Research Article
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The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper

Year 2017, Volume 12, Issue 3, 217 - 223, 30.09.2017

Abstract

The microbial component can be present in the organism at the first sight seems intact. This presence of the relation microflora-organism (or organ) might be in a symbiotic, parasitic, respectively pathogenic form. But if this biological microflora (in the research of this case the heterotrophic bacteria, general coliforms, yeasts and moulds) is dramatically added might consider as a source of toxins/ bio-toxins. The plants which are used as human food must be toxin-free, respectively without microorganisms especially without pathogenic microorganisms. Many authors have argued that the microbial flora associates the plant whence the seed. Therefore, one can ascertain that seeds respectively seedlings (sprout), which are developed from seeds are in contact with the microorganism whence the food environment. Even the decay of fruits and vegetables is a consequence of the presence of bacteria and fungi in the soil from where they achieve to the vegetative and generative parts of the plant. These microorganisms might be nominated indigenous flora.  The environments where these microorganisms are found are: the soil, the water and the air. And if this nutritive environment is pasteurized or sterilized incorrectly, prepared without proper care etc. might be a source of the initial inoculation with microorganisms, which during their growth (germination, blossoming and fruit), through their seed  (embryo) will reach again at their new seeds and fruits. It should be noted that microorganisms might reach the organic system of the plant (e.g. ploem) even through other paths but the one through soil and water is more argued. In this paper a relatively high density of the bacterial and fungal microflora is registered in the seeds of the “pepperoni” sort, dry hot pepper and black pepper. Measures are made in the weight amount respectively in the surface and inside the seed. 

References

  • Beuchat, LR, (1997) Comparison of chemical treatments to kill Salmonella on alfalfa seeds destined for sprout production. Intl. J. Food Microbiol., 34, 329-333. Beuchat LR, (2002) Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raë fruits and vegetables. Microbes Infect. 4, 413-423. Fields LM, (1979) Fundamentals of food microbiology. AVI Publishing Comapny. INC. Westport, Connection. Hedberg CW, MacDonald KL, Osterholm MT, (1994) Changing epidemiology of foodborne disease: A Minnesota perspective. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18, 671-682. Jones JM, (1992) Food Safety, Egan Press, St Paul, MN. Jaquette CB, Beuchat LR, Mahon BE, (1996) Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella Stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62:2212-2215 Lindow SE, Hecht-Poinar EI, Elliot VJ, (2002) Phyllosphere Microbiology. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN Harely J, Pand Prescott ML, (2002) Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology, 5th ed, Mc Graw – Hill Companies. URL1, 2017 https://uk.vwr.com/uk.vwr.com/en_GB/images/Merck_Pharmaceutical_Production. pdf Merck Kga A, Darmstadt, APHA, ISO National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. (1999) Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce. Food Control 10, 117-143. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. (1999) Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 52, 123-153.
  • Ottoboni MA, (1996) The dose Maks the Poison: A Plain Language Guide, John Wiley & Sons, New York Prifti D, (2007) Food Microbiology, Press: Perlat Vashiton, Tirana, Alabnia
  • Proctor ME, Hamacher M, Tortorello ML, Archer JR, Davis JP, (2001) Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infections associated with alfalfa sprouts grown from seeds pretreated with calcium hypochlorite. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 3461-3465
  • Saettler AW, Schaad NW, Roth DA, (1989) Detection of bacteria in seed and other planting material. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
  • Taormina, P. J., and Beuchat, L. R. 1999. Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 62:318-324.
  • Wachtel MR, Whitehand, LC, Mandrell RE, (2002) Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water. J. Food Prot. 65, 18-25.
  • Wrba H, el-Mofty MM, Schwaireb MH, Dutter A, (1992) Carcinogenity testing of some constituents of black pepper (Piper nigrum), Exp Toxical, Pathol, 44, 61-65
  • Wu FM, Beuchat LR, Wells JG, Slutsker L, Doyle M P, Swaminathan B, (2001) Factors influencing the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71, 93-99.

Year 2017, Volume 12, Issue 3, 217 - 223, 30.09.2017

Abstract

References

  • Beuchat, LR, (1997) Comparison of chemical treatments to kill Salmonella on alfalfa seeds destined for sprout production. Intl. J. Food Microbiol., 34, 329-333. Beuchat LR, (2002) Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raë fruits and vegetables. Microbes Infect. 4, 413-423. Fields LM, (1979) Fundamentals of food microbiology. AVI Publishing Comapny. INC. Westport, Connection. Hedberg CW, MacDonald KL, Osterholm MT, (1994) Changing epidemiology of foodborne disease: A Minnesota perspective. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18, 671-682. Jones JM, (1992) Food Safety, Egan Press, St Paul, MN. Jaquette CB, Beuchat LR, Mahon BE, (1996) Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella Stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62:2212-2215 Lindow SE, Hecht-Poinar EI, Elliot VJ, (2002) Phyllosphere Microbiology. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN Harely J, Pand Prescott ML, (2002) Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology, 5th ed, Mc Graw – Hill Companies. URL1, 2017 https://uk.vwr.com/uk.vwr.com/en_GB/images/Merck_Pharmaceutical_Production. pdf Merck Kga A, Darmstadt, APHA, ISO National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. (1999) Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on fresh produce. Food Control 10, 117-143. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. (1999) Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 52, 123-153.
  • Ottoboni MA, (1996) The dose Maks the Poison: A Plain Language Guide, John Wiley & Sons, New York Prifti D, (2007) Food Microbiology, Press: Perlat Vashiton, Tirana, Alabnia
  • Proctor ME, Hamacher M, Tortorello ML, Archer JR, Davis JP, (2001) Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serovar Muenchen infections associated with alfalfa sprouts grown from seeds pretreated with calcium hypochlorite. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 3461-3465
  • Saettler AW, Schaad NW, Roth DA, (1989) Detection of bacteria in seed and other planting material. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
  • Taormina, P. J., and Beuchat, L. R. 1999. Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J. Food Prot. 62:318-324.
  • Wachtel MR, Whitehand, LC, Mandrell RE, (2002) Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water. J. Food Prot. 65, 18-25.
  • Wrba H, el-Mofty MM, Schwaireb MH, Dutter A, (1992) Carcinogenity testing of some constituents of black pepper (Piper nigrum), Exp Toxical, Pathol, 44, 61-65
  • Wu FM, Beuchat LR, Wells JG, Slutsker L, Doyle M P, Swaminathan B, (2001) Factors influencing the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71, 93-99.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Alush MUSA This is me


Fatime PLAKOLLİ This is me (Primary Author)
P.U.M., Faculty of Food Technology, Mitrovica, Kosovo; Public Univeristy of Mitrovica, Metallurgical Industrial Park, 40000, Mitrovicë, Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo

Publication Date September 30, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 12, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jieas479330, journal = {Journal of International Environmental Application and Science}, issn = {1307-0428}, eissn = {2636-7661}, address = {}, publisher = {Selcuk University}, year = {2017}, volume = {12}, number = {3}, pages = {217 - 223}, title = {The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper}, key = {cite}, author = {Musa, Alush and Plakolli, Fatime} }
APA Musa, A. & Plakolli, F. (2017). The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science , 12 (3) , 217-223 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/40241/479330
MLA Musa, A. , Plakolli, F. "The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper" . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 12 (2017 ): 217-223 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/40241/479330>
Chicago Musa, A. , Plakolli, F. "The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 12 (2017 ): 217-223
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper AU - AlushMusa, FatimePlakolli Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of International Environmental Application and Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 217 EP - 223 VL - 12 IS - 3 SN - 1307-0428-2636-7661 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of International Environmental Application and Science The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper %A Alush Musa , Fatime Plakolli %T The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper %D 2017 %J Journal of International Environmental Application and Science %P 1307-0428-2636-7661 %V 12 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Musa, Alush , Plakolli, Fatime . "The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 12 / 3 (September 2017): 217-223 .
AMA Musa A. , Plakolli F. The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper. JIEAS. 2017; 12(3): 217-223.
Vancouver Musa A. , Plakolli F. The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science. 2017; 12(3): 217-223.
IEEE A. Musa and F. Plakolli , "The Bacterial and Fungal Microflora in Seeds of the Hot Pepper, Mild Pepper and Black Pepper", Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 217-223, Sep. 2017

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