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COVID-19 Vaccination Behaviors, Sources of Information, and Beliefs among Nursing Home Administrators and Other Staff

Year 2023, Volume: 6 Issue: 3, 159 - 170, 01.01.2024

Abstract

Vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers is a major health issue. The study objective was to examine the vaccination behaviors, sources of information, and beliefs among a sample of nursing home administrators and other staff. The National Association of Long-Term Care Administrator Boards (NAB) provided their contact list of all 1,159 currently licensed nursing home administrators and assisted living administrators in the United States (US) for this study. A cross-sectional analysis of survey responses was collected in the spring of 2021, and data was analyzed from 1,004 completed surveys of US nursing home administrators and other staff. A subpopulation of long-term care staff who refuse to be vaccinated based on the perceived speed of vaccine development and rollout, among other health concerns. Respondents selected a variety of sources from where they retrieved information about the COVID-19 vaccine. Most respondents trust the COVID-19 vaccine (80.6%), believe that the vaccine is important (82.7%), and are confident in its effectiveness in decreasing the spread of COVID-19 (74.9%). There was a high percentage of respondents who reported getting vaccinated against COVID-19. Of the sample, 85.0% responded “yes” to receiving the vaccine (scheduled but not received, in progress, or completed). Healthcare workers need to use reputable sources to retrieve information about vaccines.

References

  • Berry, S. D., Baier, R. R., Syme, M., Gouskova, N., Bishnoi, C., Patel, U., Leitson, M., Gharpure, R., Stone, N. D., Link-Gelles, R., & Gifford, D. R. (2022). Strategies associated with COVID-19 vaccine coverage among nursing home staff. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17559
  • Berry, S. D., Johnson, K. S., Myles, L., Herndon, L., Montoya, A., Fashaw, S., & Gifford, D. (2021). Lessons learned from frontline skilled nursing facility staff regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(5), 1140–1146. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17136
  • Canning, H., Phillips, J., & Allsup, S. (2005). Health care worker beliefs about influenza vaccine and reasons for non-vaccination: A cross sectional survey. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(8).
  • Coronavirus. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: February 23, 2021. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-february-23-2021
  • Gorges, R. J., & Konetzka, R. T. (2021). Factors Associated With Racial Differences in Deaths Among Nursing Home Residents With COVID-19 Infection in the US. JAMA network open, 4(2), e2037431. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37431
  • Harrison, J., Berry, S., Mor, V., & Gifford, D. (2021). "Somebody like me": Understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff in skilled nursing facilities. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 22(6), 1133–1137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.03.012
  • Holahan, T. J., Eber, L. B., Vigne, E., & Clinical Practice Steering Committee of AMDA—The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (2022). Building Trust in Post- Acute and Long-Term Care: Strategies for Sustainable Change. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 23(2), 193–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.12.007
  • Johnson & Johnson. Johnson & Johnson: Content Lab U.S. (2021). https://www.jnj.com/johnson-johnson-covid-19- vaccine-authorized-by-u-s-fda-for-emergency-usefirst-single-shot-vaccine-in-fight- against-global-pandemic#:~:text=The%20EUA%20follows%20a%20unanimous,)%20on%20February%2026%2C%202021.
  • Karlsson, L.C., Lewandowsky, S., Antfolk, J., Salo, P., Lindfelt, M., Oksanen, T., . . . Soveri, A. (2019). The association between vaccination confidence, vaccination behavior, and willingness to recommend vaccines among Finnish healthcare workers. PLoS One, 1-17.
  • La Torre, G., Scalingi, S., Garruto, V., Siclari, M., Chiarini, M., & Mannocci, A. (2017). Knowledge, attitude, and behaviors towards recommended vaccinations among healthcare workers. Healthcare, 13.
  • Larson, H.J., Clarke, R. M., Jarrett, C., Eckersberger, E., Levine, Z., Schulz, W. S., & Paterson, P. (2018). Measuring trust in vaccination: A systematic review. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 1599-1609.
  • Lee, S.K, Sun, J., Jang, S., & Connelly, S. (2022). Misinformation of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine hesitancy. Scientific Reports, 12,1-11. 10.1038/s41598-022-17430-6
  • McGarry, B. E., Barnett, M. L., Grabowski, D. C., & Gandhi, A. D. (2022). Nursing Home Staff Vaccination and Covid-19 Outcomes. The New England journal of medicine, 386(4), 397–398. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2115674
  • Moderna Receives Full U.S. FDA Approval for COVID-19 Vaccine Spikevax. (2022). https://investors.modernatx.com/news/news-details/2022/Moderna-Receives-Full-U.S.-FDA-Approval-for-COVID-19-Vaccine-Spikevax/default.aspx
  • Niznik, J. D., Harrison, J., White, E. M., Syme, M., Hanson, L. C., Kelley, C. J., Porter, L., & Berry, S. D. (2022). Perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare assistants: A national survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70(1), 8–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17437
  • Siani, A., & Tranter, A. (2022). Is vaccine confidence an unexpected victim of the COVID-19 pandemic?. Vaccine, 40(50), 7262–7269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.10.061
  • Sinha, S., & Konetzka, R. T. (2022). Association of COVID-19 Vaccination Rates of Staff and COVID-19 Illness and Death Among Residents and Staff in US Nursing Homes. JAMA network open, 5(12), e2249002. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.49002
  • Tan, H. H., & Lim, A. K. (2009). Trust in Coworkers and Trust in Organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 45-66. Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M., Groenewould, R., Rachor, G. S., & Asmundson, G. J. (2020. Oct.). A proactive approach for managing COVID-19: The importance of understanding the motivational roots of vaccination hesitancy for SARS-CoV2. Frontiers in Psychology. 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575950
  • Temkin-Greener, H., Guo, W., Mao, Y., Cai, X., & Li, Y. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic in Assisted Living Communities: Results from Seven States. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(12), 2727–2734. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16850
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. (2021). FDA approves first COVID-19 vaccine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-covid-19-vaccine#:~:text=The%20first%20EUA%2C%20issued%20Dec,trial%20of%20thousands%20of%20individuals.
  • Unroe, K. T., Evans, R., Weaver, L., Rusyniak, D., & Blackburn, J. (2021). Willingness of Long- Term Care Staff to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccine: A Single State Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(3), 593–599. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17022
  • Vipperman, A., Zimmerman, S., & Sloane, P. D. (2021). COVID-19 Recommendations for Assisted Living: Implications for the Future. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 22(5), 933–938.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.02.021
Year 2023, Volume: 6 Issue: 3, 159 - 170, 01.01.2024

Abstract

References

  • Berry, S. D., Baier, R. R., Syme, M., Gouskova, N., Bishnoi, C., Patel, U., Leitson, M., Gharpure, R., Stone, N. D., Link-Gelles, R., & Gifford, D. R. (2022). Strategies associated with COVID-19 vaccine coverage among nursing home staff. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17559
  • Berry, S. D., Johnson, K. S., Myles, L., Herndon, L., Montoya, A., Fashaw, S., & Gifford, D. (2021). Lessons learned from frontline skilled nursing facility staff regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(5), 1140–1146. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17136
  • Canning, H., Phillips, J., & Allsup, S. (2005). Health care worker beliefs about influenza vaccine and reasons for non-vaccination: A cross sectional survey. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(8).
  • Coronavirus. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: February 23, 2021. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-february-23-2021
  • Gorges, R. J., & Konetzka, R. T. (2021). Factors Associated With Racial Differences in Deaths Among Nursing Home Residents With COVID-19 Infection in the US. JAMA network open, 4(2), e2037431. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37431
  • Harrison, J., Berry, S., Mor, V., & Gifford, D. (2021). "Somebody like me": Understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff in skilled nursing facilities. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 22(6), 1133–1137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.03.012
  • Holahan, T. J., Eber, L. B., Vigne, E., & Clinical Practice Steering Committee of AMDA—The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (2022). Building Trust in Post- Acute and Long-Term Care: Strategies for Sustainable Change. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 23(2), 193–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.12.007
  • Johnson & Johnson. Johnson & Johnson: Content Lab U.S. (2021). https://www.jnj.com/johnson-johnson-covid-19- vaccine-authorized-by-u-s-fda-for-emergency-usefirst-single-shot-vaccine-in-fight- against-global-pandemic#:~:text=The%20EUA%20follows%20a%20unanimous,)%20on%20February%2026%2C%202021.
  • Karlsson, L.C., Lewandowsky, S., Antfolk, J., Salo, P., Lindfelt, M., Oksanen, T., . . . Soveri, A. (2019). The association between vaccination confidence, vaccination behavior, and willingness to recommend vaccines among Finnish healthcare workers. PLoS One, 1-17.
  • La Torre, G., Scalingi, S., Garruto, V., Siclari, M., Chiarini, M., & Mannocci, A. (2017). Knowledge, attitude, and behaviors towards recommended vaccinations among healthcare workers. Healthcare, 13.
  • Larson, H.J., Clarke, R. M., Jarrett, C., Eckersberger, E., Levine, Z., Schulz, W. S., & Paterson, P. (2018). Measuring trust in vaccination: A systematic review. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 1599-1609.
  • Lee, S.K, Sun, J., Jang, S., & Connelly, S. (2022). Misinformation of COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine hesitancy. Scientific Reports, 12,1-11. 10.1038/s41598-022-17430-6
  • McGarry, B. E., Barnett, M. L., Grabowski, D. C., & Gandhi, A. D. (2022). Nursing Home Staff Vaccination and Covid-19 Outcomes. The New England journal of medicine, 386(4), 397–398. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2115674
  • Moderna Receives Full U.S. FDA Approval for COVID-19 Vaccine Spikevax. (2022). https://investors.modernatx.com/news/news-details/2022/Moderna-Receives-Full-U.S.-FDA-Approval-for-COVID-19-Vaccine-Spikevax/default.aspx
  • Niznik, J. D., Harrison, J., White, E. M., Syme, M., Hanson, L. C., Kelley, C. J., Porter, L., & Berry, S. D. (2022). Perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare assistants: A national survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70(1), 8–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17437
  • Siani, A., & Tranter, A. (2022). Is vaccine confidence an unexpected victim of the COVID-19 pandemic?. Vaccine, 40(50), 7262–7269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.10.061
  • Sinha, S., & Konetzka, R. T. (2022). Association of COVID-19 Vaccination Rates of Staff and COVID-19 Illness and Death Among Residents and Staff in US Nursing Homes. JAMA network open, 5(12), e2249002. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.49002
  • Tan, H. H., & Lim, A. K. (2009). Trust in Coworkers and Trust in Organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 45-66. Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M., Groenewould, R., Rachor, G. S., & Asmundson, G. J. (2020. Oct.). A proactive approach for managing COVID-19: The importance of understanding the motivational roots of vaccination hesitancy for SARS-CoV2. Frontiers in Psychology. 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575950
  • Temkin-Greener, H., Guo, W., Mao, Y., Cai, X., & Li, Y. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic in Assisted Living Communities: Results from Seven States. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(12), 2727–2734. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16850
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. (2021). FDA approves first COVID-19 vaccine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-covid-19-vaccine#:~:text=The%20first%20EUA%2C%20issued%20Dec,trial%20of%20thousands%20of%20individuals.
  • Unroe, K. T., Evans, R., Weaver, L., Rusyniak, D., & Blackburn, J. (2021). Willingness of Long- Term Care Staff to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccine: A Single State Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 69(3), 593–599. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17022
  • Vipperman, A., Zimmerman, S., & Sloane, P. D. (2021). COVID-19 Recommendations for Assisted Living: Implications for the Future. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 22(5), 933–938.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.02.021

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aged Care Nursing
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Daniel VAN DUSSEN 0000-0002-8331-013X

Amy WEAVER 0000-0002-7358-9640

Rachel WARD 0009-0007-7810-890X

Adaline COOKE 0009-0006-7492-7118

Publication Date January 1, 2024
Submission Date October 11, 2023
Acceptance Date December 31, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 6 Issue: 3

Cite

APA VAN DUSSEN, D., WEAVER, A., WARD, R., COOKE, A. (2024). COVID-19 Vaccination Behaviors, Sources of Information, and Beliefs among Nursing Home Administrators and Other Staff. Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care, 6(3), 159-170.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The National and Applied Gerontology Association (NASAG) is a leading non-profit organization in Türkiye that promotes healthy and productive aging via evidence-based research. The utilization of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research in gerontology is crucial in integrating research, practice, and policy, given the need for evidence-based programming to improve the quality of life in old age. As an advocate for social action for older people, the NASAG is particularly concerned that public policies are strongly and genuinely focused on supporting and protecting the most vulnerable, marginalized, or disadvantaged older people.

The NASAG has been a member of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) since 2007.