Review
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Media Freedom in the Western Balkans in the European Union Harmonization Process

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1, 498 - 527, 15.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.18094/josc.974425

Abstract

Media freedom, which is a prerequisite for the functioning of democracy, is accepted as the fundamental value of the European Union as an extension of freedom of expression and presented as a condition that must be met by the countries applying for membership to the Union. Media freedom in European countries means that the media is independent from political interference and censorship, and that media workers are protected from all kinds of threats, harassment, blackmail and attacks. This study aims to discuss media freedom in the context of European Union values, norms and conditions in the European Union candidate countries Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia. As a result of the findings obtained in the light of the indexes, reports and data prepared by international organizations and the progress reports prepared by the European Commission, document analysis has been carried out and it has been observed that crucial restrictions exist in media freedom and its functionality in the these countries. In addition, it has been observed that journalists in these countries are exposed to violations such as violence, blackmail, threats and harassment. It has been concluded that the European Union, as a normative actor, does not possess uniform norms and regulations for the establishment and control of media freedom in candidate countries and cannot provide effective sanctions.

References

  • Association of Journalists of Macedonia. (2014). Summary of the Media Situation in Macedonia. Skopje: Association of Journalists of Macedonia.
  • Bajić, D., & Zweers, W. (2020). Declining media freedom and biased reporting on foreign actors in Serbia. The Hague: Clingendael Report, European Policy Center.
  • Bajomi-Lazar, P. (2015). Variations in media freedom: Why do some governments in Central and Eastern Europe respect media freedom more than others. Central European Journal of Communication, s. 4-20.
  • Bjelotomic, S. (2020). Most popular Serbian tabloids published 945 pieces of fake news on their covers in 2019. Serbian Monitor: https://www.serbianmonitor.com/en/most-popular-serbian-tabloids-published-945-pieces-of-fake-news-on-their-covers-in-2019/ adresinden alındı
  • Boot, E. (2019). Leaks and the Limits of Press Freedom. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 22, s. 483-500.
  • Brogi, E., Dobreva, A., & Parcu, P. L. (2014). Freedom of Media in the Western Balkans. Brussels: European Parliament Directorate-General for External Policies.
  • Cohen-Almagor, R. (2001). Speech, Media and Ethics. New York: Palgrave.
  • Council of Europe. (2010). European Convention on Human Rights. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Council of Europe. (2016). Recommendations and declarations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of media and information society. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Council of Europe. (2021). Media Freedom. Council of Europe: https://www.coe.int/en/web/media-freedom adresinden alındı
  • Council of the European Union. (2013, Kasım 25-26). Council conclusions and of the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on media freedom and pluralism in the digital environment. Council of the European Union: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/139725.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Council of the European Union. (2016). Accession negotiations with Serbia Chapter 23 : Judiciary and fundamental rights. Brussels: Council of the European Union.
  • Çabuk, D. (2013). Avrupa Birliği'ne Katılım Sürecinde Türkiye'de Medya Politikalarının Dönüşümü. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, Volume 2, Sayı 1, s. 26-48.
  • DG. (2014). Genişleme Ülkelerinde Medya Özgürlüğü ve Medya Bütünlüğüne Yönelik AB Desteği İçin DG* Rehberleri, 2014-2020.
  • Đorđević, N. (2021). New reports highlight old problems in Serbia. Emerging Europe: https://emerging-europe.com/news/new-reports-highlight-old-problems-in-serbia/ adresinden alındı
  • ECPMF. (2019). Albania: Government should withdraw “anti-defamation” legislative package introducing state regulation of online media outlets. European Centre for Press & Media Freedom: https://www.ecpmf.eu/joint-statement-urges-albania-to-drop-new-libel-law/ adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2010). Commission opinion on Albania’s application for membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.
  • European Commission. (2013). Speak-up!2. Conclusions. Brussels: European Neighbourhood Policy And Enlargement Negotiations. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/speak_up_2/20130801_speakup-conclusions.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2014). Genişleme Stratejisi ve Başlıca Zorluklar 2013-2014;. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/strategy_paper_2013_en.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). Chapter 23: Judiciary and Fundamental Rights. European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership/chapters-of-the-acquis_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement. Chapter of the acquis: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership/chapters-of-the-acquis_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). Freedom of expression and media. European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/policy-highlights/freedom-of-expression-and-media_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2020). European Democracy Action Plan: making EU democracies stronger. European Democracy Action Plan: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2250 adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2021). Media freedom and pluralism. European Commission: https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/media-freedom adresinden alındı
  • European Council. (1993). European Council in Copenhagen, Conclusions of the Presidency. https://www.ab.gov.tr/files/_files/Zirve_Bildirileri/co_en_1993.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2020). The Western Balkans. The Union's enlargement and neighbourhood: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/168/the-western-balkans adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2021a). European Parliament resolution of 25 March 2021 on the 2019-2020 Commission reports on Serbia, 2019/2175(INI). European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2021-0115_EN.html adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2021b). Media freedom legislation in Albania. European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/E-9-2021-001366_EN.html adresinden alındı
  • European Western Balkans. (2020). Human Rights Watch: Attacks on journalists still a problem in the Western Balkans. https://europeanwesternbalkans.com/2020/01/23/human-rights-watch-attacks-on-journalists-still-a-problem-in-the-western-balkans/ adresinden alındı
  • EWB. (2020). Reporters Without Borders: North Macedonia surpasses Serbia on media freedom index. European Western Balkans: https://europeanwesternbalkans.com/2020/04/21/reporters-without-borders-north-macedonia-surpasses-serbia-on-media-freedom-index/ adresinden alındı
  • Feldstein, S. (2020). How to tackle Europe's Digital Democracy Challenges. Carnegie Endownment for International Peace: https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/10/15/how-to-tackle-europe-s-digital-democracy-challenges-pub-82960 adresinden alındı
  • Freedom House. (2021a). Freedom in the World. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021b). Freedom in the World: Montenegro. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021c). Freedom in the World: North Macedonia. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021d). Freedom in the World. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Güner, O. (2020). Anayasal İsim Değişikliği Bağlamında Kuzey Makedonya'nın Avrupa Birliği'ne Üyelik Süreci. Balkan Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, s. 1-37.
  • Güner, O. (2020). Arnavutluk'un Avrupa Birliği Üyelik Sürecindeki Siyasi Zorlukları: Hukukun Üstünlüğü ve Yolsuzluk Örnekleri. Türk İdare Dergisi Yıl:92, Sayı: 491, s. 165-204.
  • Genişleme Ülkelerinde Medya Özgürlüğü ve Medya Bütünlüğüne Yönelik AB Desteği İçin DG* Rehberleri, 2.-2. (2014-2020). Gjorgjievska, M. (2019). Lack of Interest in Journalism Seen as Threat to Democracy in North Macedonia. Voice of America: https://www.voanews.com/press-freedom/lack-interest-journalism-seen-threat-democracy-north-macedonia adresinden alındı
  • Huszka, B., & Kortvelyesi, Z. (2017). Conditional Changes: Europeanization in the Western Balkans and the Example of Media Freedom. Intersections, s. 8-32.
  • Işık, M. (2005). Medya ve Demokrasi Paradoksu: Medya Yoluyla Demokrasinin Tehdit Edilmesi. Selçuk İletişim, s. 114-121. International Federation of Journalists. (2017). Macedonia: It is high time to stop violence against journalists! International Federation of Journalists: https://www.ifj.org/media-centre/news/detail/category/press-freedom/article/macedonia-it-is-high-time-to-stop-violence-against-journalists.html adresinden alındı
  • IREX. (2019). Media Sustainability Index: 2019. IREX.
  • Kajosevic, S. (2020). NEWS. BalkanInsight: https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/16/montenegrin-govt-urged-to-commit-to-press-freedom-reforms/ adresinden alındı
  • Karppinen, K., & Moe, H. (2016). What We Talk About When Talk About "Media Independence". Journal of European Institute for Communication and Culture, s. 105-119.
  • Kenny, P. (2019). "The Enemy of the People": Populists and Press Freedom. Political Research Quarterly, s. 7-8. Kihtir, A. (2006). Avrupa Birliği Görsel İşitsel Politikası Bağlamında AB Medya Hukukunun Temel Çerçevesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi, s. 75-92.
  • Klimkiewicz, B. (2019). Plıuralism in a Hybrid Media Environment from the User Perspective. Badia Fiesolana: European University Institute.
  • Kmezić, M. (2014). Media freedom in Serbia criticized in the EU Progress Report. Biepag Blog: https://biepag.eu/media-freedom-in-serbia-criticized-in-the-eu-progress-report/ adresinden alındı
  • Marthoz, J. (2018). Europe’s (not so) free press”. Politico: https://www.politico.eu/article/jan-kuciak-daphne-caruana-galizia-dead-journalists-europe-not-sofree- press/ adresinden alındı
  • Martinovic, M. (2020). Attacks on journalists challenge press freedom in Montenegro. International Press Institute: https://ipi.media/attacks-on-journalists-challenge-press-freedom-in-montenegro/ adresinden alındı
  • Munter, A. D. (2020). The Western Balkans. The European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/168/the-western-balkans adresinden alındı
  • Nazifi, E., & Oghia, M. (2020). Internet Governance in Albania and its Role in Media Freedom. Tirana: Balkan Investigative Reporting Network in Albania.
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2014). Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on media freedom and pluralism in the digital environment . 2014/C 32/04: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52014XG0204%2802%29 adresinden alındı
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2018). Council conclusions on the strengthening of European content in the digital economy, (2018/C 457/02). Official Journal of the European Union: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52018XG1219(01)&from=EN adresinden alındı
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2020). Council conclusions on safeguarding a free and pluralistic media system 2020/C 422/08. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020XG1207(01) adresinden alındı
  • Parlement européen. (2020). Covid-19 : protéger la liberté de la presse pendant la pandémie. Parlement européen MENU: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/fr/headlines/world/20200423STO77709/covid-19-proteger-la-liberte-de-la-presse-pendant-la-pandemie adresinden alındı
  • Progonati, E. (2020). Avrupa Birliği'nin Arayışında Batı Balkanlar. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Rea, G. (2020). MFRR partners write letter of concern to Albanian government regarding the plan to amend the country's audio visual laws. European Centre for Press & Media Freedom: https://www.ecpmf.eu/mfrr-partners-write-letter-of-concern-to-albanian-government-regarding-the-plan-to-ammend-the-countrys-audio-visual-laws/ adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2020). 2020 RSF Index: Europe’s journalists face growing dangers . Reporters Without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/2020-rsf-index-europes-journalists-face-growing-dangers adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021). Serbia. Reporters Without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/serbia adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021a). Detailed Methodology. 2021 World Press Freedom Index: https://rsf.org/en/detailed-methodology adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021b). 2021 World Press Freedom Index. https://rsf.org/en/ranking/2021 adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021c). Dubious justice, problematic legislation. Montenegro: https://rsf.org/en/montenegro adresinden alındı
  • Repucci, S. (2019). Media Freedom: A Downward Spiral. Freedom House: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-and-media/2019/media-freedom-downward-spiral adresinden alındı
  • Rusch, L. (2020). Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Media Freedom in Montenegro: https://www.kas.de/en/web/balkanmedia/media-freedom6 adresinden alındı
  • Rusch, L. (2020b). Media Freedom in North Macedonia. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung: https://www.kas.de/en/web/balkanmedia/media-freedom5 adresinden alındı
  • Sükösd, M., & Jakubowicz, K. (2008). Twelve Concepts Regarding Media System Evolution and Democratization in Post-Communist Societies. K. Jakubowicz, & M. Süküsd içinde, Finding the Right Place on Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in a Global Perspective (s. 9-40). Chicago: ECREA.
  • Safety of Journalists Platform. (2020). Annual Report by the partner organisations to the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Schneider, L. (2020). Measuring Global Media Freedom. Berlin: Springer.
  • Siapera, E., & Sighele, C. (2017). Challenges to Media Freedom: A view in Europe. Infoamerica, Numero 11, s. 129-146. Stasi, M. L. (2020). Ensuring Pluralism in Social Media Markets: Some Suggestions. Fiesolana: European University Institute.
  • Şen, F., & Şen, F. (2015). Sosyal Medya, İletişim Hakkı ve İfade Özgürlüğü Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, s. 122:136.
  • Todorovic, S. (2020). Internet Governance Key to Media Freedom in Albania. Belgrade: BIRN.
  • United Nations. (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights . United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx adresinden alındı
  • Voltmer, K. (2013). Building Media Systems in the Western Balkans: Lost between Models and Realities. Sarajevo: Analitika Center for Social Research.

Avrupa Birliği Uyum Sürecinde Batı Balkanlarda Medya Özgürlüğü

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1, 498 - 527, 15.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.18094/josc.974425

Abstract

Demokrasinin işletilmesi için bir ön koşul olan medya özgürlüğü, ifade özgürlüğünün bir uzantısı olarak Avrupa Birliği’nin temel değeri olarak kabul edilmekte ve Birliğe üyelik başvurusu yapan ülkeler tarafından karşılanması gereken bir koşul olarak sunulmaktadır. Avrupa ülkelerinde medya özgürlüğü, medyanın siyasi müdahale ve sansürden bağımsız oluşu ve medya çalışanlarının her türlü tehdit, taciz, şantaj ve saldırıdan korunabiliyor oluşu anlamına gelmektedir. Bu çalışma, Avrupa Birliği aday ülkeleri olan Arnavutluk, Karadağ, Kuzey Makedonya ve Sırbistan’da medya özgürlüğünü Avrupa Birliği değer, norm ve koşulları bağlamında tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada uluslararası kuruluşlar tarafından oluşturulan endeks, rapor ve veriler ile Avrupa Komisyonu ilerleme raporları ışığında döküman analizi yapılmış, elde edilen bulgular neticesinde mezkur ülkelerde medya özgürlüğünün tesis edilmesi ve işlevsellik kazanması noktasında önemli sınırlılıklar bulunduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca ülkelerde gazetecilerin şiddet, şantaj, tehdit ve taciz gibi ihlallere de maruz kaldığı gözlemlenmiştir. Normatif bir aktör olarak Avrupa Birliği’nin ise medya özgürlüğünün aday ülkelerde tesis edilmesi ve denetlenmesine yönelik yeknesak norm ve mevzuata sahip olmadığı ve etkin müeyyideler sağlayamadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır

References

  • Association of Journalists of Macedonia. (2014). Summary of the Media Situation in Macedonia. Skopje: Association of Journalists of Macedonia.
  • Bajić, D., & Zweers, W. (2020). Declining media freedom and biased reporting on foreign actors in Serbia. The Hague: Clingendael Report, European Policy Center.
  • Bajomi-Lazar, P. (2015). Variations in media freedom: Why do some governments in Central and Eastern Europe respect media freedom more than others. Central European Journal of Communication, s. 4-20.
  • Bjelotomic, S. (2020). Most popular Serbian tabloids published 945 pieces of fake news on their covers in 2019. Serbian Monitor: https://www.serbianmonitor.com/en/most-popular-serbian-tabloids-published-945-pieces-of-fake-news-on-their-covers-in-2019/ adresinden alındı
  • Boot, E. (2019). Leaks and the Limits of Press Freedom. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 22, s. 483-500.
  • Brogi, E., Dobreva, A., & Parcu, P. L. (2014). Freedom of Media in the Western Balkans. Brussels: European Parliament Directorate-General for External Policies.
  • Cohen-Almagor, R. (2001). Speech, Media and Ethics. New York: Palgrave.
  • Council of Europe. (2010). European Convention on Human Rights. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Council of Europe. (2016). Recommendations and declarations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the field of media and information society. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Council of Europe. (2021). Media Freedom. Council of Europe: https://www.coe.int/en/web/media-freedom adresinden alındı
  • Council of the European Union. (2013, Kasım 25-26). Council conclusions and of the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on media freedom and pluralism in the digital environment. Council of the European Union: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/139725.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Council of the European Union. (2016). Accession negotiations with Serbia Chapter 23 : Judiciary and fundamental rights. Brussels: Council of the European Union.
  • Çabuk, D. (2013). Avrupa Birliği'ne Katılım Sürecinde Türkiye'de Medya Politikalarının Dönüşümü. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, Volume 2, Sayı 1, s. 26-48.
  • DG. (2014). Genişleme Ülkelerinde Medya Özgürlüğü ve Medya Bütünlüğüne Yönelik AB Desteği İçin DG* Rehberleri, 2014-2020.
  • Đorđević, N. (2021). New reports highlight old problems in Serbia. Emerging Europe: https://emerging-europe.com/news/new-reports-highlight-old-problems-in-serbia/ adresinden alındı
  • ECPMF. (2019). Albania: Government should withdraw “anti-defamation” legislative package introducing state regulation of online media outlets. European Centre for Press & Media Freedom: https://www.ecpmf.eu/joint-statement-urges-albania-to-drop-new-libel-law/ adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2010). Commission opinion on Albania’s application for membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.
  • European Commission. (2013). Speak-up!2. Conclusions. Brussels: European Neighbourhood Policy And Enlargement Negotiations. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/speak_up_2/20130801_speakup-conclusions.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2014). Genişleme Stratejisi ve Başlıca Zorluklar 2013-2014;. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/strategy_paper_2013_en.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). Chapter 23: Judiciary and Fundamental Rights. European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership/chapters-of-the-acquis_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement. Chapter of the acquis: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership/chapters-of-the-acquis_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2019). Freedom of expression and media. European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/policy-highlights/freedom-of-expression-and-media_en adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2020). European Democracy Action Plan: making EU democracies stronger. European Democracy Action Plan: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2250 adresinden alındı
  • European Commission. (2021). Media freedom and pluralism. European Commission: https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/media-freedom adresinden alındı
  • European Council. (1993). European Council in Copenhagen, Conclusions of the Presidency. https://www.ab.gov.tr/files/_files/Zirve_Bildirileri/co_en_1993.pdf adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2020). The Western Balkans. The Union's enlargement and neighbourhood: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/168/the-western-balkans adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2021a). European Parliament resolution of 25 March 2021 on the 2019-2020 Commission reports on Serbia, 2019/2175(INI). European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2021-0115_EN.html adresinden alındı
  • European Parliament. (2021b). Media freedom legislation in Albania. European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/E-9-2021-001366_EN.html adresinden alındı
  • European Western Balkans. (2020). Human Rights Watch: Attacks on journalists still a problem in the Western Balkans. https://europeanwesternbalkans.com/2020/01/23/human-rights-watch-attacks-on-journalists-still-a-problem-in-the-western-balkans/ adresinden alındı
  • EWB. (2020). Reporters Without Borders: North Macedonia surpasses Serbia on media freedom index. European Western Balkans: https://europeanwesternbalkans.com/2020/04/21/reporters-without-borders-north-macedonia-surpasses-serbia-on-media-freedom-index/ adresinden alındı
  • Feldstein, S. (2020). How to tackle Europe's Digital Democracy Challenges. Carnegie Endownment for International Peace: https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/10/15/how-to-tackle-europe-s-digital-democracy-challenges-pub-82960 adresinden alındı
  • Freedom House. (2021a). Freedom in the World. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021b). Freedom in the World: Montenegro. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021c). Freedom in the World: North Macedonia. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Freedom House. (2021d). Freedom in the World. Washington: Freedom House.
  • Güner, O. (2020). Anayasal İsim Değişikliği Bağlamında Kuzey Makedonya'nın Avrupa Birliği'ne Üyelik Süreci. Balkan Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, s. 1-37.
  • Güner, O. (2020). Arnavutluk'un Avrupa Birliği Üyelik Sürecindeki Siyasi Zorlukları: Hukukun Üstünlüğü ve Yolsuzluk Örnekleri. Türk İdare Dergisi Yıl:92, Sayı: 491, s. 165-204.
  • Genişleme Ülkelerinde Medya Özgürlüğü ve Medya Bütünlüğüne Yönelik AB Desteği İçin DG* Rehberleri, 2.-2. (2014-2020). Gjorgjievska, M. (2019). Lack of Interest in Journalism Seen as Threat to Democracy in North Macedonia. Voice of America: https://www.voanews.com/press-freedom/lack-interest-journalism-seen-threat-democracy-north-macedonia adresinden alındı
  • Huszka, B., & Kortvelyesi, Z. (2017). Conditional Changes: Europeanization in the Western Balkans and the Example of Media Freedom. Intersections, s. 8-32.
  • Işık, M. (2005). Medya ve Demokrasi Paradoksu: Medya Yoluyla Demokrasinin Tehdit Edilmesi. Selçuk İletişim, s. 114-121. International Federation of Journalists. (2017). Macedonia: It is high time to stop violence against journalists! International Federation of Journalists: https://www.ifj.org/media-centre/news/detail/category/press-freedom/article/macedonia-it-is-high-time-to-stop-violence-against-journalists.html adresinden alındı
  • IREX. (2019). Media Sustainability Index: 2019. IREX.
  • Kajosevic, S. (2020). NEWS. BalkanInsight: https://balkaninsight.com/2020/12/16/montenegrin-govt-urged-to-commit-to-press-freedom-reforms/ adresinden alındı
  • Karppinen, K., & Moe, H. (2016). What We Talk About When Talk About "Media Independence". Journal of European Institute for Communication and Culture, s. 105-119.
  • Kenny, P. (2019). "The Enemy of the People": Populists and Press Freedom. Political Research Quarterly, s. 7-8. Kihtir, A. (2006). Avrupa Birliği Görsel İşitsel Politikası Bağlamında AB Medya Hukukunun Temel Çerçevesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi, s. 75-92.
  • Klimkiewicz, B. (2019). Plıuralism in a Hybrid Media Environment from the User Perspective. Badia Fiesolana: European University Institute.
  • Kmezić, M. (2014). Media freedom in Serbia criticized in the EU Progress Report. Biepag Blog: https://biepag.eu/media-freedom-in-serbia-criticized-in-the-eu-progress-report/ adresinden alındı
  • Marthoz, J. (2018). Europe’s (not so) free press”. Politico: https://www.politico.eu/article/jan-kuciak-daphne-caruana-galizia-dead-journalists-europe-not-sofree- press/ adresinden alındı
  • Martinovic, M. (2020). Attacks on journalists challenge press freedom in Montenegro. International Press Institute: https://ipi.media/attacks-on-journalists-challenge-press-freedom-in-montenegro/ adresinden alındı
  • Munter, A. D. (2020). The Western Balkans. The European Parliament: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/168/the-western-balkans adresinden alındı
  • Nazifi, E., & Oghia, M. (2020). Internet Governance in Albania and its Role in Media Freedom. Tirana: Balkan Investigative Reporting Network in Albania.
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2014). Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on media freedom and pluralism in the digital environment . 2014/C 32/04: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52014XG0204%2802%29 adresinden alındı
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2018). Council conclusions on the strengthening of European content in the digital economy, (2018/C 457/02). Official Journal of the European Union: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52018XG1219(01)&from=EN adresinden alındı
  • Official Journal of the European Union. (2020). Council conclusions on safeguarding a free and pluralistic media system 2020/C 422/08. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020XG1207(01) adresinden alındı
  • Parlement européen. (2020). Covid-19 : protéger la liberté de la presse pendant la pandémie. Parlement européen MENU: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/fr/headlines/world/20200423STO77709/covid-19-proteger-la-liberte-de-la-presse-pendant-la-pandemie adresinden alındı
  • Progonati, E. (2020). Avrupa Birliği'nin Arayışında Batı Balkanlar. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Rea, G. (2020). MFRR partners write letter of concern to Albanian government regarding the plan to amend the country's audio visual laws. European Centre for Press & Media Freedom: https://www.ecpmf.eu/mfrr-partners-write-letter-of-concern-to-albanian-government-regarding-the-plan-to-ammend-the-countrys-audio-visual-laws/ adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2020). 2020 RSF Index: Europe’s journalists face growing dangers . Reporters Without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/2020-rsf-index-europes-journalists-face-growing-dangers adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021). Serbia. Reporters Without Borders: https://rsf.org/en/serbia adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021a). Detailed Methodology. 2021 World Press Freedom Index: https://rsf.org/en/detailed-methodology adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021b). 2021 World Press Freedom Index. https://rsf.org/en/ranking/2021 adresinden alındı
  • Reporters Without Borders. (2021c). Dubious justice, problematic legislation. Montenegro: https://rsf.org/en/montenegro adresinden alındı
  • Repucci, S. (2019). Media Freedom: A Downward Spiral. Freedom House: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-and-media/2019/media-freedom-downward-spiral adresinden alındı
  • Rusch, L. (2020). Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Media Freedom in Montenegro: https://www.kas.de/en/web/balkanmedia/media-freedom6 adresinden alındı
  • Rusch, L. (2020b). Media Freedom in North Macedonia. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung: https://www.kas.de/en/web/balkanmedia/media-freedom5 adresinden alındı
  • Sükösd, M., & Jakubowicz, K. (2008). Twelve Concepts Regarding Media System Evolution and Democratization in Post-Communist Societies. K. Jakubowicz, & M. Süküsd içinde, Finding the Right Place on Map: Central and Eastern European Media Change in a Global Perspective (s. 9-40). Chicago: ECREA.
  • Safety of Journalists Platform. (2020). Annual Report by the partner organisations to the Protection of Journalism and Safety of Journalists. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Schneider, L. (2020). Measuring Global Media Freedom. Berlin: Springer.
  • Siapera, E., & Sighele, C. (2017). Challenges to Media Freedom: A view in Europe. Infoamerica, Numero 11, s. 129-146. Stasi, M. L. (2020). Ensuring Pluralism in Social Media Markets: Some Suggestions. Fiesolana: European University Institute.
  • Şen, F., & Şen, F. (2015). Sosyal Medya, İletişim Hakkı ve İfade Özgürlüğü Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, s. 122:136.
  • Todorovic, S. (2020). Internet Governance Key to Media Freedom in Albania. Belgrade: BIRN.
  • United Nations. (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights . United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx adresinden alındı
  • Voltmer, K. (2013). Building Media Systems in the Western Balkans: Lost between Models and Realities. Sarajevo: Analitika Center for Social Research.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Compilation Articles
Authors

Oğuz GÜNER (Primary Author)
Université de Strasbourg
0000-0003-1619-579X
Türkiye

Publication Date April 15, 2022
Application Date July 25, 2021
Acceptance Date September 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1

Cite

APA Güner, O. (2022). Avrupa Birliği Uyum Sürecinde Batı Balkanlarda Medya Özgürlüğü . Selçuk İletişim , 15 (1) , 498-527 . DOI: 10.18094/josc.974425