformation of Scutellaria baicalensis. In: Transgenic Medicinal Plants. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 271-283.
  • [44]. Saracoğlu, İ., Inoue, M., Çalış İ., Ogihara, Y. (1995). Studies on Constituents and Cytostatic Activity of Two Turkish Medicinal Plants Phlomis armeniaca and Scutellaria salviifolia. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18: 1396-1400
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An Important Euroasian Genus: Scutellaria L.

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, 35 - 46, 07.01.2017

Abstract

Scutellaria is found on every continent except for Antarctica. Especially it is found in Eurasia which has rich areas with the most species. The objective of this study is to focus on the importance of this genus. Scutellaria species need to be set a value upon and evaluated. Because the genus Scutellaria is rich in flavonoids and diterpenoids and has a wide range of pharmacological effects such as antitumor, anti-angiogenesis, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antiviral activities and cancer cell inhibition. Furthermore Scutellaria species have very beautiful blooms. Some countries such as the US and China achieved cultivation of this genus and they grow some species of Scutellaria as a crop production and ornamentals. But in Turkey, cultivation for crop production hasn’t been worked on yet. Scutellaria species can be cultivated so as to gain economic and ecological benefits. Even though the wild populations of Scutellaria is widely distributed in the world, some of these species are becoming rare or threatened with population pressure, environmental pollution, and destruction of their natural habitat. Conservation by cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources. 

References

  • [1]. Paton, A. (1990a). A global taxonomic investigation of Scutellaria (Labiatae). Kew Bulletin, 45(3): 399-450.
  • [2]. Pool, A. (2006). New species of Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) from Mesoamerica.Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 16(3): 388-403.
  • [3]. Çiçek, M. (2012). Scutellaria. In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., Babaç M.T. (eds). Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, İstanbul.
  • [4]. Duke J.A. (1989). CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • [5]. Graham, J.G., Quinn, M.L., Fabricant, D.S., Farnsworth, N.R. (2000). Plants used against cancer–an extension of the work of Jonathan Hartwell. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73(3): 347-377.
  • [6]. Hui, K.M., Huen, M.S., Wang, H.Y., Zheng, H., Sigel, E., Baur, R., Xue, H. (2002). Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochemical Pharmacology, 64(9): 1415-1424.
  • [7]. Kim, B.R., Kim, D.H., Park, R., Kwon, K.B., Ryu, D.G., Kim, Y.C., Kim, K.S. (2001). Effect of an extract of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and its flavonoids on aflatoxin B1 oxidizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Planta Medica, 67(5): 396-399.
  • [8]. Stojakowska, A., Kisiel, W. (1999). Secondary metabolites from a callus culture of Scutellaria columnae. Fitoterapia, 70(3): 324-325.
  • [9]. Weber, M. (2009). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Routledge Oxford University Press, New York.
  • [10]. Werker, E., Ravid, U., Putievsky, E. (1985). Structure of glandular hairs and identification of the main components of their secreted material in some species of the Labiatae. Israel Journal of Botany, 34(1): 31-45.
  • [11]. Zargari A. (1990). Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Tehran University Publications, Tehran, pp. 148-150
  • [12]. Ersöz, T., Taşdemir, D., Çalış, İ., Ireland, C.M. (2002). Phenylethanoid glycosides from Scutellara galericulata. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 26(4): 465-472.
  • [13]. Lin, L.Z., Harnly, J.M., Upton, R. (2009). Comparison of the phenolic component profiles of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) and germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys), a potentially hepatotoxic adulterant. Phytochemical Analysis, 20(4): 298-306.
  • [14]. Shang, X., He, X., He, X., Li, M., Zhang, R., Fan, P., Jia, Z. (2010). The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128(2): 279-313.
  • [15]. Boissier, E. (1879). Scutellaria L. In: Boissier E, editor. Flora Orientalis (vol. 4). Geneva, Basel, Leiden: H. Georg; p. 681–691.
  • [16]. Juzepczuk, S.V. (1954). Scutellaria L. In: Shishkin BK, Juzepczuk SV, editors. Flora of the USSR, vol. 20. Moskva-Leningrad. p. 50–150.
  • [17]. Edmondson, J.R. (1982). “Scutellaria” in: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. University Press, Edinburgh Vol. 7, ed. P.H. Davis, pp. 78-100.
  • [18]. Rechinger, K.H. (1982). Scutellaria L. In: Rechinger KH, editor. Flora Iranica (vol. 150). Graz: Akademische Druck-u.-Verlagsanstalt p. 44–84.
  • [19. Tatsu-Nami-Sō, Z. (1984). Scutellaria L. In: Ohwi J, editor. Flora of Japan. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution p. 770–772.
  • [20]. Huang, Q.S. (1994). Scutellaria L. In: Li XW, Hedge IC, editors. Flora of China, vol. 17. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 75–103.
  • [21]. Rionchardson, I.B.K. (1972). Scutellaria L. In: Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, S.M., Webb, D.A., editors. Flora Europaea (vol. 3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p. 135–137.
  • [22]. Paton, A. (1992). The adaptive significance of calyx and nutlet morphology in Scutellaria. In: Harley, R.M., Reynolds, T. (eds.) Advences in Labiate Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 203–210.
  • [23]. Joshee, N., Parajuli, P., Medina-Bolivar, F., Rimando, A.M., Yadav, A. (2010). Scutellaria Biotechnology: Achievements and Future Prospects. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 67(1): 24–32.
  • [24]. Paton, A. (1990b). The phytogeography of Scutellaria L. Notes RBG Edinb. 46(3): 345-359.
  • [25]. Komarov, V.L. (ed) (1954). Flora of U.S.S.R., Volume 20 (Translated from Russian: Israel Program for Scientific Translations-Jerusalem 1976. Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, pp. 50-150, Moskva-Leningrad.
  • [26]. Post, E.G. (1932). Scutellaria L., In: Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, Volume I. American Press, Beirut. pp. 367-370,
  • [27]. Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1978). Scutellaria L., In: Flora Palaestina, Volume 3 (text). TheIsrael Academy of Sciences and Humanities-Jerusalem Academic Press, Israel pp. 107-109.
  • [28]. Tutin T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M., Webb, D.A. (1972). Flora Europaea Volume 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp. 135-137.
  • [29]. Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus, Volume 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, pp. 1329-1332, Kew.
  • [30]. Çiçek, M., (2008). Türkiye Scutellaria L. (Lamiaceae) Cinsinin Revizyonu. Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Biyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, 281s. (Doktora Tezi).
  • [31]. Radford, A.R., Ahles, H.E., Bell, C.R. (1964). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill.
  • [32]. Li, J. (2007). Flora of China. Harvard Papers in Botany, 13(2): 301-302.
  • [33]. Li, H.W., Hedge, I.C. (1994). Lamiaceae. Flora of China, 17, 50-299.
  • [34]. Williams, P.A. (1992). Ecology of the endangered herb Scutellaria novaezelandiae. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 16(2): 127-135.
  • [35]. The Grand Dictionary of Chinese Herbs, (1977). Shanghai People’s Publishing House (SPPH).
  • [36]. Huang, Y., Tsang, S.Y., Yao, X., Chen, Z.Y. (2005). Biological properties of baicalein in cardiovascular system. Current Drug Targets-Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders, 5(2): 177-184.
  • [37]. Baytop, T. (1999). Türkiye′ de Bitkiler ile Tedavi Geçmişten Bugüne, II. Baskı, Nobel Tıp Basimevi, Istanbul.
  • [38]. Han, J., Ye, M., Xu, M., Sun, J., Wang, B., Guo, D. (2007). Characterization of flavonoids in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Huangqin by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 848(2): 355-362.
  • [39]. Gao, J., Sanchez-Medina, A., Pendry, B. A., Hughes, M. J., Webb, G. P., Corcoran, O. (2008). Validation of a HPLC method for flavonoid biomarkers in skullcap (Scutellaria) and its use to illustrate wide variability in the quality of commercial tinctures. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(1): 77-87.
  • [40]. Wang, H.Z., Yu, C.H., Gao, J., Zhao, G.R. (2007). Effects of processing and extracting methods on active components in Radix Scutellariae by HPLC analysis. China journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 32(16): 1637-1640.
  • [41]. Shin, S.W., Lee, H.K. (1995). Production of baicalin by cell culture of Scutellaria baicalensis. Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 26(2): 159-163.
  • [42]. Zhou, Y., Hirotani, M., Yoshikawa, T., Furuya, T. (1997). Flavonoids and phenylethanoids from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis. Phytochemistry, 44(1): 83-87.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Published Date January
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ersin MİNARECİ This is me
CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Sinem PEKÖNÜR This is me
CELÂL BAYAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date January 7, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Minareci, E. & Pekönür, S. (2017). An Important Euroasian Genus: Scutellaria L. . International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 4 (1) , 35-46 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijsm/issue/23667/282271

International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM)

ISSN-e: 2148-6905