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Determination of Flavonoid Contents and Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Extract of Selected Citrus Fruit Peel

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, 8 - 18, 20.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.660578

Abstract

Flavonoids capture and neutralize the oxidative agents, and quench free radicals. The peel which represents almost one half of the fruit mass has been found to be the main sources of total phenols and flavonoids in the citrus fruit. In present study, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from some selected citrus fruit peels grown in Ethiopia were determined. Colorimetric aluminum chloride was used for flavonoid content determination. In vitro antioxidant properties of the citrus fruit peels were determined by measuring DPPH and Nitric Oxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The study result showed that lemon peel contained significantly the highest flavonoid content (8.88 ± 0.621 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of extract) at 100 µg/ml concentration. When compared to vitamin C used as standard, lemon peel extract showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging of 75.60 ± 2.4 %. Lime peel extract showed highest (0.38 ± 0.01) reducing power activity at 1000 µg/mL concentrations. Strong linear correlations was observed between flavonoid contents of selected citrus peel extract and DPPH free radical scavenging activity (r = 0.975, p = 0.025). Overall, in vitro antioxidant potential of citrus fruit peels extract grown in Ethiopia was confirmed and correlation between in vitro antioxidant activity and flavonoid content of citrus peel extract showed different trends. Further analysis is required to purify specific structure of flavonoid components of citrus fruit peel from Ethiopian cultivar using advanced purification techniques.

References

  • Nimse, S, B., Pal, D. (2015). Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv, 5, 27986-28006. doi: 10.1039/c4ra13315c
  • Bhattacharya, M., Chakraborty, S. (2015). Free radicals and naturally occurring antioxidants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem., 3, 1-7.
  • Lobo, V., Patil, A, Phatak, A., Chandra, N. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev., 4, 118-126. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902
  • Gorinstein, S., Martín-Belloso, O., Park, Y. S., Haruenkit, R., Lojek, A., Ĉíž, M., Caspi, A., Libman, I., Trakhtenberg, S. (2001). Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits. Food Chem., 3, 309-315.
  • Yang, X., Kang, S. M., Jeon, B. T., Kim, Y. D., Ha, J. H., Kim, Y. T., Jeon, Y. J. ( 2011). Isolation and identification of an antioxidant flavonoid compound from citrus-processing by-product. J Sci Food Agric., 91, 1925-1933. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4402
  • Segev, A., Badani, H., Kapulnik, K., Shomer, I., Oren-Shamir, M., Galili, S. (2010). Determination of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in colored chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.). J Food Sci., 75, S115-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01477.x
  • Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A. (2009). Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan J Pharm Sci., 22, 277-281.
  • Asjad, M. M., Akhtar, M. S., Bashir, S., Din, B., Gulzar, F., Khalid, R., Asad, M. (2013). Phenol, Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Six Common Citrus Plants in Pakistan. J Pharm Cosmet Sc., 1, 1-5.
  • Bind, A., Singh, A., Prakash, V., Ahmadand, N., Kumar, M. (2015). Evaluation of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants activity in fruit peels. World J Pharm Pharm Sci., 7, 955-965.
  • Lim, S. M., Loh, S. P. (2016). In vitro antioxidant capacities and antidiabetic properties of phenolic extracts from selected citrus peels. Int Food Res J., 23, 211-219.
  • Xi, W., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Shen, Y., Ye, X., Zhou, Z. (2014). Phenolic composition of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Balnco.) pulps and their antioxidant properties. Ind Crops Prod., 52, p.466-474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.016
  • El Zawawy, N. A. (2015). Antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial studies and quantitative phytochemical estimation of ethanolic extracts of selected fruit peels. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci., 4, 298-309.
  • Asmare, D., Derbew, B., Belayneh, A., Mohammed, Y. (2014). Citrus production, constraints and management practices in Ethiopia: the case of pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease. Sci, Techn Arts Res J., 3, 4-18. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i2.2
  • Cai, W., Xiaohong, G., Jian, T. (2010). Extraction, purification, and characterisation of the flavonoids from opuntia milpa alta skin. Czech J Food Sci., 28, 108-116. doi: 10.17221/122/2009-CJFS
  • Sofowora, A. (1996). Research on Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine in Africa. J Altern Complement Med., 2, 365-372. doi: http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.1996.2.365
  • Ajayi, I. A., Ajibade, O., Oderinde, R. A. (2011). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of some plant seeds. Res J Chem Sci., 3, 58-62.
  • Munwar, S., Roy, H., Rahaman, S. A. (2015). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Citrus medica. Int J Pharma Res Health Sci., 3, 810-816.
  • Al-Anbari, A. K. H., Hasan, M. A. (2015). Antioxidant activity in some citrus leaves and seeds ethanolic extracts. In: International Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences, London, UK, 93-97.
  • Divya, P. J., Prakash, J., Lakshmi, A. J. (2016). Antioxidant properties of fresh and processed Citrus aurantium fruit. Cogent Food Agric., 2, 1184119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1184119
  • Yadav, M., Chatterji, S., Gupta, S.K., Watal, G. (2014). Preliminary phytochemical screening of six medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci., 6, 539-542.
  • Singh, S, Immanuel, G. (2014). Extraction of antioxidants from fruit peels and its utilization in paneer. J Food Process Technol., 5, 349-53. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000349
  • Diankov, S., Karsheva, M., Hinkov, I. (2011). Extraction of natural antioxidants from lemon peels. Kinetics and antioxidant capacity. J Univ Chem Technol Metall., 46, 315-319.
  • Sadaf, Z., Farooq, A., Tahir, M., Bushra, S., Rahman, Q. (2016). Variation in antioxidant attributes and individual phenolics of citrus fruit peels in relation to different species and extraction solvents. J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 2, 2884-2889. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072016000200007
  • Alam, Md. N., Bristi, N.J., Rafiquzzaman, Md. (2012). Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J., 21, 143-152.
  • Arora, M., Kaur, P. (2013). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Orange Pulp and Peel. Int J Sci Res., 2, 412-415.
  • Kim, J. (2013). Preliminary evaluation for comparative antioxidant activity in the water and ethanol extracts of dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Food Nutr Sci., 4, 177-188. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.42025
  • Marcocci, I., Marguire, J.J., Droy-lefaiz, M.T., Packer, L. (1994). The nitric oxide scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 201, 748-755. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1764
  • Parul, R., Kundu, S. K., Saha, P. (2013). In vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity of methanol extracts of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants. The Pharma Innovation-J., 1, 83-88.
  • Cardenosa, V., Joao, C. M. B., Lillian, B., Arenas-Arenas, F. J., Moreno-Rojas, J. M., Ferreira, I. C. (2015). Variety and harvesting season effects on antioxidant activity and vitamins content of Citrus sinensis Macfad. Mol., 20, 8287-8302. doi: 10.3390/molecules20058287.
  • Mahmoudi, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Ansaroudi, F., Nabavi, S. F., Nabavi, S. M. (2009). Antidepressant and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium L. at flowering stage. Afr J Biotechnol., 8, 7170-7175. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.753
  • Calado, J. C. P., Albertão, P. A., de Oliveira, E. A., Letra, M. H. S., Sawaya, A. C., Marcucci, M. C. (2015). Flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in fruit, vegetables and other types of food. Agric Sci., 6, 426-435.http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2015.64042
  • Heim, K. E., Tagliaferro, A. R., Bobilya, D. J. (2002). Flavonoid Antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationship. J Nutr Biochem., 13, 572-584. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863 (02)00208-5
  • Cao, G., Sofic, E., Prior, R. L. (1997). Antioxidant and pro-oxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med., 22, 749-760. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(96)00351-6

Determination of Flavonoid Contents and Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Extract of Selected Citrus Fruit Peel

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, 8 - 18, 20.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.660578

Abstract

Flavonoids capture and neutralize the oxidative agents, and quench free radicals. The peel which represents almost one half of the fruit mass has been found to be the main sources of total phenols and flavonoids in the citrus fruit. In present study, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from some selected citrus fruit peels grown in Ethiopia were determined. Colorimetric aluminum chloride was used for flavonoid content determination. In vitro antioxidant properties of the citrus fruit peels were determined by measuring DPPH and Nitric Oxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The study result showed that lemon peel contained significantly the highest flavonoid content (8.88 ± 0.621 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of extract) at 100 µg/ml concentration. When compared to vitamin C used as standard, lemon peel extract showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging of 75.60 ± 2.4 %. Lime peel extract showed highest (0.38 ± 0.01) reducing power activity at 1000 µg/mL concentrations. Strong linear correlations was observed between flavonoid contents of selected citrus peel extract and DPPH free radical scavenging activity (r = 0.975, p = 0.025). Overall, in vitro antioxidant potential of citrus fruit peels extract grown in Ethiopia was confirmed and correlation between in vitro antioxidant activity and flavonoid content of citrus peel extract showed different trends. Further analysis is required to purify specific structure of flavonoid components of citrus fruit peel from Ethiopian cultivar using advanced purification techniques.

References

  • Nimse, S, B., Pal, D. (2015). Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv, 5, 27986-28006. doi: 10.1039/c4ra13315c
  • Bhattacharya, M., Chakraborty, S. (2015). Free radicals and naturally occurring antioxidants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem., 3, 1-7.
  • Lobo, V., Patil, A, Phatak, A., Chandra, N. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev., 4, 118-126. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902
  • Gorinstein, S., Martín-Belloso, O., Park, Y. S., Haruenkit, R., Lojek, A., Ĉíž, M., Caspi, A., Libman, I., Trakhtenberg, S. (2001). Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits. Food Chem., 3, 309-315.
  • Yang, X., Kang, S. M., Jeon, B. T., Kim, Y. D., Ha, J. H., Kim, Y. T., Jeon, Y. J. ( 2011). Isolation and identification of an antioxidant flavonoid compound from citrus-processing by-product. J Sci Food Agric., 91, 1925-1933. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4402
  • Segev, A., Badani, H., Kapulnik, K., Shomer, I., Oren-Shamir, M., Galili, S. (2010). Determination of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in colored chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.). J Food Sci., 75, S115-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01477.x
  • Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A. (2009). Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan J Pharm Sci., 22, 277-281.
  • Asjad, M. M., Akhtar, M. S., Bashir, S., Din, B., Gulzar, F., Khalid, R., Asad, M. (2013). Phenol, Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Six Common Citrus Plants in Pakistan. J Pharm Cosmet Sc., 1, 1-5.
  • Bind, A., Singh, A., Prakash, V., Ahmadand, N., Kumar, M. (2015). Evaluation of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants activity in fruit peels. World J Pharm Pharm Sci., 7, 955-965.
  • Lim, S. M., Loh, S. P. (2016). In vitro antioxidant capacities and antidiabetic properties of phenolic extracts from selected citrus peels. Int Food Res J., 23, 211-219.
  • Xi, W., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Shen, Y., Ye, X., Zhou, Z. (2014). Phenolic composition of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Balnco.) pulps and their antioxidant properties. Ind Crops Prod., 52, p.466-474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.016
  • El Zawawy, N. A. (2015). Antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial studies and quantitative phytochemical estimation of ethanolic extracts of selected fruit peels. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci., 4, 298-309.
  • Asmare, D., Derbew, B., Belayneh, A., Mohammed, Y. (2014). Citrus production, constraints and management practices in Ethiopia: the case of pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease. Sci, Techn Arts Res J., 3, 4-18. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i2.2
  • Cai, W., Xiaohong, G., Jian, T. (2010). Extraction, purification, and characterisation of the flavonoids from opuntia milpa alta skin. Czech J Food Sci., 28, 108-116. doi: 10.17221/122/2009-CJFS
  • Sofowora, A. (1996). Research on Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine in Africa. J Altern Complement Med., 2, 365-372. doi: http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.1996.2.365
  • Ajayi, I. A., Ajibade, O., Oderinde, R. A. (2011). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of some plant seeds. Res J Chem Sci., 3, 58-62.
  • Munwar, S., Roy, H., Rahaman, S. A. (2015). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Citrus medica. Int J Pharma Res Health Sci., 3, 810-816.
  • Al-Anbari, A. K. H., Hasan, M. A. (2015). Antioxidant activity in some citrus leaves and seeds ethanolic extracts. In: International Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences, London, UK, 93-97.
  • Divya, P. J., Prakash, J., Lakshmi, A. J. (2016). Antioxidant properties of fresh and processed Citrus aurantium fruit. Cogent Food Agric., 2, 1184119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1184119
  • Yadav, M., Chatterji, S., Gupta, S.K., Watal, G. (2014). Preliminary phytochemical screening of six medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci., 6, 539-542.
  • Singh, S, Immanuel, G. (2014). Extraction of antioxidants from fruit peels and its utilization in paneer. J Food Process Technol., 5, 349-53. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000349
  • Diankov, S., Karsheva, M., Hinkov, I. (2011). Extraction of natural antioxidants from lemon peels. Kinetics and antioxidant capacity. J Univ Chem Technol Metall., 46, 315-319.
  • Sadaf, Z., Farooq, A., Tahir, M., Bushra, S., Rahman, Q. (2016). Variation in antioxidant attributes and individual phenolics of citrus fruit peels in relation to different species and extraction solvents. J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 2, 2884-2889. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072016000200007
  • Alam, Md. N., Bristi, N.J., Rafiquzzaman, Md. (2012). Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J., 21, 143-152.
  • Arora, M., Kaur, P. (2013). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Orange Pulp and Peel. Int J Sci Res., 2, 412-415.
  • Kim, J. (2013). Preliminary evaluation for comparative antioxidant activity in the water and ethanol extracts of dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Food Nutr Sci., 4, 177-188. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.42025
  • Marcocci, I., Marguire, J.J., Droy-lefaiz, M.T., Packer, L. (1994). The nitric oxide scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 201, 748-755. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1764
  • Parul, R., Kundu, S. K., Saha, P. (2013). In vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity of methanol extracts of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants. The Pharma Innovation-J., 1, 83-88.
  • Cardenosa, V., Joao, C. M. B., Lillian, B., Arenas-Arenas, F. J., Moreno-Rojas, J. M., Ferreira, I. C. (2015). Variety and harvesting season effects on antioxidant activity and vitamins content of Citrus sinensis Macfad. Mol., 20, 8287-8302. doi: 10.3390/molecules20058287.
  • Mahmoudi, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Ansaroudi, F., Nabavi, S. F., Nabavi, S. M. (2009). Antidepressant and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium L. at flowering stage. Afr J Biotechnol., 8, 7170-7175. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.753
  • Calado, J. C. P., Albertão, P. A., de Oliveira, E. A., Letra, M. H. S., Sawaya, A. C., Marcucci, M. C. (2015). Flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in fruit, vegetables and other types of food. Agric Sci., 6, 426-435.http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2015.64042
  • Heim, K. E., Tagliaferro, A. R., Bobilya, D. J. (2002). Flavonoid Antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationship. J Nutr Biochem., 13, 572-584. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863 (02)00208-5
  • Cao, G., Sofic, E., Prior, R. L. (1997). Antioxidant and pro-oxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med., 22, 749-760. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(96)00351-6

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Published Date March
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Olyad ERBA> (Primary Author)
School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Haramaya University
0000-0001-5552-6884
Ethiopia


Dereje ATOMSA>
School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Haramaya University
0000-0002-6034-6738
Ethiopia


Meseret CHIMDESSA>
School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Haramaya University
0000-0001-5474-1515
Ethiopia


Teshome GONFA>
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Haramaya University
0000-0001-5691-6905
Ethiopia

Supporting Institution The office Vice President for Research Affairs, Haramaya University
Project Number HURG-2016-06-01-05
Thanks We thank Haramaya University, Vice president for Research Affairs to fund the mega project coded HURG-2016-06-01-05 from which this manuscript extracted. We also gratitude the Dire Dawa District farmer for their willing to provide us with the fruit.
Publication Date March 20, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1

Cite

APA Erba, O. , Atomsa, D. , Chımdessa, M. & Gonfa, T. (2020). Determination of Flavonoid Contents and Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Extract of Selected Citrus Fruit Peel . International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 7 (1) , 8-18 . DOI: 10.21448/ijsm.660578

International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM)

ISSN-e: 2148-6905