Research Article
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Edible insect consumption and Turkish consumers’ attitudes towards entomophagy

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 165 - 171, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.21

Abstract

Generally, in the world edible insects have gained popularity and awareness among people. Therefore, the study on Turkish consumers' attitudes and consumption towards entomophagy has important findings. The relationships edible insects with sociodemographic effects, demand to eat and personality traits of participants were determined by online questionnaire method. According to the results, most of the participants have not consumed edible insects before and furthermore both male and female consumers were not found to be positive tendency for eating edible insects. The main factors of rejection behaviors are disgusting, food neophobia and some health and religious concerns. However, a few participants have already consumed edible insects and have mainly exhibited this experience in abroad. Thereby, the study suggests that familiarity and awareness are the most significant factors changing attitudes towards to edible insect consumption for Turkish consumers. To determine consumption behavior and preferences of Turkish consumers, the most significant factors are overpassing the psychological barrier such as neophobia and facilitate entomophagy acceptance. This study could enable the development of strategies to increase desire of eating EI (edible insects) by Turkish consumers and promote insect production.

References

  • Barsics, F., Megido, R.C., Brostaux, Y., Barsics, C., Blecker, C., Haubruge, E. and Francis, F. (2017). Could new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?. British Food Journal, 119(9).
  • Belluco, S., Losasso, C., Maggioletti, M., Alonzi, C.C., Paoletti, M.G. and Ricci, A. (2013). Edible insects in a food safety and nutritional perspective: a critical review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(3), 296-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12014
  • Botkin, D.B., Saxe, H., Araujo, M.B., Betts, R., Bradshaw, R.H., Cedhagen, T. and Stockwell, D.R. (2007). Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience, 57(3), 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1641/B570306
  • Detilleux L., Wittock, G., Dogot, T., Francis, F. and Megido R.C. (2021). Edible insects. what about the perceptions of Belgian youngsters?. British Food Journal X.
  • Finke, M.D. and Oonincx, D. (2014). Insects as food for insectivores. In Mass production of beneficial organisms. Academic Press, (pp. 583-616). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-391453-8.00017-0
  • Flachowsky, G., Meyer, U. and Südekum K.H. (2017). Land use for edible protein of animal origin—a review. Animals, 7(3), 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7030025
  • Florença, S.G., Correia, P.M., Costa, C.A. and Guiné, R.P. (2021). Edible insects: preliminary study about perceptions, attitudes and knowledge on a sample of Portuguese citizens. Foods, 10(4), 709. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040709
  • Gere, A., Székely, G., Kovács, S., Kókai, Z. and Sipos, L. (2017). Readiness to adopt insects in Hungary: A case study. Food Quality and Preference, 59, 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.02.005
  • Hanboonsong, Y., Jamjanya, T., and Durst, P. B. (2013). Six-legged livestock: edible insect farming, collection and marketing in Thailand. RAP publication, 3, 8-21.
  • Hartmann, C., Shi. J., Giusto, A. and Siegrist, M. (2015). The psychology of eating insects: A cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China. Food Quality and Preference, 44, 148-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.04.013
  • Hlongwane, Z. T., Slotow, R., and Munyai, T. C. (2020). Nutritional composition of edible insects consumed in africa: A systematic review. Nutrients, 12(9), 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092786
  • Homann, A.M., Ayieko, M.A., Konyole, S.O. and Roos, N. (2017). Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 3(2), 95-103. https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2016.0054
  • Imathiu, S. (2020). Benefits and food safety concerns associated with consumption of edible insects. NFS Journal, 18, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2019.11.002
  • Karaman, R. and Bozok, D. (2019). Grasshopper as an alternative food source: a qualitative application. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 7(3), 1573-1587. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jgttr/issue/60212/874068
  • Kaymaz, E. and Ulema, Ş. (2020). Yenilebilir böceklerin menülerde kullanılması üzerine bir araştırma-Kapadokya örneği. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, (14), 46-63. (in Turkish). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttr/issue/57881/832901
  • Klunder, H.C., Wolkers-Rooijackers, J., Korpela, J.M. and Nout, M.R. (2012). Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control, 26(2), 628-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.013
  • La Barbera, F., Verneau, F., Amato, M. and Grunert, K. (2018). Understanding Westerners’ disgust for the eating of insects: The role of food neophobia and implicit associations. Food Quality and Preference, 64, 120-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.10.002
  • Liu, A. J., Li, J., and Gómez, M. I. (2019). Factors influencing consumption of edible insects for Chinese consumers. Insects, 11(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010010
  • Lammers, P., Ullmann, L.M. and Fiebelkorn, F. (2019). Acceptance of insects as food in Germany: Is it about sensation seeking. sustainability consciousness. or food disgust?. Food Quality and Preference, 77, 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.05.010
  • Looy, H., Dunkel, F.V. and Wood, J.R. (2014). How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways. Agriculture and Human Values, 31(1), 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-013-9450-x
  • Mancini, S., Moruzzo, R., Riccioli, F. and Paci, G. (2019). European consumers' readiness to adopt insects as food. A review. Food Research International, 122, 661-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Security – Turkey (2021). New minimum wage.
  • Mitsuhashi, J. (1997). Insects as traditional foods in Japan. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 36(2-4), 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.1997.9991514
  • Olum, S., Wesana, J., Mawadri, J., Nakiranda, J. K., and Odongo, W. (2021). Insects as food: Illuminating the food neophobia and socio-cultural dynamics of insect consumption in Uganda. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 41(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-020-00309-2
  • Oonincx, D.G.A.B. and Van der Poel, A.F.B. (2011). Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria). Zoo Biology, 30(1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041
  • Orkusz, A., Wolańska, W., Harasym, J., Piwowar, A. and Kapelko, M. (2020). Consumers’ attitudes facing entomophagy: Polish case perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(7), 2427. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072427
  • Palmieri, N., Perito, M. A., Macrì, M. C., and Lupi, C. (2019). Exploring consumers’ willingness to eat insects in Italy. British Food Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2019-0170
  • Pambo, K.O., Okello, J.J., Mbeche, R. and Kinyuru, J.N. (2016). Consumer acceptance of edible insects for non-meat protein in Western Kenya (No. 310-2016-5436). African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) > 2016 Fifth International Conference. September 23-26. 2016. Addis Ababa/ Ethiopia https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.246317
  • Peters, R.L. (1990). Effects of global warming on forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 35(1-2), 13-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(90)90229-5
  • Piha, S., Pohjanheimo, T., Lähteenmäki-Uutela, A., Křečková, Z. and Otterbring, T. (2018). The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe. Food Quality and Preference, 70, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.12.006
  • Ramos-Elorduy, J. (2002). Edible insects of chiapas. Mexico. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(4), 271-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240290014543
  • Rumpold, B.A. and Schlüter, O.K. (2013). Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57(5), 802-823. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200735
  • Siegrist, M., Hartmann, C. and Keller, C. (2013). Antecedents of food neophobia and its association with eating behavior and food choices. Food Quality and Preference, 30(2), 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.06.013
  • Sogari, G., Menozzi, D., and Mora, C. (2019). The food neophobia scale and young adults’ intention to eat insect products. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 43(1), 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12485
  • Srivastava, S.K., Babu, N. and Pandey, H. (2009). Traditional insect bioprospecting–As human food and medicine. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8(4), 485-494.
  • Toti, E., Massaro, L., Kais, A., Aiello, P., Palmery, M., and Peluso, I. (2020). Entomophagy: A narrative review on nutritional value, safety, cultural acceptance and a focus on the role of food neophobia in Italy. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 10(2), 628-643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10020046
  • Tuccillo, F., Marino, M.G. and Torri, L. (2020). Italian consumers’ attitudes towards entomophagy: Influence of human factors and properties of insects and insect-based food. Food research International, 137, 109619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109619
  • Van Huis, A. (2013). Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 563-583. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704
  • Van Huis, A. (2016). Edible insects are the future?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(3), 294–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665116000069
  • Verkerk, M.C. Tramper. J.. Van Trijp. J. C. M. and Martens. D. E. (2007). Insect cells for human food. Biotechnology Advances, 25(2), 198-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2006.11.004
  • Woolf, E., Zhu, Y., Emory, K., Zhao, J. and Liu, C. (2019). Willingness to consume insect-containing foods: A survey in the United States. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, 102, 100-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.12.010
  • Yen, A. L. (2015). Insects as food and feed in the Asia Pacific region: current perspectives and future directions. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 1(1), 33-55. https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2014.0017

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 165 - 171, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.21

Abstract

References

  • Barsics, F., Megido, R.C., Brostaux, Y., Barsics, C., Blecker, C., Haubruge, E. and Francis, F. (2017). Could new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?. British Food Journal, 119(9).
  • Belluco, S., Losasso, C., Maggioletti, M., Alonzi, C.C., Paoletti, M.G. and Ricci, A. (2013). Edible insects in a food safety and nutritional perspective: a critical review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(3), 296-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12014
  • Botkin, D.B., Saxe, H., Araujo, M.B., Betts, R., Bradshaw, R.H., Cedhagen, T. and Stockwell, D.R. (2007). Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience, 57(3), 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1641/B570306
  • Detilleux L., Wittock, G., Dogot, T., Francis, F. and Megido R.C. (2021). Edible insects. what about the perceptions of Belgian youngsters?. British Food Journal X.
  • Finke, M.D. and Oonincx, D. (2014). Insects as food for insectivores. In Mass production of beneficial organisms. Academic Press, (pp. 583-616). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-391453-8.00017-0
  • Flachowsky, G., Meyer, U. and Südekum K.H. (2017). Land use for edible protein of animal origin—a review. Animals, 7(3), 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7030025
  • Florença, S.G., Correia, P.M., Costa, C.A. and Guiné, R.P. (2021). Edible insects: preliminary study about perceptions, attitudes and knowledge on a sample of Portuguese citizens. Foods, 10(4), 709. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040709
  • Gere, A., Székely, G., Kovács, S., Kókai, Z. and Sipos, L. (2017). Readiness to adopt insects in Hungary: A case study. Food Quality and Preference, 59, 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.02.005
  • Hanboonsong, Y., Jamjanya, T., and Durst, P. B. (2013). Six-legged livestock: edible insect farming, collection and marketing in Thailand. RAP publication, 3, 8-21.
  • Hartmann, C., Shi. J., Giusto, A. and Siegrist, M. (2015). The psychology of eating insects: A cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China. Food Quality and Preference, 44, 148-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2015.04.013
  • Hlongwane, Z. T., Slotow, R., and Munyai, T. C. (2020). Nutritional composition of edible insects consumed in africa: A systematic review. Nutrients, 12(9), 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092786
  • Homann, A.M., Ayieko, M.A., Konyole, S.O. and Roos, N. (2017). Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 3(2), 95-103. https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2016.0054
  • Imathiu, S. (2020). Benefits and food safety concerns associated with consumption of edible insects. NFS Journal, 18, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2019.11.002
  • Karaman, R. and Bozok, D. (2019). Grasshopper as an alternative food source: a qualitative application. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 7(3), 1573-1587. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jgttr/issue/60212/874068
  • Kaymaz, E. and Ulema, Ş. (2020). Yenilebilir böceklerin menülerde kullanılması üzerine bir araştırma-Kapadokya örneği. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, (14), 46-63. (in Turkish). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttr/issue/57881/832901
  • Klunder, H.C., Wolkers-Rooijackers, J., Korpela, J.M. and Nout, M.R. (2012). Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control, 26(2), 628-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.013
  • La Barbera, F., Verneau, F., Amato, M. and Grunert, K. (2018). Understanding Westerners’ disgust for the eating of insects: The role of food neophobia and implicit associations. Food Quality and Preference, 64, 120-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.10.002
  • Liu, A. J., Li, J., and Gómez, M. I. (2019). Factors influencing consumption of edible insects for Chinese consumers. Insects, 11(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010010
  • Lammers, P., Ullmann, L.M. and Fiebelkorn, F. (2019). Acceptance of insects as food in Germany: Is it about sensation seeking. sustainability consciousness. or food disgust?. Food Quality and Preference, 77, 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2019.05.010
  • Looy, H., Dunkel, F.V. and Wood, J.R. (2014). How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways. Agriculture and Human Values, 31(1), 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-013-9450-x
  • Mancini, S., Moruzzo, R., Riccioli, F. and Paci, G. (2019). European consumers' readiness to adopt insects as food. A review. Food Research International, 122, 661-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Security – Turkey (2021). New minimum wage.
  • Mitsuhashi, J. (1997). Insects as traditional foods in Japan. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 36(2-4), 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.1997.9991514
  • Olum, S., Wesana, J., Mawadri, J., Nakiranda, J. K., and Odongo, W. (2021). Insects as food: Illuminating the food neophobia and socio-cultural dynamics of insect consumption in Uganda. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 41(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-020-00309-2
  • Oonincx, D.G.A.B. and Van der Poel, A.F.B. (2011). Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria). Zoo Biology, 30(1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.041
  • Orkusz, A., Wolańska, W., Harasym, J., Piwowar, A. and Kapelko, M. (2020). Consumers’ attitudes facing entomophagy: Polish case perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(7), 2427. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072427
  • Palmieri, N., Perito, M. A., Macrì, M. C., and Lupi, C. (2019). Exploring consumers’ willingness to eat insects in Italy. British Food Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2019-0170
  • Pambo, K.O., Okello, J.J., Mbeche, R. and Kinyuru, J.N. (2016). Consumer acceptance of edible insects for non-meat protein in Western Kenya (No. 310-2016-5436). African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) > 2016 Fifth International Conference. September 23-26. 2016. Addis Ababa/ Ethiopia https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.246317
  • Peters, R.L. (1990). Effects of global warming on forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 35(1-2), 13-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(90)90229-5
  • Piha, S., Pohjanheimo, T., Lähteenmäki-Uutela, A., Křečková, Z. and Otterbring, T. (2018). The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe. Food Quality and Preference, 70, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.12.006
  • Ramos-Elorduy, J. (2002). Edible insects of chiapas. Mexico. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(4), 271-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240290014543
  • Rumpold, B.A. and Schlüter, O.K. (2013). Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 57(5), 802-823. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200735
  • Siegrist, M., Hartmann, C. and Keller, C. (2013). Antecedents of food neophobia and its association with eating behavior and food choices. Food Quality and Preference, 30(2), 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.06.013
  • Sogari, G., Menozzi, D., and Mora, C. (2019). The food neophobia scale and young adults’ intention to eat insect products. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 43(1), 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12485
  • Srivastava, S.K., Babu, N. and Pandey, H. (2009). Traditional insect bioprospecting–As human food and medicine. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8(4), 485-494.
  • Toti, E., Massaro, L., Kais, A., Aiello, P., Palmery, M., and Peluso, I. (2020). Entomophagy: A narrative review on nutritional value, safety, cultural acceptance and a focus on the role of food neophobia in Italy. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 10(2), 628-643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10020046
  • Tuccillo, F., Marino, M.G. and Torri, L. (2020). Italian consumers’ attitudes towards entomophagy: Influence of human factors and properties of insects and insect-based food. Food research International, 137, 109619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109619
  • Van Huis, A. (2013). Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 563-583. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704
  • Van Huis, A. (2016). Edible insects are the future?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 75(3), 294–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665116000069
  • Verkerk, M.C. Tramper. J.. Van Trijp. J. C. M. and Martens. D. E. (2007). Insect cells for human food. Biotechnology Advances, 25(2), 198-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2006.11.004
  • Woolf, E., Zhu, Y., Emory, K., Zhao, J. and Liu, C. (2019). Willingness to consume insect-containing foods: A survey in the United States. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, 102, 100-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.12.010
  • Yen, A. L. (2015). Insects as food and feed in the Asia Pacific region: current perspectives and future directions. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 1(1), 33-55. https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2014.0017

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Zeynep BAKKALOĞLU (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL RUMELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8250-8478
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2022
Application Date October 24, 2021
Acceptance Date March 23, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Bakkaloğlu, Z. (2022). Edible insect consumption and Turkish consumers’ attitudes towards entomophagy . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (1) , 165-171 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.21


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