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Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research

Year 2021, Volume , Issue 58, 154 - 171, 25.04.2021

Abstract

There are a number of qualitative studies which have emphasized the importance of developing learner autonomy in the Turkish foreign-language learning context but Turkish EFL learners’ experiences have not been synthesized to gain an overall picture of what aspects have been studied to date. This study therefore synthesizes twelve qualitative research findings dealing with the topic of learner autonomy in foreign-language learning settings in Turkey and in so doing identifies research gaps in the literature and makes suggestions for further research. A search using keywords was undertaken through the following databases and academic search engines: ERIC, Taylor & Francis, DergiPark, Google Scholar and SCOPUS. Twelve full-text, qualitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 2009 were identified and included. Inductive thematic analysis was employed to analyse and synthesize the findings. Three inductive themes were developed: (1) characteristics of autonomous learners, (2) ways to encourage learner autonomy and (3) challenges of developing learner autonomy. The findings indicate a scarcity of qualitative research on autonomous language learning through the experiences of late-career teachers. The findings of this meta-synthesis might also help to understand the mindset of language teachers in Turkey towards empowering students.

References

  • Ahmadianzadeh, B., Seifoori, Z., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2020). Exploring EFL teachers’ beliefs about and practices of learner autonomy across experience and licensure. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(2), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2018.1501694
  • Balçıkanlı, C. (2010). Learner autonomy in language learning: Student teachers’ beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 90-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2010v35n1.8
  • Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40(1), 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003958
  • Benson, P. (2009). ‘Making sense of autonomy in language learning.’ In S. Toogood, R. Pemberton & A. Barfield (eds), Maintaining control: Autonomy and language learning (pp. 13-26). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  • Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching autonomy (2nd edition). London: Pearson.
  • Borg, S., & Alshumaimeri, Y. (2019). Language learner autonomy in a tertiary context: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 23, 9-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817725759
  • Course, S. (2017). Reading Strategies and Reading Diaries for Autonomous Learning in a Turkish Context. The Reading Matrix: an International Online Journal, 17(1), 124-142.
  • Çakıcı, D. (2017). An investigation of learner autonomy in Turkish EFL context. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n2p89
  • Çiftçi, E., & Karaman, A. (2019). Short-term international experiences in language teacher education: a qualitative meta-synthesis. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2018v44n1.6
  • Doğan, G., & Mirici, İ. H. (2017). EFL instructors’ perception and practices on learner autonomy in some Turkish universities. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(1), 166-193.
  • Elizondo, L. B., & Garita, C. O. (2013). A closer look into learner autonomy in the EFL classroom. Revista de Lenguas Modernas, 19, 325-343.
  • Feryok, A. (2013). Teaching for learner autonomy: the teacher’s role and sociocultural theory. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 213-225. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2013.836203
  • Guest, G., MacQueen, K., & Namey, E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Güneş, S., & Alagözlü, N. (2020). The interrelationship between learner autonomy, motivation and academic success in asynchronous distance learning and blended learning Environments. Novitas-Royal, 14(2), 1-15.
  • Harmandaoğlu Baz, E., Balçıkanlı, C., & Cephe, T. (2018). Relationship between teacher stories and encouragement of learner autonomy. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 613-634. http://www.iier.org.au/iier28/harmandaoglu-baz.pdf
  • Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Hoon, C. (2019). Meta-synthesis of qualitative case studies: an approach to theory building. Organizational Research Methods, 16(4), 522-556. http://doi.org/10.1177/1094428113484969
  • Inozu, J. (2011). Developing learner autonomy in the language class in Turkey: Voices from the classroom. Asia Pacific Education Review, 12, 523–531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-011-9154-0
  • Kaleli Yılmaz, G. (2015). Türkiye’deki teknolojik pedagojik alan bilgisi çalışmalarının analizi: Bir meta-sentez çalışması [Analysis of technological pedagogical content knowledge studies in Turkey: a meta-synthesis study]. Eğitim ve Bilim, 40(178), 103-122. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.4087
  • Kartal, G., & Balçıkanlı, C. (2019). Tracking the culture of learning and readiness for learner autonomy in a Turkish context. TEFLIN Journal, 30(1), 22-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v30i1/22-46
  • Kılıç Gönen, A. (2020). Turkish tertiary level voluntary intensive English Program students’ perceptions of autonomy and autonomous activities in EFL classes. ELT Research Journal, 9(1), 90-107.
  • Kuluşaklı, E., & Yumru, H. (2020). The Effect of the Explicit Strategy Training on Learner Autonomy. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 7(2), 622-634.
  • Little, D. (2007). Language Learner Autonomy: Some Fundamental Considerations Revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2167/illt040.0
  • Little, D. (2020). Language learner autonomy: Rethinking language teaching. Language Teaching, pp.1-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000488
  • Littlejohn, A. (1985). Learner choice in language study. ELT Journal, 39(4), 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/39.4.253
  • Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing learner autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.1.71
  • Loo, D. B., & Sulankey, A. K. (2019). A qualitative meta-synthesis of studies on learner reflections: Lessons for English language learner reflection. rEFLections, 26(1), 58-77.
  • Mede, E., İnçeçay, G., & İnceçay, V. (2013). Fostering learner autonomy through extensive reading: the case of oral book reports. ELT Research Journal, 2(1), 16-25.
  • Ministry of National Education (MNE). (2019). Turkey’s education vision 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2020 from http://2023vizyonu.meb.gov.tr/doc/2023_VIZYON_ENG.pdf.
  • Öztürk, G. (2019). Fostering learner autonomy among pre-service EFL teachers: a mixed-method study. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(3), 298-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2019.4427
  • Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
  • Shih, H-C. J. (2020). The use of individual and collaborative learning logs and their impact on the development of learner autonomy in the EFL classroom in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, pp.1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2020.1737703
  • Smith, R., Kuchah K., & Lamb, M. (2018). Learner autonomy in developing countries. In Chik A., Aoki N. & Smith R. (eds) Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching. London: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-52998-5_2
  • Taner, G., & Karaman, A. C. (2013). A meta-synthesis of research on foreign language teacher identity in Turkey: Implications for Teacher Education. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction Studies, 3(6), 63-76.
  • Tanyeli, N., & Kuter, S. (2013). Examining learner autonomy in foreign language learning and instruction. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 53/A, 19-36.
  • Tılfarlıoğlu, F.Y. & Çiftçi, F.S. (2011). Supporting self-efficacy and learner autonomy in relation to academic success in EFL classrooms: a case study. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1284-1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.10.1284-1294
  • Tong, A., Flemming, K., McInnes, E., Oliver, S., & Craig, J. (2012). Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-181
  • Tran, T. Q. (2020). EFL Students' Attitudes towards Learner Autonomy in English Vocabulary Learning. English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 3(2), 86-94.
  • Üstünlüoğlu, E. (2009). Autonomy in language learning: Do students take responsibility for their learning? Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5(2), 148-169. https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/63225
  • Wang, Y. & Ryan, J. (2020). The complexity of control shift for learner autonomy: a mixed-method case study of Chinese EFL teachers’ practice and cognition. Language Teaching Research, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820957922
  • Wong, R. (2020). When no one can go to school: does online learning meet students’ basic learning needs? Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1789672
  • Yıldırım, R. (2013). The portfolio effect: Enhancing Turkish ELT student-teachers’ autonomy. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(8), 92-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2013v38n8.8
  • Yiğit, G., & Yıldırım, O. (2018). Perceptions of ELT students related to learner autonomy in language learning. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(4), 76-89. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v7n4p7
  • Yumuk, A. (2002). Letting go of control to the learners: The role of the internet in promoting a more autonomous view of learning in an academic translation course, Educational Research, 44(2), 141-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131880210135278
  • Yükselir, C. (2017). A meta-synthesis of qualitative research about mobile assisted language learning (MALL) in foreign language teaching. Arab World English Journal, 8(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no3.20
  • Zhuang, J. (2010). The changing role of teachers in the development of learner autonomy – based on a survey of ‘English dorm activity’. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(5), 591-595. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.1.5.591-595

Türkiye'de Yabancı Dil Öğreniminde Öğrenen Özerkliği: 2009-2019 Nitel Araştırmaların Bir Meta-Sentez Çalışması

Year 2021, Volume , Issue 58, 154 - 171, 25.04.2021

Abstract

Türkiye bağlamında yabancı dil öğreniminde öğrenen özerkliği gelişiminin önemini vurgulayan bir dizi nitel çalışma bulunmaktadır, ancak İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen Türk öğrencilerin deneyimleri şimdiye kadar yürütülen çalışmalardan bütünsel bir resim elde etmek için hiç derlenmemiştir Dolayısıyla, bu çalışma Türkiye’de yabancı dil öğrenme alanında öğrenen özerkliği konusunu ele alan 12 nitel araştırma bulgusunu sentezlemeyi ve alan yazınında araştırma boşluğunu belirleme ve gelecek araştırmalar için önerilerde bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. ERIC, Taylor & Francis, DergiPark, Google Scholar ve SCOPUS arama motoru ve veritabanları aracılığıyla belirlenmiş anahtar sözcükler kullanılarak bir arama gerçekleştirilmiştir. 2009’dan bu yana hakemli dergilerde yayınlanan 12 tam metin nitel araştırma bu araştırmaya dahil edildi. Verileri analizinde mevcut bulguları sentezlemek için, tümevarımsal tematik analiz kullanıldı. Üç tümevarımsal tema çıkarıldı: (1) özerk öğrencilerin özellikleri, (2) öğrenen özerkliğini teşvik eden yollar ve (3) öğrenen özerkliğini geliştirmedeki zorluklar. Bulgular geç kariyer öğretmenlerin deneyimleri aracılığıyla özerk dil öğrenmesinde nitel çalışmaların eksikliğini göstermektedir. Bulgular bu meta sentez çalışmasının öğrencilere destek verme yolunda Türkiye’de dil öğretmenlerinin düşünce yapısını anlamada yardımcı olabilir.

References

  • Ahmadianzadeh, B., Seifoori, Z., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2020). Exploring EFL teachers’ beliefs about and practices of learner autonomy across experience and licensure. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(2), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2018.1501694
  • Balçıkanlı, C. (2010). Learner autonomy in language learning: Student teachers’ beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 90-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2010v35n1.8
  • Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40(1), 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003958
  • Benson, P. (2009). ‘Making sense of autonomy in language learning.’ In S. Toogood, R. Pemberton & A. Barfield (eds), Maintaining control: Autonomy and language learning (pp. 13-26). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  • Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching autonomy (2nd edition). London: Pearson.
  • Borg, S., & Alshumaimeri, Y. (2019). Language learner autonomy in a tertiary context: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 23, 9-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817725759
  • Course, S. (2017). Reading Strategies and Reading Diaries for Autonomous Learning in a Turkish Context. The Reading Matrix: an International Online Journal, 17(1), 124-142.
  • Çakıcı, D. (2017). An investigation of learner autonomy in Turkish EFL context. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n2p89
  • Çiftçi, E., & Karaman, A. (2019). Short-term international experiences in language teacher education: a qualitative meta-synthesis. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2018v44n1.6
  • Doğan, G., & Mirici, İ. H. (2017). EFL instructors’ perception and practices on learner autonomy in some Turkish universities. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(1), 166-193.
  • Elizondo, L. B., & Garita, C. O. (2013). A closer look into learner autonomy in the EFL classroom. Revista de Lenguas Modernas, 19, 325-343.
  • Feryok, A. (2013). Teaching for learner autonomy: the teacher’s role and sociocultural theory. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 213-225. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2013.836203
  • Guest, G., MacQueen, K., & Namey, E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Güneş, S., & Alagözlü, N. (2020). The interrelationship between learner autonomy, motivation and academic success in asynchronous distance learning and blended learning Environments. Novitas-Royal, 14(2), 1-15.
  • Harmandaoğlu Baz, E., Balçıkanlı, C., & Cephe, T. (2018). Relationship between teacher stories and encouragement of learner autonomy. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 613-634. http://www.iier.org.au/iier28/harmandaoglu-baz.pdf
  • Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Hoon, C. (2019). Meta-synthesis of qualitative case studies: an approach to theory building. Organizational Research Methods, 16(4), 522-556. http://doi.org/10.1177/1094428113484969
  • Inozu, J. (2011). Developing learner autonomy in the language class in Turkey: Voices from the classroom. Asia Pacific Education Review, 12, 523–531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-011-9154-0
  • Kaleli Yılmaz, G. (2015). Türkiye’deki teknolojik pedagojik alan bilgisi çalışmalarının analizi: Bir meta-sentez çalışması [Analysis of technological pedagogical content knowledge studies in Turkey: a meta-synthesis study]. Eğitim ve Bilim, 40(178), 103-122. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.4087
  • Kartal, G., & Balçıkanlı, C. (2019). Tracking the culture of learning and readiness for learner autonomy in a Turkish context. TEFLIN Journal, 30(1), 22-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v30i1/22-46
  • Kılıç Gönen, A. (2020). Turkish tertiary level voluntary intensive English Program students’ perceptions of autonomy and autonomous activities in EFL classes. ELT Research Journal, 9(1), 90-107.
  • Kuluşaklı, E., & Yumru, H. (2020). The Effect of the Explicit Strategy Training on Learner Autonomy. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 7(2), 622-634.
  • Little, D. (2007). Language Learner Autonomy: Some Fundamental Considerations Revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2167/illt040.0
  • Little, D. (2020). Language learner autonomy: Rethinking language teaching. Language Teaching, pp.1-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000488
  • Littlejohn, A. (1985). Learner choice in language study. ELT Journal, 39(4), 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/39.4.253
  • Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing learner autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.1.71
  • Loo, D. B., & Sulankey, A. K. (2019). A qualitative meta-synthesis of studies on learner reflections: Lessons for English language learner reflection. rEFLections, 26(1), 58-77.
  • Mede, E., İnçeçay, G., & İnceçay, V. (2013). Fostering learner autonomy through extensive reading: the case of oral book reports. ELT Research Journal, 2(1), 16-25.
  • Ministry of National Education (MNE). (2019). Turkey’s education vision 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2020 from http://2023vizyonu.meb.gov.tr/doc/2023_VIZYON_ENG.pdf.
  • Öztürk, G. (2019). Fostering learner autonomy among pre-service EFL teachers: a mixed-method study. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(3), 298-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2019.4427
  • Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
  • Shih, H-C. J. (2020). The use of individual and collaborative learning logs and their impact on the development of learner autonomy in the EFL classroom in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, pp.1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2020.1737703
  • Smith, R., Kuchah K., & Lamb, M. (2018). Learner autonomy in developing countries. In Chik A., Aoki N. & Smith R. (eds) Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching. London: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-52998-5_2
  • Taner, G., & Karaman, A. C. (2013). A meta-synthesis of research on foreign language teacher identity in Turkey: Implications for Teacher Education. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction Studies, 3(6), 63-76.
  • Tanyeli, N., & Kuter, S. (2013). Examining learner autonomy in foreign language learning and instruction. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 53/A, 19-36.
  • Tılfarlıoğlu, F.Y. & Çiftçi, F.S. (2011). Supporting self-efficacy and learner autonomy in relation to academic success in EFL classrooms: a case study. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1284-1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.10.1284-1294
  • Tong, A., Flemming, K., McInnes, E., Oliver, S., & Craig, J. (2012). Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-181
  • Tran, T. Q. (2020). EFL Students' Attitudes towards Learner Autonomy in English Vocabulary Learning. English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 3(2), 86-94.
  • Üstünlüoğlu, E. (2009). Autonomy in language learning: Do students take responsibility for their learning? Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5(2), 148-169. https://dergipark.org.tr/download/article-file/63225
  • Wang, Y. & Ryan, J. (2020). The complexity of control shift for learner autonomy: a mixed-method case study of Chinese EFL teachers’ practice and cognition. Language Teaching Research, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820957922
  • Wong, R. (2020). When no one can go to school: does online learning meet students’ basic learning needs? Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1789672
  • Yıldırım, R. (2013). The portfolio effect: Enhancing Turkish ELT student-teachers’ autonomy. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(8), 92-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2013v38n8.8
  • Yiğit, G., & Yıldırım, O. (2018). Perceptions of ELT students related to learner autonomy in language learning. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(4), 76-89. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v7n4p7
  • Yumuk, A. (2002). Letting go of control to the learners: The role of the internet in promoting a more autonomous view of learning in an academic translation course, Educational Research, 44(2), 141-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131880210135278
  • Yükselir, C. (2017). A meta-synthesis of qualitative research about mobile assisted language learning (MALL) in foreign language teaching. Arab World English Journal, 8(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no3.20
  • Zhuang, J. (2010). The changing role of teachers in the development of learner autonomy – based on a survey of ‘English dorm activity’. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(5), 591-595. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.1.5.591-595

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Ömer ÖZER (Primary Author)
Adana Alparslan Türkeş Science and Technology University
0000-0001-8502-3145
Türkiye


Ceyhun YÜKSELİR
Osmaniye Korkut Ata University
0000-0003-4781-3183
Türkiye

Thanks This meta-synthesis study is an extended version of a conference paper which was presented at the International Language Teacher Education Research Group (ILTERG2) Conference held on 16/17 October 2020 on an online platform.
Publication Date April 25, 2021
Application Date November 14, 2020
Acceptance Date February 16, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume , Issue 58

Cite

Bibtex @research article { maeuefd825750, journal = {Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {1302-8944}, address = {}, publisher = {Mehmet Akif Ersoy University}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {154 - 171}, doi = {}, title = {Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research}, key = {cite}, author = {Özer, Ömer and Yükselir, Ceyhun} }
APA Özer, Ö. & Yükselir, C. (2021). Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , (58) , 154-171 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/maeuefd/issue/61832/825750
MLA Özer, Ö. , Yükselir, C. "Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research" . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (2021 ): 154-171 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/maeuefd/issue/61832/825750>
Chicago Özer, Ö. , Yükselir, C. "Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (2021 ): 154-171
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research AU - Ömer Özer , Ceyhun Yükselir Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 154 EP - 171 VL - IS - 58 SN - -1302-8944 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research %A Ömer Özer , Ceyhun Yükselir %T Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research %D 2021 %J Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi %P -1302-8944 %V %N 58 %R %U
ISNAD Özer, Ömer , Yükselir, Ceyhun . "Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi / 58 (April 2021): 154-171 .
AMA Özer Ö. , Yükselir C. Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; (58): 154-171.
Vancouver Özer Ö. , Yükselir C. Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2021; (58): 154-171.
IEEE Ö. Özer and C. Yükselir , "Learner Autonomy in the Turkish EFL Context: A Meta-Synthesis Study of 2009-2019 Qualitative Research", Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, no. 58, pp. 154-171, Apr. 2021