Research Article
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The mediating role of perceived risk in the impact of tourist behavior on liminoid behavior in the covid-19 pandemic

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 45 - 56, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-45

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of perceived risk in the impact of tourist behavior on liminoid behavior in the Covid-19 pandemic process and the risk perceived at the level of acting liminoid behaviors. The main research question of the study is to what extent liminoid behaviors are perceived as risky by healthcare professionals in the context of tourist behavior despite the precautions. Participants consist of healthcare professionals working in the health sector in Turkey in 2020. A total of 135 questionnaires were obtained using random sampling with the participation of healthcare professionals working in different hospitals in Turkey. Factor analysis and Partial Least Squares structural modeling (PLS) were applied in the analysis of the collected data. According to the analysis results, perceived risk has a mediating effect between the covid tourist behavior and liminoid behavior in various contexts. As one of the prominent findings, it was concluded that the time risk perceived by the participants mediated the relationship between tourist behavior affected by the pandemic and liminoid behavior. Also the relationship between tourist behavior and the subscales of the risk factor will enable the determination of tourism strategies to be developed for tourist behavior.



References

  • Acar, Y. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (covid-19) salgını ve turizm faaliyetlerine etkisi, Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 7-21.
  • Ahmad, T., Khan, M., Khan, F. M., & Hui, J. (2020). Are we ready for the new fatal coronavirus: scenario of Pakistan. Human Vaccines &Immunotherapeutics, 4(3), 375-394.
  • Akca, M. (2020). Covid 19’un havacılık sektörüne etkisi. Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7 (5), 45-64.
  • Akhtar, N., Khan, N., Mahroof Khan, M., Ashraf, S., Hashmi, M. S., Khan, M. M., & Hishan, S. S. (2021).Post-covid 19 tourism: will digital tourism replace mass tourism?. Sustainability, 13(2), 5352. DOI: 10.3390/su13105352.
  • Alpago, H., & Oduncu Alpago, D. (2020). Koronavirüs salgınının sosyoekonomik sonuçları. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8, 99-114.
  • Ateljevic, I. (2020). Transforming the (tourism) world for good and (re)generating the potential ‘new normal. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 467-475.
  • Avraham, E. (2021). Recovery strategies and marketing campaigns for global destinations in response to the covid-19 tourism crisis. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26(11),1255-1269.
  • Aydın, B., & Doğan, M. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (covid-19) pandemisinin turistik tüketici davranışları ve türkiye turizmi üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi. Pazarlama Teorisi Ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 6(1), 93-115.
  • Ayittey, F. K., Ayittey, M. K., Chiwero, N. B., Kamasah, J. S., & Dzuvor, C. (2020). Economic impacts of wuhan 2019-cov on china and the world. Journal of Medical Virology, 10, 1002.
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  • Bauer, I. (2009). Relationships between female tourists and male locals in cuzco/peru: implications for travel health education. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7, 350-358.
  • Bauer, R. A. (1960). Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking, Robert S. Hancock (Ed.), Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, American Marketing Association, Chicago, 389-98.
  • Berdychevsky, L., Poria, Y., & Uriely, N. (2013). Sexual behavior in women's tourist experiences: Motivations, behaviors, and meanings. Tourism Management, 35, 144-155.
  • Brouder, P. (2020). Reset redux: possible evolutionary pathways towards the transformation of tourism in a covid-19 world. Tourism Geographies, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Butcher, J. (2021). Covid-19, Tourism and The Advocacy of Degrowth, Tourism Recreation Research, Published by InformaUK Limited, trading as Taylor & FrancisGroup, 344.
  • Cases, A. S. (2002). Perceived risk and risk reduction strategies in internet shosin. The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, 4, 375-394.
  • Chang, S. Y. (2009). Australians' holiday decisions in china: a study combining novelty‐seeking and risk‐perception behaviors. Journal of China Tourism Research, 5(4), 364.
  • Chen, S., Yang, J., Yang, W., Wang, C., & Bärnighausen, T. (2020). Covid-19 control in china during mass population movements at new year, The Lancet, 395, 764-766.
  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. marcoulides, G.A. (Ed.). Modern Methods for Business Research Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, 295- 236.
  • Columbus, C., Brust, K. B., & Arroliga, A. C. (2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus: An Emerging Global Threat. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 1-4.
  • Dann, M. S. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184-194.
  • Desbiolles, F. H. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after covid-19. Tourism Geographies. Distribution and Consumer Research, 12(4), 375-394.
  • Duro, J. A., Laborda, A. P., Turrion, J., & Fernandez, M. (2021). Covid-19 and tourism vulnerability. Tourism Management Perspectives, 38(2),100-119.
  • Edensor, T. (2000). Staging tourism: tourists as performers. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2), 322-344.
  • Evans, J. R., & Mathur, A. (2018). The value of online surveys: a look back and a look ahead. Internet Research, 28(4), 854– 887.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal Of Marketing Research, 18(February), 39–50.
  • Galani-Moutafi, V. (2003). Tourism research on greece a critical overview. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1),157–179.
  • Galvani, A., Lew, A. A., & Perez, M. S. (2020). Covid-19 is expanding global consciousness and the sustainability of travel and tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 567-576.
  • Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29, 403–428.
  • Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.
  • Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of covid-1. Journal Of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (pls-sem), Sage Publishing, Thousand Oaks.
  • Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). Pls-sem: indeed a silver bullet. The Journal Of Marketing Theory And Practice, 19, 139-152.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
  • Honko, L. (2006). Ritüellerin oluşum süreci, (Translator R. Ersoy). Milli Folklor Dergisi, 18(69), 129-140.
  • Kim, J., Kim, J., & Wang, Y. (2021). Uncertainty risks and strategic reaction of restaurant firms amid covid-19: evidence from china. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 102752.
  • Kottak, K. P. (1991). Anthropology The Exploration of Human Diversity, McGraw-Hill, Inc., US.
  • Kusumaningrum, D. A., & Wachyuni, S. S. (2020). The shifting trends in travelling after the covid 19 pandemic. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Review, 7(2), 31-40 https://Doi.Org/10.18510/Ijthr.2020.724
  • Lett, J. W. R. (1983). Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research, 10(1), 35-56.
  • Light, D. (2009). Performing transylvania: tourism, fantasy and play in a liminal place. Tourist Studies, 9(3), 240-258.
  • Lim, N. (2003). Consumers’ perceived risk: sources versus consequences. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2, 216-228.
  • Mahase, E. (2020). Coronavirus: global stocks of protective gear aredepleted, with demand at 100 times, Normal Level, WHO Warns, 12.
  • Mihalic, T. (2021). Quo vadis tourism: can covid-19 stop the return of overtourism pandemic? how sustainable will post-covid-19 tourism be. INVTUR 2021 At: on line, Aveiro, Portugal.
  • Mitchell, V. W. (1992). A role for consumer risk perceptions in grocery retailing. British Food Journal, 100(4), 171-183.
  • Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Pearce, L. P. (2005). Tourist Behaviour, Themes and Conceptual Schemes. Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, Canada.
  • Petrovic, N., Roblek, V., Radenkovic, M., Nejkovic, V., & Papachashvili, N. (2021). Smart technologies for the post-covid-19 tourism industry, 15th International Online Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, ПЕС 2021 August 30 – September 01, Niš, Serbia.
  • Pikkarainen, T., Pikkarainen, K., Karjaluoto, H., & Pahnila, S. (2004). Consumer acceptance of online banking: an extension of the technology acceptance model. Internet Research, 14(3), 224-235.
  • Polat, S. (2015). Turistlerin tatil dönemlerinde sergiledikleri liminoid davranışlar. Sosyoekonomi, 23(26), 99-117.
  • Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: a tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797-805.
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212-225.
  • Rodriguez-Morales, A. J., Gallego, V., Escalera-Antezana, J. P., Mendez, C. A., Zambrano, L. I., Franco-Paredes, C., Suárez, J. A., Rodriguez-Enciso, H. D., Balbin-Ramon, G. J., Savio-Larriera, E., Risquez, A., & Cimerman, S. (2020). Covid19 in latin america: the implications of the first confirmed case in brazil. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Feb, 233-236.
  • Shaw, G., & Williams, M. A. (2004). Tourism and tourism spaces, new delphi. Sage Publications Pvt Ltd, India.
  • Stone, N. R., & Mason, B. (1995). Attitude and risk: exploring the relationship. Psychology & Marketing, 12(2), 135-153.
  • Stone, R. N., & Gronhaug, K. (1993). Perceived risk: further considerations for the marketing discipline. European Journal of Marketing, 27(3), 39-50.
  • Thomas, M. (2005). What happens in tenerife stays in tenerife: understanding women's sexual behaviour on holiday, culture, health & sexuality. International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care, 7(6), 571-584.
  • Tinsley, H. E. A., & Brown, S. D. (2000). Handbook ofapplied multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling. Academic Press.
  • Turner, V. (1979). Frame, flow and reflective: rituel and drama as public liminality. Japaneese Journal of Religious Studies, 6(4), 465-499.
  • UNWTO. (2020). Statement on the novel coronavirus outbreak. https://www.unwto.org/unwto-statement-on-the-novel-coronavirus-outbreak, Madrid.
  • Urry, J. (2002). The Tourist Gaze. Sage Press.
  • Van Gennep, A. (1909). Les Rites de Passage, (Translator. Monika B. Vizdom & Gabrielle L. Caffee). Routledge Library Editions-Anthropology and Etnography, 1960.
  • Varley, J. P. (2011). Sea kayakers at the margins: the liminoid character of contemporary adventures. Leisure Studies, 30(1), 85–98.
  • Wang, F., Nie, J., Wang, H., Zhao, Q., & Xiong, Y. (2020). Characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in covid-19 pneumonia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, .221(11), 1762-1769.
  • Weichselbaumer, D. (2012). Sex, romance and the carnivalesque between female tourists and caribbean men. Tourism Management. 33, 1220-1229.
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2020). COVID-19: potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review. 76(1), 74-87. Https://Doi.Org/10.1108/TR-03-2020-0110.
  • Wen, Z., Huimin, G., & Kavanaugh, R. R. (2005). The impacts of sars on the consumer behaviour of chinese domestic tourists. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(1), 22-38.
  • Wilson, M. E., & Chen, L. H. (2020). Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus. Journal Of Travel Medicine, 1(3), 3-8.
  • Yang, B. Y., Hongru, Z., & Xiang, C. (2020). Koronavirus pandemic and tourism: dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak. Annals Of Tourism Research, 83(2), 1-2.
  • Zhang, C., Wang, L., & Rickly, J. (2021). Non-interaction and identity change in covid-19 tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 89(6), 103211. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2021.103211.
  • Zhong, L., & Sun, S. (2021). Tourism crisis management: evidence from covid-19. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(11), 1-2.

Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, 45 - 56, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-45

Abstract

References

  • Acar, Y. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (covid-19) salgını ve turizm faaliyetlerine etkisi, Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 7-21.
  • Ahmad, T., Khan, M., Khan, F. M., & Hui, J. (2020). Are we ready for the new fatal coronavirus: scenario of Pakistan. Human Vaccines &Immunotherapeutics, 4(3), 375-394.
  • Akca, M. (2020). Covid 19’un havacılık sektörüne etkisi. Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7 (5), 45-64.
  • Akhtar, N., Khan, N., Mahroof Khan, M., Ashraf, S., Hashmi, M. S., Khan, M. M., & Hishan, S. S. (2021).Post-covid 19 tourism: will digital tourism replace mass tourism?. Sustainability, 13(2), 5352. DOI: 10.3390/su13105352.
  • Alpago, H., & Oduncu Alpago, D. (2020). Koronavirüs salgınının sosyoekonomik sonuçları. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8, 99-114.
  • Ateljevic, I. (2020). Transforming the (tourism) world for good and (re)generating the potential ‘new normal. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 467-475.
  • Avraham, E. (2021). Recovery strategies and marketing campaigns for global destinations in response to the covid-19 tourism crisis. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26(11),1255-1269.
  • Aydın, B., & Doğan, M. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (covid-19) pandemisinin turistik tüketici davranışları ve türkiye turizmi üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi. Pazarlama Teorisi Ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 6(1), 93-115.
  • Ayittey, F. K., Ayittey, M. K., Chiwero, N. B., Kamasah, J. S., & Dzuvor, C. (2020). Economic impacts of wuhan 2019-cov on china and the world. Journal of Medical Virology, 10, 1002.
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  • Bauer, I. (2009). Relationships between female tourists and male locals in cuzco/peru: implications for travel health education. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7, 350-358.
  • Bauer, R. A. (1960). Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking, Robert S. Hancock (Ed.), Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, American Marketing Association, Chicago, 389-98.
  • Berdychevsky, L., Poria, Y., & Uriely, N. (2013). Sexual behavior in women's tourist experiences: Motivations, behaviors, and meanings. Tourism Management, 35, 144-155.
  • Brouder, P. (2020). Reset redux: possible evolutionary pathways towards the transformation of tourism in a covid-19 world. Tourism Geographies, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Butcher, J. (2021). Covid-19, Tourism and The Advocacy of Degrowth, Tourism Recreation Research, Published by InformaUK Limited, trading as Taylor & FrancisGroup, 344.
  • Cases, A. S. (2002). Perceived risk and risk reduction strategies in internet shosin. The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, 4, 375-394.
  • Chang, S. Y. (2009). Australians' holiday decisions in china: a study combining novelty‐seeking and risk‐perception behaviors. Journal of China Tourism Research, 5(4), 364.
  • Chen, S., Yang, J., Yang, W., Wang, C., & Bärnighausen, T. (2020). Covid-19 control in china during mass population movements at new year, The Lancet, 395, 764-766.
  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. marcoulides, G.A. (Ed.). Modern Methods for Business Research Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, 295- 236.
  • Columbus, C., Brust, K. B., & Arroliga, A. C. (2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus: An Emerging Global Threat. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 1-4.
  • Dann, M. S. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184-194.
  • Desbiolles, F. H. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after covid-19. Tourism Geographies. Distribution and Consumer Research, 12(4), 375-394.
  • Duro, J. A., Laborda, A. P., Turrion, J., & Fernandez, M. (2021). Covid-19 and tourism vulnerability. Tourism Management Perspectives, 38(2),100-119.
  • Edensor, T. (2000). Staging tourism: tourists as performers. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2), 322-344.
  • Evans, J. R., & Mathur, A. (2018). The value of online surveys: a look back and a look ahead. Internet Research, 28(4), 854– 887.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal Of Marketing Research, 18(February), 39–50.
  • Galani-Moutafi, V. (2003). Tourism research on greece a critical overview. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1),157–179.
  • Galvani, A., Lew, A. A., & Perez, M. S. (2020). Covid-19 is expanding global consciousness and the sustainability of travel and tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 567-576.
  • Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29, 403–428.
  • Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.
  • Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of covid-1. Journal Of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1-20.
  • Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (pls-sem), Sage Publishing, Thousand Oaks.
  • Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). Pls-sem: indeed a silver bullet. The Journal Of Marketing Theory And Practice, 19, 139-152.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
  • Honko, L. (2006). Ritüellerin oluşum süreci, (Translator R. Ersoy). Milli Folklor Dergisi, 18(69), 129-140.
  • Kim, J., Kim, J., & Wang, Y. (2021). Uncertainty risks and strategic reaction of restaurant firms amid covid-19: evidence from china. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 102752.
  • Kottak, K. P. (1991). Anthropology The Exploration of Human Diversity, McGraw-Hill, Inc., US.
  • Kusumaningrum, D. A., & Wachyuni, S. S. (2020). The shifting trends in travelling after the covid 19 pandemic. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Review, 7(2), 31-40 https://Doi.Org/10.18510/Ijthr.2020.724
  • Lett, J. W. R. (1983). Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research, 10(1), 35-56.
  • Light, D. (2009). Performing transylvania: tourism, fantasy and play in a liminal place. Tourist Studies, 9(3), 240-258.
  • Lim, N. (2003). Consumers’ perceived risk: sources versus consequences. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2, 216-228.
  • Mahase, E. (2020). Coronavirus: global stocks of protective gear aredepleted, with demand at 100 times, Normal Level, WHO Warns, 12.
  • Mihalic, T. (2021). Quo vadis tourism: can covid-19 stop the return of overtourism pandemic? how sustainable will post-covid-19 tourism be. INVTUR 2021 At: on line, Aveiro, Portugal.
  • Mitchell, V. W. (1992). A role for consumer risk perceptions in grocery retailing. British Food Journal, 100(4), 171-183.
  • Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Pearce, L. P. (2005). Tourist Behaviour, Themes and Conceptual Schemes. Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, Canada.
  • Petrovic, N., Roblek, V., Radenkovic, M., Nejkovic, V., & Papachashvili, N. (2021). Smart technologies for the post-covid-19 tourism industry, 15th International Online Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, ПЕС 2021 August 30 – September 01, Niš, Serbia.
  • Pikkarainen, T., Pikkarainen, K., Karjaluoto, H., & Pahnila, S. (2004). Consumer acceptance of online banking: an extension of the technology acceptance model. Internet Research, 14(3), 224-235.
  • Polat, S. (2015). Turistlerin tatil dönemlerinde sergiledikleri liminoid davranışlar. Sosyoekonomi, 23(26), 99-117.
  • Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: a tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797-805.
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212-225.
  • Rodriguez-Morales, A. J., Gallego, V., Escalera-Antezana, J. P., Mendez, C. A., Zambrano, L. I., Franco-Paredes, C., Suárez, J. A., Rodriguez-Enciso, H. D., Balbin-Ramon, G. J., Savio-Larriera, E., Risquez, A., & Cimerman, S. (2020). Covid19 in latin america: the implications of the first confirmed case in brazil. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Feb, 233-236.
  • Shaw, G., & Williams, M. A. (2004). Tourism and tourism spaces, new delphi. Sage Publications Pvt Ltd, India.
  • Stone, N. R., & Mason, B. (1995). Attitude and risk: exploring the relationship. Psychology & Marketing, 12(2), 135-153.
  • Stone, R. N., & Gronhaug, K. (1993). Perceived risk: further considerations for the marketing discipline. European Journal of Marketing, 27(3), 39-50.
  • Thomas, M. (2005). What happens in tenerife stays in tenerife: understanding women's sexual behaviour on holiday, culture, health & sexuality. International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care, 7(6), 571-584.
  • Tinsley, H. E. A., & Brown, S. D. (2000). Handbook ofapplied multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling. Academic Press.
  • Turner, V. (1979). Frame, flow and reflective: rituel and drama as public liminality. Japaneese Journal of Religious Studies, 6(4), 465-499.
  • UNWTO. (2020). Statement on the novel coronavirus outbreak. https://www.unwto.org/unwto-statement-on-the-novel-coronavirus-outbreak, Madrid.
  • Urry, J. (2002). The Tourist Gaze. Sage Press.
  • Van Gennep, A. (1909). Les Rites de Passage, (Translator. Monika B. Vizdom & Gabrielle L. Caffee). Routledge Library Editions-Anthropology and Etnography, 1960.
  • Varley, J. P. (2011). Sea kayakers at the margins: the liminoid character of contemporary adventures. Leisure Studies, 30(1), 85–98.
  • Wang, F., Nie, J., Wang, H., Zhao, Q., & Xiong, Y. (2020). Characteristics of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in covid-19 pneumonia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, .221(11), 1762-1769.
  • Weichselbaumer, D. (2012). Sex, romance and the carnivalesque between female tourists and caribbean men. Tourism Management. 33, 1220-1229.
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2020). COVID-19: potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review. 76(1), 74-87. Https://Doi.Org/10.1108/TR-03-2020-0110.
  • Wen, Z., Huimin, G., & Kavanaugh, R. R. (2005). The impacts of sars on the consumer behaviour of chinese domestic tourists. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(1), 22-38.
  • Wilson, M. E., & Chen, L. H. (2020). Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus. Journal Of Travel Medicine, 1(3), 3-8.
  • Yang, B. Y., Hongru, Z., & Xiang, C. (2020). Koronavirus pandemic and tourism: dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling of infectious disease outbreak. Annals Of Tourism Research, 83(2), 1-2.
  • Zhang, C., Wang, L., & Rickly, J. (2021). Non-interaction and identity change in covid-19 tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 89(6), 103211. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2021.103211.
  • Zhong, L., & Sun, S. (2021). Tourism crisis management: evidence from covid-19. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(11), 1-2.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Published Date December (First Published Online 18-05-2022)
Journal Section Contents
Authors

Kerem KAPTANGİL> (Primary Author)
SİNOP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2319-2661
Türkiye


Kübra AŞAN>
SINOP UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-8739-3585
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Kaptangil, K. & Aşan, K. (2022). The mediating role of perceived risk in the impact of tourist behavior on liminoid behavior in the covid-19 pandemic . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 7 (2) , 45-56 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2022-7-2-45



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