Review
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 355 - 372, 31.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.1001676

Abstract

References

  • 1. Amit Koparde A, Chandrashekar Doijad R, Shripal Magdum C. Natural Products in Drug Discovery. In: Perveen S, Al-Taweel A, editors. Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants [Internet]. IntechOpen; 2019 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 2. Omara T, Kiprop AK, Ramkat RC, Cherutoi J, Kagoya S, Moraa Nyangena D, et al. Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020 Mar 16;2020:1–26.
  • 3. the International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce, Atanasov AG, Zotchev SB, Dirsch VM, Supuran CT. Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2021 Mar;20(3):200–16.
  • 4. WHO. WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 5. Schultz F, Anywar G, Wack B, Quave CL, Garbe L-A. Ethnobotanical study of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in the rural Greater Mpigi region of Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020 Jun;256:112742.
  • 6. Tabuti JRS, Kukunda CB, Waako PJ. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Jan;127(1):130–6.
  • 7. Tugume P, Kakudidi EK, Buyinza M, Namaalwa J, Kamatenesi M, Mucunguzi P, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2016 Dec;12(1):5.
  • 8. Anonymous. The Plant List. Ebenaceae [Internet]. The Plant List. 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 9. Duangjai S, Wallnofer B, Samuel R, Munzinger J, Chase MW. Generic delimitation and relationships in Ebenaceae sensu lato: evidence from six plastid DNA regions. American Journal of Botany. 2006 Dec 1;93(12):1808–27.
  • 10. Anonymous. Ebenaceae [Internet]. Ebenaceae. 2021. .
  • 11. Mothogoane M. Euclea divinorum Hiern [Internet]. Euclea divinorum Hiern. 2014. .
  • 12. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) [Internet]. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0; 2021. .
  • 13. Hyde M, Wursten B, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M. Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Euclea divinorum [Internet]. Zimbabweflora; 2021. .
  • 14. Dagne E, Alemu M, Sterner O. Flavonoids from Euclea divinorum. Bull Chem Soc Eth. 1993;7(2):87–92.
  • 15. Grinsven M, Parkipuny M, Johns T. Euclea divinorum (Ebenaceae) bark is a high-potential tanning material. Econonie Botany. 1999;53:220.
  • 16. Smith TM, Goodman PS. Successional Dynamics in an Acacia Nilotica-Euclea Divinorum Savannah in Southern Africa. The Journal of Ecology. 1987 Sep;75(3):603.
  • 17. Ivens G. The effects of arboricides on East African trees and shrubs IV. Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. and Euclea divinorum Hiern. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago. 1960;37(2):143–52.
  • 18. Maundu P. Traditional Food Plants of Kenya [Internet]. 1999. 288 p. .
  • 19. Lovett J, Ruffo C, Gereau R, Taplin J. Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania [Internet]. The Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2005. .
  • 20. Wahungu GM, Gichohi NW, Onyango IA, Mureu LK, Kamaru D, Mutisya S, et al. Encroachment of open grasslands and Acacia drepanolobium Harms ex B.Y.Sjöstedt habitats by Euclea divinorum Hiern in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Kenya. Afr J Ecol. 2013 Mar;51(1):130–8.
  • 21. Mutunga Kavwele C. Time Series Monitoring of Bush Encroachment by <i>Euclea divinorum</i> in Ol Pejeta Conservancy Laikipia, Kenya. IJNREM. 2017;2(5):85.
  • 22. Parker JWPL, Parker AM. Herbicide Control of Euclea Divinorum— Preliminary Experiments. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1964 Oct;30(2):89–93.
  • 23. Njuguna P. Euclea divinorum Hiern. Jansen P, Cardon D, editors. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale); 2005.
  • 24. Anonymous. Euclea divinorum Hiern [Internet]. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 25. Kilonzo M, Rubanza C, Richard U, Sangiwa G. Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical analysis of extracts from Ormocarpum trichocarpum (Taub.) and Euclea divinorum (Hiern) used as traditional medicine in Tanzania. Tanzania J Hlth Res. 2020 Sep 10;21(2):1–12.
  • 26. Hutchings A. Zulu medicinal plants: An inventory. [Internet]. University of Natal press; 1996. .
  • 27. Shumba L. Phytochemical composition and bacterial activity of Euclea divinorum [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Zimbabwe]: Bindura University of Science Education; 2018. .
  • 28. Mostert T, Bredenkamp G, Klopper H, Verwey C, Mostert R, Hahn N. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa : original research. Koedoe. 2008;50(1):32–48.
  • 29. Scogings P. Large herbivores and season independently affect woody stem circumference increment in a semi-arid African savanna. Plant Ecology. 2014;215:1433–43.
  • 30. Geyid A, Abebe D, Debella A, Makonnen Z, Aberra F, Teka F, et al. Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005 Mar;97(3):421–7.
  • 31. Amusan OOG, Dlamini PS, Msonthi JD, Makhubu LP. Some herbal remedies from Manzini region of Swaziland. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002 Feb;79(1):109–12.
  • 32. Al-Fatimi M, Friedrich U, Jenett-Siems K. Cytotoxicity of plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Fitoterapia. 2005 Jun;76(3–4):355–8.
  • 33. Sharam G, Sinclair ARE, Turkington R. Establishment of Broad-leaved Thickets in Serengeti, Tanzania: The Influence of Fire, Browsers, Grass Competition, and Elephants1. Biotropica. 2006 Sep;38(5):599–605.
  • 34. Al-Fatimi. Antifungal Activity of Euclea divinorum Root and Study of its Ethnobotany and Phytopharmacology. Processes. 2019 Oct 1;7(10):680.
  • 35. Miller G, Morris M. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago. Edinburgh, UK: The Royal Botanic Garden; 2004.
  • 36. Scogings P, Siko S, Taylor R. Calibration of a hand-held instrument for measuring condensed tannin concentration based on UV- and red-excited fluorescence. African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 2014 Jan 2;31(1):55–8.
  • 37. Hattas D, Julkunen-Tiitto R. The quantification of condensed tannins in African savanna tree species. Phytochemistry Letters. 2012 Jun;5(2):329–34.
  • 38. Manyim S, Kiprop AK, Mwasiagi JI, Achisa CM, Odero MP. Dyeing of cotton fabric with Euclea divinorum extract using response surface optimization method. RJTA [Internet]. 2021 May 5 [cited 2022 Feb 26]; .
  • 39. Maroyi A. The Gathering and Consumption of Wild Edible Plants in Nhema Communal Area, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2011 Nov;50(6):506–25.
  • 40. China CR, Hilonga A, Nyandoro SS, Schroepfer M, Kanth SV, Meyer M, et al. Suitability of selected vegetable tannins traditionally used in leather making in Tanzania. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020 Apr;251:119687.
  • 41. Cunningham AB, Milton SJ. Effects of basket-weaving industry on mokola palm and dye plants in northwestern Botswana. Econ Bot. 1987 Jul;41(3):386–402.
  • 42. Cardon D. Dyes and Tannins. PROTA Foundation; 2005.
  • 43. Bussmann RW, Gilbreath GG, Solio J, Lutura M, Lutuluo R, Kunguru K, et al. Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2006 Dec;2(1):22.
  • 44. Maundu P, Berger D, Ole Saitabau C, Nasieku J, Kipelian M, Mathenge S, et al. Ethnobotany of the Loita Maasai People and Plants Working Paper 8. 2001;
  • 45. Gemedo-Dalle T, Maass BL, Isselstein J. Plant Biodiversity and Ethnobotany of Borana Pastoralists in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. Economic Botany. 2005 Jan;59(1):43–65.
  • 46. Mashile SP, Tshisikhawe MP, Masevhe NA. Indigenous fruit plants species of the Mapulana of Ehlanzeni district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 2019 May;122:180–3.
  • 47. Rampedi IT, Olivier J. Traditional Beverages Derived from Wild Food Plant Species in the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province in South Africa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2013 May;52(3):203–22.
  • 48. Mining J. Bioactive Metabolites Of Selected Kenyan Plants Used As Biopesticides Against Acanthoscelides obtectus in Bungoma District, Kenya [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Nairobi, Kenya]: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008. .
  • 49. Euclea divinorum-Hiern [Internet]. Plants For A Future. 2021. .
  • 50. Habte M, Eshetu M, Andualem D, Maryo M, Legesse A. The inventory of camel feed resource and the evaluation of its chemical composition in south‐east rangelands of Ethiopia. Vet Med Sci. 2021 Jul;7(4):1172–84.
  • 51. Kirui JK, Kotut K, Okemo PO. Efficacy of aqueous plant extract in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties. Journal of Water and Health. 2015 Sep 1;13(3):848–52.
  • 52. Ng’ang’a MM, Hussain H, Chhabra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Al-Harrasi A, Krohn K, et al. Eucleanal A and B: Two new napthalene derivatives from Euclea divinorum. Chinese Chemical Letters. 2012 May;23(5):576–8.
  • 53. den Biggelaar C, Mureithi W. Using tree species to treat milk for palatability and preservation. Intermediate Technology Food Chain. 2000;26:6–7.
  • 54. Omara T, Kiprop AK, Kosgei VJ. Albizia coriaria Welw ex Oliver: a review of its ethnobotany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) [Internet]. 2021 Jul 21 [cited 2022 Feb 26]; .
  • 55. Setshego MV, Aremu AO, Mooki O, Otang-Mbeng W. Natural resources used as folk cosmeceuticals among rural communities in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Dec;20(1):81.
  • 56. Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Kanui TI. Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Machakos District, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011 Sep;137(1):495–502.
  • 57. Keter LK, Mutiso PC. Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used by Traditional Health Practitioners in the management of diabetes in Lower Eastern Province, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jan;139(1):74–80.
  • 58. Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru central district of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013 Jan;145(2):547–53.
  • 59. Kokwaro JO, Johns T, Kokwaro JO. Luo biological dictionary. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 1998. 264 p.
  • 60. Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, et al. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “ Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016 Nov;192:524–34.
  • 61. Kamanja I, Mbaria J, Gathumbi P, Mbaabu M, Lanyasunya A, Gakuya D, et al. Medicinal plants used in the management of sexually transmitted infections by the Samburu Community Kenya. 2015;
  • 62. Johns T, Mahunnah RLA, Sanaya P, Chapman L, Ticktin T. Saponins and phenolic content in plant dietary additives of a traditional subsistence community, the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999 Jul;66(1):1–10.
  • 63. Kigen G, Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, Haruki B, Kemboi J. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Sangurur, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. Phcog Res. 2017;9(4):333.
  • 64. Kigen G, Maritim A, Some F, Kibosia J, Rono H, Chepkwony S, et al. Ethnopharmacological survey of the medicinal plants used in Tindiret, Nandi County, Kenya. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med. 2016 Mar 16;13(3):156.
  • 65. Maroyi A, Cheikhyoussef A. A comparative study of medicinal plants used in rural areas of Namibia and Zimbabwe. 2015; .
  • 66. White F. Flore d’Afrique Centrale (Zaïre – Rwanda – Burundi): Ebenaceae. 1987.
  • 67. Gumisiriza H, Sesaazi CD, Olet EA, Kembabazi O, Birungi G. Medicinal plants used to treat “African” diseases by the local communities of Bwambara sub-county in Rukungiri District, Western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2021 Mar;268:113578.
  • 68. Tabuti JRS, Kukunda CB, Waako PJ. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Jan;127(1):130–6.
  • 69. Anywar G, Kakudidi E, Byamukama R, Mukonzo J, Schubert A, Oryem-Origa H. Indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by herbalists in treating opportunistic infections among people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020 Jan;246:112205.
  • 70. Namukobe J, Lutaaya A, Asiimwe S, Byamukama R. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used in the Management of Dermatological Disorders in Buyende and Kayunga Districts, Uganda. EJMP. 2021 Mar 16;15–40.
  • 71. Obakiro SB, Kiprop A, Kowino I, Kigondu E, Odero MP, Omara T, et al. Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review. Trop Med Health. 2020 Dec;48(1):68.
  • 72. Roba GO. Trees symbolism, conservation and threat in Guji Oromo, Southern Ethiopia. Lu Z, editor. Cogent Social Sciences. 2021 Jan 1;7(1):1880681.
  • 73. Lulekal E, Kelbessa E, Bekele T, Yineger H. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2008 Dec;4(1):10.
  • 74. Feyissa T, Asres K, Engidawork E. Renoprotective effects of the crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Euclea divinorum Hierns against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013 Feb;145(3):758–66.
  • 75. Augustino S, Gillah PR. Medicinal Plants in Urban Districts of Tanzania: Plants, Gender Roles and Sustainable Use. int forest rev. 2005 Mar 1;7(1):44–58.
  • 76. Chinsembu KC. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;2016:1–14.
  • 77. Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry. 2013;1(6).
  • 78. Tabuti JRS, Lye KA, Dhillion SS. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003 Sep;88(1):19–44.
  • 79. Shikwambana N, Mahlo SM. A Survey of Antifungal Activity of Selected South African Plant Species Used for the Treatment of Skin Infections. Natural Product Communications. 2020 May;15(5):1934578X2092318.
  • 80. Pascaline J, Charles M, George O, Lukhoba C. An inventory of medicinal plants that the people of Nandi use to treat malaria. J Anim Plant Sci. 2011;9:1192–200.
  • 81. Lukwa N, Mutambu S, Makaza N, Molgaard P, Furu P. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT MALARIA TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL USING ANTI-MALARIA PLANTS IN MOLA, KARIBA, ZIMBABWE. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine. 2001 Jan 1;5(1):4–7.
  • 82. Hunde D, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E. Use of traditional medicinal plants by people of ‘Boosat’sub district, Central Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences [Internet]. 2006;16(2). .
  • 83. Orwa JA, Mwitari PG, Matu EN, Rukunga GM. Traditional healers and the managment of malaria in Kisumu District, Kenya. E Af Med Jrnl. 2008 Mar 26;84(2):51–5.
  • 84. Ruth L, Manani Solomon D. Ethnobotanical survey and propagation of some endangered medicinal plants from south Nandi district of Kenya. J Anim Plant Sci. 2010;8(3):1016–43.
  • 85. Odongo S. Medicinal plants of Chuka community in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya and some of their selected essential elements [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Nairobi, Kenya]: Kenyatta University; 2013.
  • 86. Kokwaro J. Medicinal plants of East Africa. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya; 1976.
  • 87. van Wyk B-E, van Oudtshoorn B, Gericke N. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications; 1997. 304 p.
  • 88. Smith CA, Phillips EP, Van Hoepen E. Common Names of South African Plants [Internet]. Government Printer, South Africa; 1966. (Botanical Research Institute botanical survey memoir).
  • 89. Kamau LN, Mbaabu PM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. Ethnobotanical survey and threats to medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of human diseases in Nyeri County, Kenya. CellMed. 2016;6(3):21–1.
  • 90. Onyango C, Gakuya L, Mathooko FM, Maina J, Nyaberi M, Makobe M, et al. Phytochemical studies on herbal plants commonly used for processing and preserving meat and milk. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2014;73:5942–8.
  • 91. Kokwaro JO. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 3rd ed. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009. 478 p.
  • 92. Johns T, Mhoro EB, Sanaya P, Kimanani EK. Herbal remedies of the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania: a quantitative appraisal. Econ Bot. 1994 Jan;48(1):90–5.
  • 93. Ngari F, Wanjau R, Njagi E, Gikonyo N. Herbal Materials Used in Management of Oral Conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Oral Health & Community Dentistry. 2014;8(1).
  • 94. Johns T, Kokwaro JO, Kimanani EK. Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya: Establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Econ Bot. 1990 Sep;44(3):369–81.
  • 95. Tadesse M, Demissew S. Plants Used in African Traditional Medicine as Practiced in Ethiopia and Uganda. Botany 2000. 1992;
  • 96. Balemie K, Kelbessa E, Asfaw Z. Indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and threats in Fentalle area, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2004;3(1):37–58.
  • 97. Abate G, Demissew S. Etse Debdabe. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Artistic Printing Press; 1989. p. 123.
  • 98. Gumisiriza H, Birungi G, Olet EA, Sesaazi CD. Medicinal plant species used by local communities around Queen Elizabeth National Park, Maramagambo Central Forest Reserve and Ihimbo Central Forest Reserve, South western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2019 Jul;239:111926.
  • 99. Mabona U, Van Vuuren SF. Southern African medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases. South African Journal of Botany. 2013 Jul;87:175–93.
  • 100. Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, Rono H, Kigen G. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2014 Dec;10(1):24.
  • 101. Okello SV, Nyunja RO, Netondo GW, Onyango JC. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med [Internet]. 2010 Jul 30 [cited 2022 Feb 26];7(1). .
  • 102. Fatuma Some GK. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used by the Keiyo Community in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. J Biodivers Biopros Dev [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Feb 26];01(03). Available from: .
  • 103. Verschaeve L, Van Staden J. Mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of extracts from South African traditional medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Oct;119(3):575–87.
  • 104. Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kareru PG, Mulei CM, Njonge FK. Ethnobotanical study of anthelmintic and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok district of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011 Apr;135(1):15–21.
  • 105. Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW. Herbal usage and informant consensus in ethnoveterinary management of cattle diseases among the Kikuyus (Central Kenya). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006 Dec;108(3):332–9.
  • 106. Mbabazi I, Wangila P, Krsquo;Owino IO. Comparison of the phytochemical composition of Euclea divinorum Hern Ebenaceae) leaves, tender stems and root bark. Adv J Chem B [Internet]. 2021 Aug [cited 2022 Feb 26];3(3).
  • 107. Mwonjoria J, Ngeranwa J, Githinji C, Wanyonyi A. Antinociceptive effects of dichloromethane extract of Euclea divinorum Lin. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;7(6):1104–7.
  • 108. Woldemedhin B, Nedi T, Shibeshi W, Sisay M. Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the root of Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017 Apr;202:114–21.
  • 109. Nyaitondi OD, Wanjau RN, Nyambaka H, Hassanali A. Anti-bacterial properties and GC-MS analysis of extracts and essential oils of selected plant product. J Nat Prod Biochem. 2018 Feb 1;16(1):44–58.
  • 110. Ngari FW, Gikonyo NK, Wanjau RN, Njagi EM. Safety and antimicrobial properties of Euclea divinorum Hiern, chewing sticks used for management of oral health in Nairobi County, Kenya. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;3(3):1–8.
  • 111. Mothana RA, Lindequist U, Gruenert R, Bednarski PJ. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Dec;9(1):7.
  • 112. van der Vijver LM, Gerrritsma K. Naphthoquinones of Euclea and Diospyros species. Phytochemistry. 1974;
  • 113. Cruz-Costa M, Lopes MH, Paul MI, Ferreira MA, Correia-Alves A. Naphthaquinones and triterpenoids of Euclea divinorum. Phytochemistry. 1976;
  • 114. Ng’ang’a MM, Hussain H, Chhabra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Krohn K, Hussain J, et al. Eucleanal: A New Napthalene Derivative from Euclea divinorum. Natural Product Communications. 2012 Feb;7(2):1934578X1200700.
  • 115. More G, Tshikalange TE, Lall N, Botha F, Meyer JJM. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;119(3):473–7.
  • 116. Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO, Masebe T, Mathebula H, Molobela P, et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2003 Jul;69(2):199–203.
  • 117. More G, Tshikalange TE, Lall N, Botha F, Meyer JJM. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Oct;119(3):473–7.
  • 118. Samie A, Tambani T, Harshfield E, Green E, Ramalivhana J, Bessong P. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(20).
  • 119. Mutuku A. Antimicrobial Activity Of Warburgia ugandensis, Euclea divinorum, Rhus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Clausena anisata Against Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Eldoret, Kenya]: University of Eldoret; 2018.
  • 120. Mbabazi I, Wangila P, K’Owino IO. Antimicrobial activity of Euclea divinorum hern (ebenaceae) leaves, tender stems, root bark and an herbal toothpaste formulated from its ethanolic root bark extract. 2020;3(3):8–16.
  • 121. Johns T, Faubert GM, Kokwaro JO, Mahunnah RLA, Kimanani EK. Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies of the Luo of East Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995 Apr;46(1):17–23.
  • 122. Mothana R, Al-Musayeib N, Matheeussen A, Cos P, Maes L. Assessment of the in Vitro Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Potential of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants from the Island of Soqotra. Molecules. 2012 Dec 3;17(12):14349–60.
  • 123. Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, et al. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru–Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015 Dec;175:315–23.
  • 124. Twilley D, Langhansová L, Palaniswamy D, Lall N. Evaluation of traditionally used medicinal plants for anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral (HPV-1) activity. South African Journal of Botany. 2017 Sep;112:494–500.
  • 125. Kaluwa Kaingu C, Oduma JA, Kanui T. Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jul;142(2):496–502.
  • 126. Homer KA, Manji F, Beighton D. Inhibition of protease activities of periodontopathic bacteria by extracts of plants used in Kenya as chewing sticks (mswaki). Archives of Oral Biology. 1990;35(6):421–4.
  • 127. Homer KA, Manji F, Beighton D. Inhibition of peptidase and glycosidase activities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius and Treponema denticola by plant extracts. J Clin Periodontol. 1992 May;19(5):305–10.
  • 128. Chapman L, Johns T, Mahunnah RLA. Saponin‐like in vitro characteristics of extracts from selected non‐nutrient wild plant food additives used by Maasai in meat and milk based soups. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 1997 Feb;36(1):1–22.
  • 129. JLS, Elgorashi EE, Maes A, Van Gorp U, De Kimpe N, van Staden J, et al. Investigating the safety of plants used in South African traditional medicine: Testing for genotoxicity in the micronucleus and alkaline comet assays. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2003;42(3):144–54.
  • 130. Elgorashi E. Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects. Toxicology Letters. 2003 Jul 20;143(2):195–207.

Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Toxicity of Euclea divinorum Hern (Ebenaceae): A Review

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, 355 - 372, 31.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.1001676

Abstract

Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in Yemen, Eastern and Southern Africa in traditional phytotherapy. This review was an attempt to compile a comprehensive report on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, and toxicity, lending credence to the use of its various parts in herbal medicine. The literature encountered indicated that herbal formularies from different parts of Euclea divinorum (E. divinorum) are majorly used for traditional treatment of odontological, dermatological, respiratory, reproductive, and gastrointestinal ailments. At least 18 compounds have been isolated and characterized in extracts of E. divinorum, while 31 others have been identified in the crude extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Extracts, as well as isolated compounds from E. divinorum stem, stem barks, leaves, and roots, showed renoprotective, antiproliferative, antinociceptive, contractile, proteolytic, diuretic, antiprotozoal, anti-giardial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, and insecticidal activities. Further research is warranted to explore other pharmacological properties such as antisnake venom, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, analgesic, and antimycobacterial activities and the responsible bioactive compounds in the different parts of E. divinorum claimed in herbal medicine. The composition and bioactivities of essential oils from this species also warrant further studies.

References

  • 1. Amit Koparde A, Chandrashekar Doijad R, Shripal Magdum C. Natural Products in Drug Discovery. In: Perveen S, Al-Taweel A, editors. Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants [Internet]. IntechOpen; 2019 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 2. Omara T, Kiprop AK, Ramkat RC, Cherutoi J, Kagoya S, Moraa Nyangena D, et al. Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020 Mar 16;2020:1–26.
  • 3. the International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce, Atanasov AG, Zotchev SB, Dirsch VM, Supuran CT. Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2021 Mar;20(3):200–16.
  • 4. WHO. WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 5. Schultz F, Anywar G, Wack B, Quave CL, Garbe L-A. Ethnobotanical study of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in the rural Greater Mpigi region of Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020 Jun;256:112742.
  • 6. Tabuti JRS, Kukunda CB, Waako PJ. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Jan;127(1):130–6.
  • 7. Tugume P, Kakudidi EK, Buyinza M, Namaalwa J, Kamatenesi M, Mucunguzi P, et al. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2016 Dec;12(1):5.
  • 8. Anonymous. The Plant List. Ebenaceae [Internet]. The Plant List. 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 9. Duangjai S, Wallnofer B, Samuel R, Munzinger J, Chase MW. Generic delimitation and relationships in Ebenaceae sensu lato: evidence from six plastid DNA regions. American Journal of Botany. 2006 Dec 1;93(12):1808–27.
  • 10. Anonymous. Ebenaceae [Internet]. Ebenaceae. 2021. .
  • 11. Mothogoane M. Euclea divinorum Hiern [Internet]. Euclea divinorum Hiern. 2014. .
  • 12. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) [Internet]. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0; 2021. .
  • 13. Hyde M, Wursten B, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M. Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Euclea divinorum [Internet]. Zimbabweflora; 2021. .
  • 14. Dagne E, Alemu M, Sterner O. Flavonoids from Euclea divinorum. Bull Chem Soc Eth. 1993;7(2):87–92.
  • 15. Grinsven M, Parkipuny M, Johns T. Euclea divinorum (Ebenaceae) bark is a high-potential tanning material. Econonie Botany. 1999;53:220.
  • 16. Smith TM, Goodman PS. Successional Dynamics in an Acacia Nilotica-Euclea Divinorum Savannah in Southern Africa. The Journal of Ecology. 1987 Sep;75(3):603.
  • 17. Ivens G. The effects of arboricides on East African trees and shrubs IV. Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. and Euclea divinorum Hiern. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago. 1960;37(2):143–52.
  • 18. Maundu P. Traditional Food Plants of Kenya [Internet]. 1999. 288 p. .
  • 19. Lovett J, Ruffo C, Gereau R, Taplin J. Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania [Internet]. The Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2005. .
  • 20. Wahungu GM, Gichohi NW, Onyango IA, Mureu LK, Kamaru D, Mutisya S, et al. Encroachment of open grasslands and Acacia drepanolobium Harms ex B.Y.Sjöstedt habitats by Euclea divinorum Hiern in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Kenya. Afr J Ecol. 2013 Mar;51(1):130–8.
  • 21. Mutunga Kavwele C. Time Series Monitoring of Bush Encroachment by <i>Euclea divinorum</i> in Ol Pejeta Conservancy Laikipia, Kenya. IJNREM. 2017;2(5):85.
  • 22. Parker JWPL, Parker AM. Herbicide Control of Euclea Divinorum— Preliminary Experiments. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1964 Oct;30(2):89–93.
  • 23. Njuguna P. Euclea divinorum Hiern. Jansen P, Cardon D, editors. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale); 2005.
  • 24. Anonymous. Euclea divinorum Hiern [Internet]. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 26]. .
  • 25. Kilonzo M, Rubanza C, Richard U, Sangiwa G. Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical analysis of extracts from Ormocarpum trichocarpum (Taub.) and Euclea divinorum (Hiern) used as traditional medicine in Tanzania. Tanzania J Hlth Res. 2020 Sep 10;21(2):1–12.
  • 26. Hutchings A. Zulu medicinal plants: An inventory. [Internet]. University of Natal press; 1996. .
  • 27. Shumba L. Phytochemical composition and bacterial activity of Euclea divinorum [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Zimbabwe]: Bindura University of Science Education; 2018. .
  • 28. Mostert T, Bredenkamp G, Klopper H, Verwey C, Mostert R, Hahn N. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa : original research. Koedoe. 2008;50(1):32–48.
  • 29. Scogings P. Large herbivores and season independently affect woody stem circumference increment in a semi-arid African savanna. Plant Ecology. 2014;215:1433–43.
  • 30. Geyid A, Abebe D, Debella A, Makonnen Z, Aberra F, Teka F, et al. Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005 Mar;97(3):421–7.
  • 31. Amusan OOG, Dlamini PS, Msonthi JD, Makhubu LP. Some herbal remedies from Manzini region of Swaziland. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002 Feb;79(1):109–12.
  • 32. Al-Fatimi M, Friedrich U, Jenett-Siems K. Cytotoxicity of plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Fitoterapia. 2005 Jun;76(3–4):355–8.
  • 33. Sharam G, Sinclair ARE, Turkington R. Establishment of Broad-leaved Thickets in Serengeti, Tanzania: The Influence of Fire, Browsers, Grass Competition, and Elephants1. Biotropica. 2006 Sep;38(5):599–605.
  • 34. Al-Fatimi. Antifungal Activity of Euclea divinorum Root and Study of its Ethnobotany and Phytopharmacology. Processes. 2019 Oct 1;7(10):680.
  • 35. Miller G, Morris M. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago. Edinburgh, UK: The Royal Botanic Garden; 2004.
  • 36. Scogings P, Siko S, Taylor R. Calibration of a hand-held instrument for measuring condensed tannin concentration based on UV- and red-excited fluorescence. African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 2014 Jan 2;31(1):55–8.
  • 37. Hattas D, Julkunen-Tiitto R. The quantification of condensed tannins in African savanna tree species. Phytochemistry Letters. 2012 Jun;5(2):329–34.
  • 38. Manyim S, Kiprop AK, Mwasiagi JI, Achisa CM, Odero MP. Dyeing of cotton fabric with Euclea divinorum extract using response surface optimization method. RJTA [Internet]. 2021 May 5 [cited 2022 Feb 26]; .
  • 39. Maroyi A. The Gathering and Consumption of Wild Edible Plants in Nhema Communal Area, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2011 Nov;50(6):506–25.
  • 40. China CR, Hilonga A, Nyandoro SS, Schroepfer M, Kanth SV, Meyer M, et al. Suitability of selected vegetable tannins traditionally used in leather making in Tanzania. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020 Apr;251:119687.
  • 41. Cunningham AB, Milton SJ. Effects of basket-weaving industry on mokola palm and dye plants in northwestern Botswana. Econ Bot. 1987 Jul;41(3):386–402.
  • 42. Cardon D. Dyes and Tannins. PROTA Foundation; 2005.
  • 43. Bussmann RW, Gilbreath GG, Solio J, Lutura M, Lutuluo R, Kunguru K, et al. Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2006 Dec;2(1):22.
  • 44. Maundu P, Berger D, Ole Saitabau C, Nasieku J, Kipelian M, Mathenge S, et al. Ethnobotany of the Loita Maasai People and Plants Working Paper 8. 2001;
  • 45. Gemedo-Dalle T, Maass BL, Isselstein J. Plant Biodiversity and Ethnobotany of Borana Pastoralists in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. Economic Botany. 2005 Jan;59(1):43–65.
  • 46. Mashile SP, Tshisikhawe MP, Masevhe NA. Indigenous fruit plants species of the Mapulana of Ehlanzeni district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 2019 May;122:180–3.
  • 47. Rampedi IT, Olivier J. Traditional Beverages Derived from Wild Food Plant Species in the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province in South Africa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 2013 May;52(3):203–22.
  • 48. Mining J. Bioactive Metabolites Of Selected Kenyan Plants Used As Biopesticides Against Acanthoscelides obtectus in Bungoma District, Kenya [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Nairobi, Kenya]: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008. .
  • 49. Euclea divinorum-Hiern [Internet]. Plants For A Future. 2021. .
  • 50. Habte M, Eshetu M, Andualem D, Maryo M, Legesse A. The inventory of camel feed resource and the evaluation of its chemical composition in south‐east rangelands of Ethiopia. Vet Med Sci. 2021 Jul;7(4):1172–84.
  • 51. Kirui JK, Kotut K, Okemo PO. Efficacy of aqueous plant extract in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties. Journal of Water and Health. 2015 Sep 1;13(3):848–52.
  • 52. Ng’ang’a MM, Hussain H, Chhabra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Al-Harrasi A, Krohn K, et al. Eucleanal A and B: Two new napthalene derivatives from Euclea divinorum. Chinese Chemical Letters. 2012 May;23(5):576–8.
  • 53. den Biggelaar C, Mureithi W. Using tree species to treat milk for palatability and preservation. Intermediate Technology Food Chain. 2000;26:6–7.
  • 54. Omara T, Kiprop AK, Kosgei VJ. Albizia coriaria Welw ex Oliver: a review of its ethnobotany, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) [Internet]. 2021 Jul 21 [cited 2022 Feb 26]; .
  • 55. Setshego MV, Aremu AO, Mooki O, Otang-Mbeng W. Natural resources used as folk cosmeceuticals among rural communities in Vhembe district municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Dec;20(1):81.
  • 56. Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Kanui TI. Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Machakos District, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011 Sep;137(1):495–502.
  • 57. Keter LK, Mutiso PC. Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used by Traditional Health Practitioners in the management of diabetes in Lower Eastern Province, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jan;139(1):74–80.
  • 58. Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru central district of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013 Jan;145(2):547–53.
  • 59. Kokwaro JO, Johns T, Kokwaro JO. Luo biological dictionary. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 1998. 264 p.
  • 60. Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, et al. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “ Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016 Nov;192:524–34.
  • 61. Kamanja I, Mbaria J, Gathumbi P, Mbaabu M, Lanyasunya A, Gakuya D, et al. Medicinal plants used in the management of sexually transmitted infections by the Samburu Community Kenya. 2015;
  • 62. Johns T, Mahunnah RLA, Sanaya P, Chapman L, Ticktin T. Saponins and phenolic content in plant dietary additives of a traditional subsistence community, the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999 Jul;66(1):1–10.
  • 63. Kigen G, Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, Haruki B, Kemboi J. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Sangurur, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. Phcog Res. 2017;9(4):333.
  • 64. Kigen G, Maritim A, Some F, Kibosia J, Rono H, Chepkwony S, et al. Ethnopharmacological survey of the medicinal plants used in Tindiret, Nandi County, Kenya. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med. 2016 Mar 16;13(3):156.
  • 65. Maroyi A, Cheikhyoussef A. A comparative study of medicinal plants used in rural areas of Namibia and Zimbabwe. 2015; .
  • 66. White F. Flore d’Afrique Centrale (Zaïre – Rwanda – Burundi): Ebenaceae. 1987.
  • 67. Gumisiriza H, Sesaazi CD, Olet EA, Kembabazi O, Birungi G. Medicinal plants used to treat “African” diseases by the local communities of Bwambara sub-county in Rukungiri District, Western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2021 Mar;268:113578.
  • 68. Tabuti JRS, Kukunda CB, Waako PJ. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Jan;127(1):130–6.
  • 69. Anywar G, Kakudidi E, Byamukama R, Mukonzo J, Schubert A, Oryem-Origa H. Indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by herbalists in treating opportunistic infections among people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020 Jan;246:112205.
  • 70. Namukobe J, Lutaaya A, Asiimwe S, Byamukama R. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used in the Management of Dermatological Disorders in Buyende and Kayunga Districts, Uganda. EJMP. 2021 Mar 16;15–40.
  • 71. Obakiro SB, Kiprop A, Kowino I, Kigondu E, Odero MP, Omara T, et al. Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review. Trop Med Health. 2020 Dec;48(1):68.
  • 72. Roba GO. Trees symbolism, conservation and threat in Guji Oromo, Southern Ethiopia. Lu Z, editor. Cogent Social Sciences. 2021 Jan 1;7(1):1880681.
  • 73. Lulekal E, Kelbessa E, Bekele T, Yineger H. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2008 Dec;4(1):10.
  • 74. Feyissa T, Asres K, Engidawork E. Renoprotective effects of the crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Euclea divinorum Hierns against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013 Feb;145(3):758–66.
  • 75. Augustino S, Gillah PR. Medicinal Plants in Urban Districts of Tanzania: Plants, Gender Roles and Sustainable Use. int forest rev. 2005 Mar 1;7(1):44–58.
  • 76. Chinsembu KC. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;2016:1–14.
  • 77. Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry. 2013;1(6).
  • 78. Tabuti JRS, Lye KA, Dhillion SS. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003 Sep;88(1):19–44.
  • 79. Shikwambana N, Mahlo SM. A Survey of Antifungal Activity of Selected South African Plant Species Used for the Treatment of Skin Infections. Natural Product Communications. 2020 May;15(5):1934578X2092318.
  • 80. Pascaline J, Charles M, George O, Lukhoba C. An inventory of medicinal plants that the people of Nandi use to treat malaria. J Anim Plant Sci. 2011;9:1192–200.
  • 81. Lukwa N, Mutambu S, Makaza N, Molgaard P, Furu P. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT MALARIA TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL USING ANTI-MALARIA PLANTS IN MOLA, KARIBA, ZIMBABWE. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine. 2001 Jan 1;5(1):4–7.
  • 82. Hunde D, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E. Use of traditional medicinal plants by people of ‘Boosat’sub district, Central Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences [Internet]. 2006;16(2). .
  • 83. Orwa JA, Mwitari PG, Matu EN, Rukunga GM. Traditional healers and the managment of malaria in Kisumu District, Kenya. E Af Med Jrnl. 2008 Mar 26;84(2):51–5.
  • 84. Ruth L, Manani Solomon D. Ethnobotanical survey and propagation of some endangered medicinal plants from south Nandi district of Kenya. J Anim Plant Sci. 2010;8(3):1016–43.
  • 85. Odongo S. Medicinal plants of Chuka community in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya and some of their selected essential elements [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Nairobi, Kenya]: Kenyatta University; 2013.
  • 86. Kokwaro J. Medicinal plants of East Africa. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya; 1976.
  • 87. van Wyk B-E, van Oudtshoorn B, Gericke N. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications; 1997. 304 p.
  • 88. Smith CA, Phillips EP, Van Hoepen E. Common Names of South African Plants [Internet]. Government Printer, South Africa; 1966. (Botanical Research Institute botanical survey memoir).
  • 89. Kamau LN, Mbaabu PM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. Ethnobotanical survey and threats to medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of human diseases in Nyeri County, Kenya. CellMed. 2016;6(3):21–1.
  • 90. Onyango C, Gakuya L, Mathooko FM, Maina J, Nyaberi M, Makobe M, et al. Phytochemical studies on herbal plants commonly used for processing and preserving meat and milk. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2014;73:5942–8.
  • 91. Kokwaro JO. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 3rd ed. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009. 478 p.
  • 92. Johns T, Mhoro EB, Sanaya P, Kimanani EK. Herbal remedies of the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania: a quantitative appraisal. Econ Bot. 1994 Jan;48(1):90–5.
  • 93. Ngari F, Wanjau R, Njagi E, Gikonyo N. Herbal Materials Used in Management of Oral Conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Oral Health & Community Dentistry. 2014;8(1).
  • 94. Johns T, Kokwaro JO, Kimanani EK. Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya: Establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Econ Bot. 1990 Sep;44(3):369–81.
  • 95. Tadesse M, Demissew S. Plants Used in African Traditional Medicine as Practiced in Ethiopia and Uganda. Botany 2000. 1992;
  • 96. Balemie K, Kelbessa E, Asfaw Z. Indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and threats in Fentalle area, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2004;3(1):37–58.
  • 97. Abate G, Demissew S. Etse Debdabe. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Artistic Printing Press; 1989. p. 123.
  • 98. Gumisiriza H, Birungi G, Olet EA, Sesaazi CD. Medicinal plant species used by local communities around Queen Elizabeth National Park, Maramagambo Central Forest Reserve and Ihimbo Central Forest Reserve, South western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2019 Jul;239:111926.
  • 99. Mabona U, Van Vuuren SF. Southern African medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases. South African Journal of Botany. 2013 Jul;87:175–93.
  • 100. Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, Rono H, Kigen G. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2014 Dec;10(1):24.
  • 101. Okello SV, Nyunja RO, Netondo GW, Onyango JC. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya. Afr J Trad Compl Alt Med [Internet]. 2010 Jul 30 [cited 2022 Feb 26];7(1). .
  • 102. Fatuma Some GK. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used by the Keiyo Community in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. J Biodivers Biopros Dev [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Feb 26];01(03). Available from: .
  • 103. Verschaeve L, Van Staden J. Mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of extracts from South African traditional medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Oct;119(3):575–87.
  • 104. Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kareru PG, Mulei CM, Njonge FK. Ethnobotanical study of anthelmintic and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok district of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011 Apr;135(1):15–21.
  • 105. Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW. Herbal usage and informant consensus in ethnoveterinary management of cattle diseases among the Kikuyus (Central Kenya). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006 Dec;108(3):332–9.
  • 106. Mbabazi I, Wangila P, Krsquo;Owino IO. Comparison of the phytochemical composition of Euclea divinorum Hern Ebenaceae) leaves, tender stems and root bark. Adv J Chem B [Internet]. 2021 Aug [cited 2022 Feb 26];3(3).
  • 107. Mwonjoria J, Ngeranwa J, Githinji C, Wanyonyi A. Antinociceptive effects of dichloromethane extract of Euclea divinorum Lin. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;7(6):1104–7.
  • 108. Woldemedhin B, Nedi T, Shibeshi W, Sisay M. Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the root of Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017 Apr;202:114–21.
  • 109. Nyaitondi OD, Wanjau RN, Nyambaka H, Hassanali A. Anti-bacterial properties and GC-MS analysis of extracts and essential oils of selected plant product. J Nat Prod Biochem. 2018 Feb 1;16(1):44–58.
  • 110. Ngari FW, Gikonyo NK, Wanjau RN, Njagi EM. Safety and antimicrobial properties of Euclea divinorum Hiern, chewing sticks used for management of oral health in Nairobi County, Kenya. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;3(3):1–8.
  • 111. Mothana RA, Lindequist U, Gruenert R, Bednarski PJ. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Dec;9(1):7.
  • 112. van der Vijver LM, Gerrritsma K. Naphthoquinones of Euclea and Diospyros species. Phytochemistry. 1974;
  • 113. Cruz-Costa M, Lopes MH, Paul MI, Ferreira MA, Correia-Alves A. Naphthaquinones and triterpenoids of Euclea divinorum. Phytochemistry. 1976;
  • 114. Ng’ang’a MM, Hussain H, Chhabra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Krohn K, Hussain J, et al. Eucleanal: A New Napthalene Derivative from Euclea divinorum. Natural Product Communications. 2012 Feb;7(2):1934578X1200700.
  • 115. More G, Tshikalange TE, Lall N, Botha F, Meyer JJM. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;119(3):473–7.
  • 116. Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO, Masebe T, Mathebula H, Molobela P, et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2003 Jul;69(2):199–203.
  • 117. More G, Tshikalange TE, Lall N, Botha F, Meyer JJM. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against oral microorganisms. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Oct;119(3):473–7.
  • 118. Samie A, Tambani T, Harshfield E, Green E, Ramalivhana J, Bessong P. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(20).
  • 119. Mutuku A. Antimicrobial Activity Of Warburgia ugandensis, Euclea divinorum, Rhus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Clausena anisata Against Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms [Internet] [Master of Science Thesis]. [Eldoret, Kenya]: University of Eldoret; 2018.
  • 120. Mbabazi I, Wangila P, K’Owino IO. Antimicrobial activity of Euclea divinorum hern (ebenaceae) leaves, tender stems, root bark and an herbal toothpaste formulated from its ethanolic root bark extract. 2020;3(3):8–16.
  • 121. Johns T, Faubert GM, Kokwaro JO, Mahunnah RLA, Kimanani EK. Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies of the Luo of East Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995 Apr;46(1):17–23.
  • 122. Mothana R, Al-Musayeib N, Matheeussen A, Cos P, Maes L. Assessment of the in Vitro Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Potential of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants from the Island of Soqotra. Molecules. 2012 Dec 3;17(12):14349–60.
  • 123. Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, et al. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru–Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015 Dec;175:315–23.
  • 124. Twilley D, Langhansová L, Palaniswamy D, Lall N. Evaluation of traditionally used medicinal plants for anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral (HPV-1) activity. South African Journal of Botany. 2017 Sep;112:494–500.
  • 125. Kaluwa Kaingu C, Oduma JA, Kanui T. Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jul;142(2):496–502.
  • 126. Homer KA, Manji F, Beighton D. Inhibition of protease activities of periodontopathic bacteria by extracts of plants used in Kenya as chewing sticks (mswaki). Archives of Oral Biology. 1990;35(6):421–4.
  • 127. Homer KA, Manji F, Beighton D. Inhibition of peptidase and glycosidase activities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius and Treponema denticola by plant extracts. J Clin Periodontol. 1992 May;19(5):305–10.
  • 128. Chapman L, Johns T, Mahunnah RLA. Saponin‐like in vitro characteristics of extracts from selected non‐nutrient wild plant food additives used by Maasai in meat and milk based soups. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 1997 Feb;36(1):1–22.
  • 129. JLS, Elgorashi EE, Maes A, Van Gorp U, De Kimpe N, van Staden J, et al. Investigating the safety of plants used in South African traditional medicine: Testing for genotoxicity in the micronucleus and alkaline comet assays. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2003;42(3):144–54.
  • 130. Elgorashi E. Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects. Toxicology Letters. 2003 Jul 20;143(2):195–207.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section REVIEW ARTICLES
Authors

Timothy OMARA (Primary Author)
Moi University
0000-0002-0175-1055
Kenya


Benard Otieno SADİA This is me
Moi University
0000-0001-5650-1021
Kenya


Immaculate MBABAZİ This is me
Moi University
0000-0003-2899-7773
Kenya


Augastine OKWİR This is me
Kyambogo University
0000-0003-4756-3620
Uganda

Publication Date May 31, 2022
Application Date September 29, 2021
Acceptance Date February 24, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2

Cite

Vancouver Omara T. , Sadia B. O. , Mbabazi I. , Okwir A. Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Toxicity of Euclea divinorum Hern (Ebenaceae): A Review. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2022; 9(2): 355-372.