This contribution focuses on the development of the debate over inclusive education in Italy and Spain. The two countries share similar aspects in the evolution of the academic discussion and educational practices, such as the progress from the paradigm of integration to that of inclusion and the focus on students with disabilities and foreigners in the proposed initiatives. At the same time, the differences in the historical circumstances of the two countries lead to the implementation of very different practices, that is interesting to compare. In the first section, we recount the evolution of the debate on integration and inclusion, highlighting the theoretical context. Essential conceptual shifts are explained also with the support or relevant legislation. In the second section, the state of the art of inclusive education is described, focusing on the cases of students with disabilities and foreigners. Then, evaluations of the results obtained so far in both countries are reviewed, with special attention to all those processes of “hidden” exclusion that still permeate education, despite the official regulation. Finally, the concrete experience of a European project promoting the social inclusion of migrant students is analysed in light of the reflections developed.