Research Article
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The Changing Face of Television: Twitch TV and Next Generation Broadcasting

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1, 27 - 55, 15.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.18094/josc.987200

Abstract

During the web 2.0 period television and internet-based video platforms were considered as competitors. However especially since 2010 television broadcasting began to use new digital strategies and share its contents through online platforms. In the same period, with the social media platforms gaining the live broadcast feature; live programs started to be webcast over social media. In this digital ecosystem, the interface of digital platforms can sometimes facilitate the communication between the viewers or limits it via influencing the content preferences of the viewer. In this context, the main problem that the study focuses on; is the hidden sociotechnical operation of digital platforms. Considering the structural features of digital platforms, the aim of this study is to examine the next generation online live broadcast platforms and try to understand the emerging new broadcasting ecosystem. Within the scope, the interface design of TwitchTV was examined using walkthrough method. As a result of the research, by creating certain techno-boundaries via the TwitchTV interface; it has been revealed that a sharp distinction is made between the viewers who subscribe to the channels and those who do not. For nonsubscriber, some viewer features are restricted, and therefore a hierarchical structure is created between the viewers community. On the other hand, the viewers are directed to perform certain actions such as donation and paid digital cheering’s. In this way it has been revealed that new strategies used in interactive live broadcasting platforms shape Social TV broadcasting and begin to have important impact on the new broadcasting economy.

References

  • Anderson, K. E. (2018). Getting acquainted with social networks and apps: streaming video games on Twitch.tv. Library Hi Tech News, 7-10.
  • Anderson, K. E. (2018). Getting acquainted with social networks and apps: streaming video games on Twitch.tv. Library Hi Tech News, 7-10.
  • Beuscart, J. S. (2012). La fin de la télévision? 5, 43-82.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2017). Televizyon Yayıncılığının Dönüşümü: Sosyal TV Yayıncılığı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 5(1), 425-448.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2017). Türkiye’de Televizyon Yayıncılığının Dönüşümü: Sosyal TV Yayıncılığı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 5(1), 425-448.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2020a). NETlab Yeni Medya Araştırmaları. Dijital Oyun ve yayıncılık: https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwYPI_1duI_Qez32JfCewjoRc9kN4f7ob adresinden alındı
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2020b). Dijital Oyun ve Yayıncılık II. (E. Ş. Dikmen, Prodüktör) Yeni Medya Araştırmaları Laboratuvarı NETlab: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwYPI_1duI_RrS1hj7p_ndgIwsty4IBd5 adresinden alındı
  • Fisher, S. S. (1991). Virtual Environments, Personal Simulation, & Telepresence. S. Helsel, & J. Roth içinde, Virtual Reality: Theory, Practice and Promise. Meckler Publishing.
  • Gauntlett, D., & Hill, A. (1999). TV living: Television, culture and everyday life. Routledge.
  • Gerbarg, D. (2008). Television goes digital. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Grin. inc. (2021). Twitch vs YouTube Gaming. Grin: https://grow.grin.co/twitch-vs-youtube-gaming/ adresinden alındı
  • Gurevitch, M. C. (2009). Political Communication—Old and New Media Relationships. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625, 164-181.
  • Hammar, P. (1994). CHARLES P. GINSBURG 1920–1992. Memorial Tributes: Volume 7 (s. 85-90). içinde Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • HelpTwitchTV. (2021). Guide to Building a Moderation Team. TwitchTV: https://help.twitch.tv/s/article/guide-to-building-a-moderation-team?language=en_US adresinden alındı
  • Hookway, B. (2014). Interface. MIT Press books.
  • Kang, S., Brien, O., Villarreal, E., Lee, W., & C., M. (2019). Immersive Journalism and Telepresence: Does virtual reality news use affect news credibility? Digital journalism, 7(2), 294-313.
  • Karahisar, Ş. (1999). İnternet Ortamında Eğitim. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 18, 145-168 .
  • Katz, E. (2009). The End of Television? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 6-18.
  • Katz, E. (2009). The End of Television? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 6–18.
  • Kocurek, C. A. (2015). Coin-operated Americans: Rebooting boyhood at the video game arcade. U of Minnesota Press.
  • Light, B., Burgess, J., & Duguay, S. (2016). The walkthrough method: An approach to the study of apps. new media & society, 20(3), 881– 900.
  • Lin, H., & Sun, C.-T. (2017). he role of onlookers in arcade gaming: Frame analysis of public behaviours. Convergence, 17(2), 125-137.
  • Lotz, A. D. (2009). What Is U.S. Television Now? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,, 625(1), 49–59.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. MIT Press.
  • McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (1967). The Medium Is the Message. United Kingdom: Penguin Books.
  • Meyrowitz, J. (1986). No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. Oxford University Press.
  • Missika, J. L. (2006). La fin de la Télévision. Seuil.
  • Nieminen, M., & Koivunen, M.-R. (1995). Visual Walkthrough. Y. Anzai, K. Ogawa, & H. Mori (Dü.), Proceedings of HCI International 95. içinde 1. Tokyo: Elsevier.
  • Price, M. E. (2009). End of Television and Foreign Policy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 196-204.
  • Riva, G. (2007). Virtual reality and telepresence. Science, 318(5854), 1240-1242.
  • Rogers, E. M. (1986). Communication technology. The new media in society. New York: The Free Press.
  • Smith, T. P., Obrist, M., & Wright, P. (2013). Live-Streaming Changes the (Video) Game. Proceedings of the 11th european conference on Interactive TV and video, (s. 131-138).
  • Spilker, S. H., Ask, K., & Hansen, M. (2020). The new practices and infrastructures of participation: how the popularity of Twitch. tv challenges old and new ideas about television viewing. Information, Communication & Society, 23(4), 605-620.
  • Steuer, J. (1992). Steuer, Jonathan. "Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of communication, 42(4), 73-93.
  • Steuer, J. (1993). Defining Virtual Reality:Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
  • Stone, D., Jarrett, C., Woodroffe, M., & Minocha, S. (2005). User Interface Design and Evaluation. Elsevier.
  • Stone, R. J. (2000). Stone, R. J. (2000, August). Haptic feedback: A brief history from telepresence to virtual reality. International Workshop on Haptic Human-Computer Interaction (s. 1-16). içinde Berlin: Springer.
  • Swalwell , M. (2011). More Than A Craze: Photographs of New Zealand's early digital games scene. DiGRA Conference., (s. 1-4).
  • Taylor, N. T. (2016). Now you’re playing with audience power: the work of watching games. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 33(4), 293-307.
  • The Radio Times. (1929, Eylül 27). The broadcasters notes on coming events. The Radio Times - The Journal of The British Broadcasting Corporation, s. 664.
  • TTracker. (2021). Most Watched Streamers on Twitch. Twitch Tracker Channels: https://twitchtracker.com/channels/hours-watched/turkish adresinden alındı
  • Twitch.TV. (2021). Facts & Figures. 5 2021 tarihinde Press Center: https://www.twitch.tv/p/press-center/ adresinden alındı
  • we are social. (2020). Digital 2020 Global Digital Overview. Hootsuite.
  • Webb, C. (2012, 5 2). Interview: The Big Broadcast - TwitchTV, eSports, and Making it Big as an Online Gamer. 5 2021 tarihinde MTV News: http://www.mtv.com/news/2464437/interview-the-big-broadcast-twitchtv-esports-and-making-it-big-as-an-online-gamer/ adresinden alındı

Televizyonun Değişen Yüzü: Twitch TV ve Yeni Nesil Yayıncılık

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1, 27 - 55, 15.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.18094/josc.987200

Abstract

Televizyon ve internet tabanlı video platformlarının birer rakip olarak düşünüldüğü dönemin ardından, özellikle 2010 yılından itibaren televizyon yayıncılığı internet ortamında yer almaya ve içeriklerini farklı mecralar üzerinden paylaşmaya başlamıştır. Yine aynı dönemde sosyal medya platformlarının canlı yayın özelliği kazanmasıyla; platformlar üzerinden canlı programlar yapılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda sayısal platformların arayüzünün yapısal özellikleri; bir yandan izleyicinin içerik tercihlerini yönlendirilmekte bir yandan da izleyiciler arasındaki iletişimi bazen kolaylaştırırken bazen de sınırlandırmaktadır. Bu çerçevede çalışmanın odaklandığı temel problem; sayısal platformların gizli sosyoteknik işleyişidir. Sayısal platformların yapısal özelliklerini göz önünde bulundurarak, bu çalışmanın amacı yeni nesil çevrim içi canlı yayın platformlarını incelemek ve gelişen yeni yayıncılık ekosistemini anlamaya çalışmaktır. Araştırma kapsamında TwitchTV platformunun arayüz yapısı gezinti çözümlemesi [walkthrough] yöntemi kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda TwitchTV arayüzünde belirli tekno-sınırlar oluşturularak; kanallara abone olan ve olmayan izleyiciler arasında keskin bir ayrım yapıldığı, bazı izleyici özelliklerinin kısıtlandığı, izleyiciler arasında hiyerarşik bir yapı oluşturularak izleyicilerin belirli eylemleri gerçekleştirmesi için yönlendirildiği ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bu sayede yayıncılık ekonomisinde önemli bir yere sahip ve hızla büyüyen etkileşimli canlı yayın platformlarının pek çok farklı yöntem kullanarak Sosyal TV yayıncılığına yön verdiği ortaya çıkartılmıştır.

References

  • Anderson, K. E. (2018). Getting acquainted with social networks and apps: streaming video games on Twitch.tv. Library Hi Tech News, 7-10.
  • Anderson, K. E. (2018). Getting acquainted with social networks and apps: streaming video games on Twitch.tv. Library Hi Tech News, 7-10.
  • Beuscart, J. S. (2012). La fin de la télévision? 5, 43-82.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2017). Televizyon Yayıncılığının Dönüşümü: Sosyal TV Yayıncılığı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 5(1), 425-448.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2017). Türkiye’de Televizyon Yayıncılığının Dönüşümü: Sosyal TV Yayıncılığı. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 5(1), 425-448.
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2020a). NETlab Yeni Medya Araştırmaları. Dijital Oyun ve yayıncılık: https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwYPI_1duI_Qez32JfCewjoRc9kN4f7ob adresinden alındı
  • Dikmen, E. Ş. (2020b). Dijital Oyun ve Yayıncılık II. (E. Ş. Dikmen, Prodüktör) Yeni Medya Araştırmaları Laboratuvarı NETlab: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwYPI_1duI_RrS1hj7p_ndgIwsty4IBd5 adresinden alındı
  • Fisher, S. S. (1991). Virtual Environments, Personal Simulation, & Telepresence. S. Helsel, & J. Roth içinde, Virtual Reality: Theory, Practice and Promise. Meckler Publishing.
  • Gauntlett, D., & Hill, A. (1999). TV living: Television, culture and everyday life. Routledge.
  • Gerbarg, D. (2008). Television goes digital. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Grin. inc. (2021). Twitch vs YouTube Gaming. Grin: https://grow.grin.co/twitch-vs-youtube-gaming/ adresinden alındı
  • Gurevitch, M. C. (2009). Political Communication—Old and New Media Relationships. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625, 164-181.
  • Hammar, P. (1994). CHARLES P. GINSBURG 1920–1992. Memorial Tributes: Volume 7 (s. 85-90). içinde Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • HelpTwitchTV. (2021). Guide to Building a Moderation Team. TwitchTV: https://help.twitch.tv/s/article/guide-to-building-a-moderation-team?language=en_US adresinden alındı
  • Hookway, B. (2014). Interface. MIT Press books.
  • Kang, S., Brien, O., Villarreal, E., Lee, W., & C., M. (2019). Immersive Journalism and Telepresence: Does virtual reality news use affect news credibility? Digital journalism, 7(2), 294-313.
  • Karahisar, Ş. (1999). İnternet Ortamında Eğitim. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 18, 145-168 .
  • Katz, E. (2009). The End of Television? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 6-18.
  • Katz, E. (2009). The End of Television? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 6–18.
  • Kocurek, C. A. (2015). Coin-operated Americans: Rebooting boyhood at the video game arcade. U of Minnesota Press.
  • Light, B., Burgess, J., & Duguay, S. (2016). The walkthrough method: An approach to the study of apps. new media & society, 20(3), 881– 900.
  • Lin, H., & Sun, C.-T. (2017). he role of onlookers in arcade gaming: Frame analysis of public behaviours. Convergence, 17(2), 125-137.
  • Lotz, A. D. (2009). What Is U.S. Television Now? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,, 625(1), 49–59.
  • McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. MIT Press.
  • McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (1967). The Medium Is the Message. United Kingdom: Penguin Books.
  • Meyrowitz, J. (1986). No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. Oxford University Press.
  • Missika, J. L. (2006). La fin de la Télévision. Seuil.
  • Nieminen, M., & Koivunen, M.-R. (1995). Visual Walkthrough. Y. Anzai, K. Ogawa, & H. Mori (Dü.), Proceedings of HCI International 95. içinde 1. Tokyo: Elsevier.
  • Price, M. E. (2009). End of Television and Foreign Policy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 196-204.
  • Riva, G. (2007). Virtual reality and telepresence. Science, 318(5854), 1240-1242.
  • Rogers, E. M. (1986). Communication technology. The new media in society. New York: The Free Press.
  • Smith, T. P., Obrist, M., & Wright, P. (2013). Live-Streaming Changes the (Video) Game. Proceedings of the 11th european conference on Interactive TV and video, (s. 131-138).
  • Spilker, S. H., Ask, K., & Hansen, M. (2020). The new practices and infrastructures of participation: how the popularity of Twitch. tv challenges old and new ideas about television viewing. Information, Communication & Society, 23(4), 605-620.
  • Steuer, J. (1992). Steuer, Jonathan. "Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of communication, 42(4), 73-93.
  • Steuer, J. (1993). Defining Virtual Reality:Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
  • Stone, D., Jarrett, C., Woodroffe, M., & Minocha, S. (2005). User Interface Design and Evaluation. Elsevier.
  • Stone, R. J. (2000). Stone, R. J. (2000, August). Haptic feedback: A brief history from telepresence to virtual reality. International Workshop on Haptic Human-Computer Interaction (s. 1-16). içinde Berlin: Springer.
  • Swalwell , M. (2011). More Than A Craze: Photographs of New Zealand's early digital games scene. DiGRA Conference., (s. 1-4).
  • Taylor, N. T. (2016). Now you’re playing with audience power: the work of watching games. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 33(4), 293-307.
  • The Radio Times. (1929, Eylül 27). The broadcasters notes on coming events. The Radio Times - The Journal of The British Broadcasting Corporation, s. 664.
  • TTracker. (2021). Most Watched Streamers on Twitch. Twitch Tracker Channels: https://twitchtracker.com/channels/hours-watched/turkish adresinden alındı
  • Twitch.TV. (2021). Facts & Figures. 5 2021 tarihinde Press Center: https://www.twitch.tv/p/press-center/ adresinden alındı
  • we are social. (2020). Digital 2020 Global Digital Overview. Hootsuite.
  • Webb, C. (2012, 5 2). Interview: The Big Broadcast - TwitchTV, eSports, and Making it Big as an Online Gamer. 5 2021 tarihinde MTV News: http://www.mtv.com/news/2464437/interview-the-big-broadcast-twitchtv-esports-and-making-it-big-as-an-online-gamer/ adresinden alındı

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Film, Radio, Television, Communication
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ergin Şafak DİKMEN (Primary Author)
Ankara Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi
0000-0002-2360-7046
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Ankara Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi NETlab Yeni Medya Araştırmaları Laboratuvarı
Publication Date April 15, 2022
Application Date August 25, 2021
Acceptance Date October 15, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 1

Cite

APA Dikmen, E. Ş. (2022). Televizyonun Değişen Yüzü: Twitch TV ve Yeni Nesil Yayıncılık . Selçuk İletişim , 15 (1) , 27-55 . DOI: 10.18094/josc.987200