Research Article
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Pitfalls and prospects of contract farming to smallholder tobacco farmers in Shamva district, Zimbabwe

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 189 - 196, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.24

Abstract

The objective was to assess the challenges and opportunities of contract farming to smallholder tobacco farmers in ward 27, Shamva District, Zimbabwe. Data on demographics, household endowments and economic and social achievements from tobacco production was collected using questionnaires and interviews. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting the tobacco farmers. Data was analysed using SPSS version 26. The results show that 93.9% of the participants were males and most of the participants were educated to primary level (36.4%). Zimbabwe Leaf Tobacco Company (43%) was cited as the major company which provide contract farming to tobacco farmers in ward 27. The results further indicated that there are more opportunities received by tobacco farmers such as receiving inputs at no cost but face challenges such as poor crop yields due to low producer price (55%), high cost of production (30%), low rainfall (9%) and shortage of firewood (6%). Some participants indicated that they do not have technical knowledge on how to use chemicals and in identifying pests so that they apply the correct chemicals. It is recommended that companies which provide contract farming must collaborate with the Ministry of Agriculture and further train farmers on financial management skills, how to use chemicals and pest identification so that the quality of the leaf is improved. Nevertheless, contracting companies should provide tillage services to farmers and ensure that farmers are included in price determination.

References

  • Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX), (2014). Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, Second Round Crop and Livestock Assessment Report 2013/14 Season, Zimbabwe.
  • Carlos D. S., & Marlo, R. (2013). Indian Journal - The Rise of contract farming. 4(2): 233-300.
  • Da Silva, C. A., & Rankin, M. (2013). Contract farming for inclusive market access, FAO Rural Infrastructure and Agro Industries Division.
  • Dawes, M. (2009). Inventory of Smallholder contract farming Practices.
  • Eaton, C., & Shepherd, A. 2001. Contract farming. Partnerships for growth FAO Agricultural Service Bulletin 145.
  • FAO. (2001). Contract farming. Partnerships for growth, by C. Eaton & A.W. Shepherd. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 145. Rome.
  • Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), (2012). Annual Report, Harare.
  • Glover, D. (1984). Contract Farming and Commercialization of Agriculture in Developing Countries.
  • Glover, D. (1992). Contract Farming In Southeast Asia (Edited by D. GLOVER and Lim Teel Ghee), Institute For Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, p. 71-119.
  • Glover, D., & Kusterer, K. (1990). Small farmers, big business: Contract farming and Rural Development. London Macmillan.
  • IFAD, (2003). Promoting Market Access for the Rural Poor in Order to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Roundtable Discussion Paper for the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Session of IFAD‟s Governing Council, February 2003.
  • Kessides, M. (2002). Externalities and the return to Agriculture Research: Discussion. American Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (2): 466-467.
  • Kumar, P. (2006). Contract farming through agribusiness Firms and State Corporation: A case study in Punjab. Economic and Political Weekly, 5367-5375.
  • Kurt, S., & Johann, K. (2006). Contracts and Contract Farming as potential Mechanism to Improve Market Access for Black Farmers in South Africa.
  • Mariko, T. (2009). On line Business journal.
  • Minton, A. (1986). Eastern Africa Economic Review.
  • Mutenje, M., and Mango, L, (2019). Impact of Tobacco Production on Indigenous Forests: A case of Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Zambrut Journal of Forestry and Plantation, 1(1): 1-7.
  • Owen, Y. (2008). Planning and Social control: Exploring the Dark Side. Journal of planning Literature. 12 (4): 395-406.
  • Reach, M., Syten, J. & Rebeck, S. (2007). New Development in Agricultural Extension. Privatization of Extension Services. Journal of Extension Systems. 3 (2): 15-24.
  • Ruttan, R. (2007). Some concerns about Contract Farming Policy in the United States.Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 26 (4): 145-156.
  • Sartorius, K., & Kirsten, J. (2006). Contracts and contract farming as potential mechanisms to improve market access for black farmers in South Africa. Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
  • Singh, S. (2003). Contract Farming for Agriculture Development and Diversification in Punjab: Problems and Prospects.
  • Stringfellow, R. (1996). An Investigations of the Organisational Features, Commodities and Situations Associated with Contract Farming and Out grower Schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa and of the factors which are critical to their successful operation: Chatham, Natural Resources Institute.
  • TIMB, (2011). Flue-cured tobacco annual statistical report. Tobacco Industry Marketing Board, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Wang, H.H.Y., & Delgad, M.S. (2014). The Transition on Modern Agriculture. Contract Farming in Developing Economics.
  • Watts, M. J. (1994). Life Under Contract: Contract Farming, Agrarian Restructuring and Flexible Accumulation, (Living under Contract, Contract Farming, Agrarian Transformation in SubSaharan Africa (Edited by P. D. Little and M. J. Watts), The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. p. 21-70.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 189 - 196, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.24

Abstract

References

  • Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX), (2014). Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, Second Round Crop and Livestock Assessment Report 2013/14 Season, Zimbabwe.
  • Carlos D. S., & Marlo, R. (2013). Indian Journal - The Rise of contract farming. 4(2): 233-300.
  • Da Silva, C. A., & Rankin, M. (2013). Contract farming for inclusive market access, FAO Rural Infrastructure and Agro Industries Division.
  • Dawes, M. (2009). Inventory of Smallholder contract farming Practices.
  • Eaton, C., & Shepherd, A. 2001. Contract farming. Partnerships for growth FAO Agricultural Service Bulletin 145.
  • FAO. (2001). Contract farming. Partnerships for growth, by C. Eaton & A.W. Shepherd. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 145. Rome.
  • Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), (2012). Annual Report, Harare.
  • Glover, D. (1984). Contract Farming and Commercialization of Agriculture in Developing Countries.
  • Glover, D. (1992). Contract Farming In Southeast Asia (Edited by D. GLOVER and Lim Teel Ghee), Institute For Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, p. 71-119.
  • Glover, D., & Kusterer, K. (1990). Small farmers, big business: Contract farming and Rural Development. London Macmillan.
  • IFAD, (2003). Promoting Market Access for the Rural Poor in Order to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Roundtable Discussion Paper for the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Session of IFAD‟s Governing Council, February 2003.
  • Kessides, M. (2002). Externalities and the return to Agriculture Research: Discussion. American Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (2): 466-467.
  • Kumar, P. (2006). Contract farming through agribusiness Firms and State Corporation: A case study in Punjab. Economic and Political Weekly, 5367-5375.
  • Kurt, S., & Johann, K. (2006). Contracts and Contract Farming as potential Mechanism to Improve Market Access for Black Farmers in South Africa.
  • Mariko, T. (2009). On line Business journal.
  • Minton, A. (1986). Eastern Africa Economic Review.
  • Mutenje, M., and Mango, L, (2019). Impact of Tobacco Production on Indigenous Forests: A case of Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Zambrut Journal of Forestry and Plantation, 1(1): 1-7.
  • Owen, Y. (2008). Planning and Social control: Exploring the Dark Side. Journal of planning Literature. 12 (4): 395-406.
  • Reach, M., Syten, J. & Rebeck, S. (2007). New Development in Agricultural Extension. Privatization of Extension Services. Journal of Extension Systems. 3 (2): 15-24.
  • Ruttan, R. (2007). Some concerns about Contract Farming Policy in the United States.Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 26 (4): 145-156.
  • Sartorius, K., & Kirsten, J. (2006). Contracts and contract farming as potential mechanisms to improve market access for black farmers in South Africa. Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
  • Singh, S. (2003). Contract Farming for Agriculture Development and Diversification in Punjab: Problems and Prospects.
  • Stringfellow, R. (1996). An Investigations of the Organisational Features, Commodities and Situations Associated with Contract Farming and Out grower Schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa and of the factors which are critical to their successful operation: Chatham, Natural Resources Institute.
  • TIMB, (2011). Flue-cured tobacco annual statistical report. Tobacco Industry Marketing Board, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Wang, H.H.Y., & Delgad, M.S. (2014). The Transition on Modern Agriculture. Contract Farming in Developing Economics.
  • Watts, M. J. (1994). Life Under Contract: Contract Farming, Agrarian Restructuring and Flexible Accumulation, (Living under Contract, Contract Farming, Agrarian Transformation in SubSaharan Africa (Edited by P. D. Little and M. J. Watts), The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. p. 21-70.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Agriculture
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Lawrence MANGO (Primary Author)
Zimbabwe Open University
0000-0003-2048-6098
Zimbabwe


Andrew Tapiwa KUGEDERA
Zimbabwe Open University
0000-0002-1700-6922
Zimbabwe

Supporting Institution Zimbabwe Open University
Project Number 15
Thanks To the Zimbabwe Leaf Tobacco Company, Northern Tobacco Company and Chidziva Tobacco Processors
Publication Date March 15, 2022
Application Date January 5, 2022
Acceptance Date March 20, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Mango, L. & Kugedera, A. T. (2022). Pitfalls and prospects of contract farming to smallholder tobacco farmers in Shamva district, Zimbabwe . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (1) , 189-196 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.24


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