Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex Cite

Abuse of Older Adults: A Study of the Prevalence and Type of Abuse and Its Relationships to Psychological Distress

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 3, 41 - 47, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.51819/jaltc.2021.1072048

Abstract

Several studies have investigated the antecedents of abuse against older adults in developed countries, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and psychological distress of abuse against older adults in Nigeria. This study examined the prevalence and type of abuse and its links to psychological distress among older adults in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was used to recruit 392 respondents ranging in age from 60 to 80 years old (M = 70.77, S = 6.33) using a convenient sampling technique. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. The data were summarized using descriptive statistics like frequency counts, percentages, means, and standard deviations, and the hypothesis was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed a relatively moderate prevalence of abuse (28.3%) among older adults, while emotional (18%) and verbal (82%) were the types of abuse that the respondents experienced. Finally, psychological distress had a statistically significant main effect on older adults' abuse (F3,388 = 28.69, p < .05). The study concluded that the prevalence of abuse against older adults is below average in the study setting, with verbal and emotional abuse being the most common types among the respondents. It was also concluded that psychological distress influenced abuse towards older adults.

References

  • Acierno, R., Hernandez-Tejada, M. S., Wendy-Muzzy, B. S., & Kenneth-Steve, M. S. (2009). National Elder Mistreatment Study. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/226456.pdf.
  • Ajayi, S. A., Adebusoye, L. A., Ogunbode, A. M., Akinyemi, J. O., & Adebayo, A. M. (2015). Profile and correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at a primary care clinic in Nigeria. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 7(1), 810-815. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v7i1.810
  • Akpan, I. D., & Umobong, M. E. (2013). An assessment of the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, 3(5), 8-14.
  • Asogwa, L., & Igbokwe, C. (2010). Prevalence of abuse of the elderly in domestic setting in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Home Economics Research, 13, 197-208.
  • Bigala, P., & Ayiga, N. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of elder abuse in Mafikeng Local Municipality in South Africa. African Population Studies, 463-474.
  • Cadmus, E. O., Owoaje, E. T., & Akinyemi, O. O. (2015). Older persons' views and experience of elder abuse in South Western Nigeria: A community-based qualitative survey. Journal of Aging and Health, 27(4), 711-729. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264314559893
  • Cooney, C., Howard, R., & Lawlor, B. (2006). Abuse of vulnerable people with dementia by their carers: can we identify those most at risk? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 21(6), 564-571. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/gps.1525?download=true
  • Cooper, C., Selwood, A., Blanchard, M., Walker, Z., Blizard, R., & Livingston, G. (2009). Abuse of people with dementia by family carers: representative cross sectional survey. BMJ, 338, b155. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b155
  • Cooper, C., Selwood, A., & Livingston, G. (2008). The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review. Age and Ageing, 37(2), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm194
  • Dangbin, J. P., & Kyamru, J. (2014). Demographic pattern of economic elder abuse among retired army officers and men in Bauchi South Senatorial District, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(7), 61.
  • Dong, X., Chen, R., Chang, E. S., & Simon, M. (2013). Elder abuse and psychological well-being: a systematic review and implications for research and policy--a mini review. Gerontology, 59(2), 132-142. https://doi.org/10.1159/000341652
  • Dong, X., Simon, M., & Evans, D. (2012). Decline in physical function and risk of elder abuse reported to social services in a community-dwelling population of older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(10), 1922-1928. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04147.x
  • Global Age Watch Index. (2015). Global Age Watch Index 2015: Insight Report, Summary and Methodology. Global Age Watch Index. https://www.helpage.org/global-agewatch/
  • Iborra, I. (2008). Elder abuse in the family in Spain. Madrid Queen: Sofía Cent er.
  • Kessler, R. C., Barker, P. R., Colpe, L. J., Epstein, J. F., Gfroerer, J. C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M. J., Normand, S. L., Manderscheid, R. W., Walters, E. E., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(2), 184-189. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184
  • Luo, Y., & Waite, L. J. (2011). Mistreatment and psychological well-being among older adults: exploring the role of psychosocial resources and deficits. Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(2), 217-229. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq096
  • Neale, A. V., Hwalek, M. A., Scott, R. O., Sengstock, M. C., & Stahl, C. (1991). Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock elder abuse screening test. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 10(4), 406-418.
  • Ola, T. M., & Olalekan, A. (2012). Socio-demographic correlates of pattern of elderly abuse in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(20), 299-306.
  • Olasupo, M. G., Olasupo, M. O., & Fagbenro, D. A. (2020). Social Support, Socio Demographic Factors and Elder Abuse: A Quantitative Study. Psychocentrum Review, 2(1), 1-12.
  • Sijuwade, P. O. (2008). Elderly care by family members: Abandonment, abuse and neglect. The Social Sciences, 3(8), 542-547.
  • Tareque, M. I., Islam, T. M., Koshio, A., & Kawahara, K. (2015). Economic well-being and elder abuse in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Research on Aging, 37(2), 200-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027514527833
  • World Health Organization. (2010). Older People–A New Power for Development, 1st October International Day of Older Persons. In.
  • World Health Organization. (2018). Ageing and health. www.who.int/news-roomfact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health
  • Yan, E., & Tang, C. S.-K. (2016). Prevalence and Psychological Impact of Chinese Elder Abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(11), 1158-1174. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626001016011004

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 3, 41 - 47, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.51819/jaltc.2021.1072048

Abstract

References

  • Acierno, R., Hernandez-Tejada, M. S., Wendy-Muzzy, B. S., & Kenneth-Steve, M. S. (2009). National Elder Mistreatment Study. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/226456.pdf.
  • Ajayi, S. A., Adebusoye, L. A., Ogunbode, A. M., Akinyemi, J. O., & Adebayo, A. M. (2015). Profile and correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at a primary care clinic in Nigeria. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 7(1), 810-815. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v7i1.810
  • Akpan, I. D., & Umobong, M. E. (2013). An assessment of the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, 3(5), 8-14.
  • Asogwa, L., & Igbokwe, C. (2010). Prevalence of abuse of the elderly in domestic setting in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Home Economics Research, 13, 197-208.
  • Bigala, P., & Ayiga, N. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of elder abuse in Mafikeng Local Municipality in South Africa. African Population Studies, 463-474.
  • Cadmus, E. O., Owoaje, E. T., & Akinyemi, O. O. (2015). Older persons' views and experience of elder abuse in South Western Nigeria: A community-based qualitative survey. Journal of Aging and Health, 27(4), 711-729. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264314559893
  • Cooney, C., Howard, R., & Lawlor, B. (2006). Abuse of vulnerable people with dementia by their carers: can we identify those most at risk? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 21(6), 564-571. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/gps.1525?download=true
  • Cooper, C., Selwood, A., Blanchard, M., Walker, Z., Blizard, R., & Livingston, G. (2009). Abuse of people with dementia by family carers: representative cross sectional survey. BMJ, 338, b155. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b155
  • Cooper, C., Selwood, A., & Livingston, G. (2008). The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review. Age and Ageing, 37(2), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm194
  • Dangbin, J. P., & Kyamru, J. (2014). Demographic pattern of economic elder abuse among retired army officers and men in Bauchi South Senatorial District, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(7), 61.
  • Dong, X., Chen, R., Chang, E. S., & Simon, M. (2013). Elder abuse and psychological well-being: a systematic review and implications for research and policy--a mini review. Gerontology, 59(2), 132-142. https://doi.org/10.1159/000341652
  • Dong, X., Simon, M., & Evans, D. (2012). Decline in physical function and risk of elder abuse reported to social services in a community-dwelling population of older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(10), 1922-1928. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04147.x
  • Global Age Watch Index. (2015). Global Age Watch Index 2015: Insight Report, Summary and Methodology. Global Age Watch Index. https://www.helpage.org/global-agewatch/
  • Iborra, I. (2008). Elder abuse in the family in Spain. Madrid Queen: Sofía Cent er.
  • Kessler, R. C., Barker, P. R., Colpe, L. J., Epstein, J. F., Gfroerer, J. C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M. J., Normand, S. L., Manderscheid, R. W., Walters, E. E., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(2), 184-189. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184
  • Luo, Y., & Waite, L. J. (2011). Mistreatment and psychological well-being among older adults: exploring the role of psychosocial resources and deficits. Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(2), 217-229. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq096
  • Neale, A. V., Hwalek, M. A., Scott, R. O., Sengstock, M. C., & Stahl, C. (1991). Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock elder abuse screening test. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 10(4), 406-418.
  • Ola, T. M., & Olalekan, A. (2012). Socio-demographic correlates of pattern of elderly abuse in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(20), 299-306.
  • Olasupo, M. G., Olasupo, M. O., & Fagbenro, D. A. (2020). Social Support, Socio Demographic Factors and Elder Abuse: A Quantitative Study. Psychocentrum Review, 2(1), 1-12.
  • Sijuwade, P. O. (2008). Elderly care by family members: Abandonment, abuse and neglect. The Social Sciences, 3(8), 542-547.
  • Tareque, M. I., Islam, T. M., Koshio, A., & Kawahara, K. (2015). Economic well-being and elder abuse in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Research on Aging, 37(2), 200-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027514527833
  • World Health Organization. (2010). Older People–A New Power for Development, 1st October International Day of Older Persons. In.
  • World Health Organization. (2018). Ageing and health. www.who.int/news-roomfact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health
  • Yan, E., & Tang, C. S.-K. (2016). Prevalence and Psychological Impact of Chinese Elder Abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(11), 1158-1174. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626001016011004

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Gerontology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mobolaji OLASUPO This is me
Obafemi Awolowo University
0000-0003-2020-5997
Nigeria


Dare FAGBENRO> (Primary Author)
Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife
0000-0002-9899-5426
Nigeria


Mathew OLASUPO This is me
Obafemi Awolowo University
0000-0001-9041-196X
Nigeria

Thanks The researchers would like to express their gratitude to the Obafemi Awolowo University retirees and the Ile-Ife, Osun State, retirees' association for their time and participation in the present study.
Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 3

Cite

APA Olasupo, M. , Fagbenro, D. & Olasupo, M. (2021). Abuse of Older Adults: A Study of the Prevalence and Type of Abuse and Its Relationships to Psychological Distress . Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care , 4 (3) , 41-47 . DOI: 10.51819/jaltc.2021.1072048

For further assistance and more detailed information about the JALTC and the publishing process, please do not hesitate to contact the secretariat of the JALTC via sending an e-mail: editor-in-chief@jaltc.net

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The National and Applied Gerontology Association (NASAG) is a leading non-profit organization in Turkey that promotes healthy and productive aging via evidence-based research. The utilization of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research in gerontology is crucial in integrating research, practice, and policy, given the need for evidence-based programming to improve the quality of life in old age. As an advocate for social action for older people, the NASAG is particularly concerned that public policies are strongly and genuinely focused on supporting and protecting the most vulnerable, marginalized, or disadvantaged older people.