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General Approach to Foreign Objects in the Esophagus in Children

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 38 - 43, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.1031224

Abstract

Infants put almost everything into their mouths, and toddlers eat just about anything. Of more than 100,000 cases of foreign body ingestion reported each year in the United States, 80 percent occur in children. Foreign object has to be removed immediately if the patient has difficulties in swallowing, can not swallow his/her secretions, disphagia diagnosed 24 hours ago or earlier, presence of esophegal obstruction, sharp, long, magnetic foreign body presence, or in the presence of battery or button batery in the esophagus.

References

  • 1. Wyllie R. Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Pediatr 2006; 18: 563.
  • 2. Webb WA. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: update. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 41: 39.
  • 3. Waltzman ML, Baskin M, Wypij D, et al. A randomized clinical trial of the management of esophageal coins in children. Pediatrics 2005; 116:614.
  • 4. Little DC, Shah SR, St Peter SD, et al. Esophageal foreign bodies in the pediatric population: our first 500 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41: 914.
  • 5. Uyemura MC. Foreign body ingestion in children. Am Fam Physician 2005; 72: 287.
  • 6. Banerjee R, Rao GV, Sriram PV, et al. Button battery ingestion. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72: 173.
  • 7. Shivakumar AM, Naik AS, Prashanth KB, et al. Foreign body in upper digestive tract. Indian J Pediatr 2004; 71: 689.
  • 8. Simic MA, Budakov BM. Fatal upper esophageal hemorrhage caused by a previously ingested chicken bone: case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1998; 19: 166.
  • 9. Yardeni D, Yardeni H, Coran AG, Golladay ES. Severe esophageal damage due to button battery ingestion: can it be prevented? Pediatr Surg Int 2004; 20: 496.
  • 10. Athanassiadi K, Gerazounis M, Metaxas E, Kalantzi N. Management of esophageal foreign bodies: a retrospective review of 400 cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 21: 653.
  • 11. Kay M, Wyllie R. Pediatric foreign bodies and their management. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2005; 7: 212.
  • 12. Sharieff GQ, Brousseau TJ, Bradshaw JA, Shad JA. Acute esophageal coin ingestions: is immediate removal necessary? Pediatr Radiol 2003; 33: 859.
  • 13. Reilly S, Carr L. Foreign body ingestion in child ren with severe developmental disabilities: a case study. Dysphagia 2001; 16: 68.
  • 14. Louie JP, Alpern ER, Windreich RM. Witnessed and unwitnessed esophageal foreign bodies in children. Pedi atr Emerg Care 2005; 21: 582.
  • 15. Yalçin S, Karnak I, Ciftci AO, et al. Foreign body inges tion in children: an analysis of pediatric surgical practice. Pediatr Surg Int 2007; 23: 755.
  • 16. Arana A, Hauser B, Hachimi-Idrissi S, Vandenplas Y. Management of ingested foreign bodies in childhood and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr 2001; 160:468.
  • 17. Denney W, Ahmad N, Dillard B, Nowicki MJ. Child ren will eat the strangest things: a 10-year retrospective analysis of foreign body and caustic ingestions from a single academic center. Pediatr Emerg Care 2012; 28: 731.
  • 18. Vizcarrondo FJ, Brady PG, Nord HJ. Foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointest Endosc 1983; 29: 208. 19. Macmanus JE. Perforation of the intestine by ingested foreign bodies. JAMA 1941; 53: 393. 20. Benjamin SB. Small bowel obstruction and the Gar ren-Edwards gastric bubble: an iatrogenic bezoar. Gastrointest Endosc 1988; 34: 463.
  • 21. Başer M, Arslantürk H, Kisli E, et al. Primary aortodu odenal fistula due to a swallowed sewing needle: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2007; 13: 154.
  • 22. Yamada T, Sato H, Seki M, et al. Successful salvage of aortoesophageal fistula caused by a fish bone. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61: 1843.
  • 23. Tokar B, Cevik AA, Ilhan H. Ingested gastrointestinal foreign bodies: predisposing factors for complications in children having surgical or endoscopic removal. Pediatr Surg Int 2007; 23: 135.
  • 24. Ginsberg GG. Management of ingested foreign objects and food bolus impactions. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 41: 33.
  • 25. Faigel DO, Stotland BR, Kochman ML, et al. Device choice and experience level in endoscopic foreign object retrieval: an in vivo study. Gastrointest Endosc 1997; 45: 490.
  • 26. Younger RM, Darrow DH. Handheld metal detector confirmation of radiopaque foreign bodies in the esophagus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 127:1371.
  • 27. Ngan JH, Fok PJ, Lai EC, et al. A prospective study on fish bone ingestion. Experience of 358 patients. Ann Surg 1990; 211:459.
  • 28. Eisen GM, Baron TH, Dominitz JA, et al. Guideline for the management of ingested foreign bodies. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 55: 802. 29. Kazam JK, Coll D, Maltz C. Computed tomography scan for the diagnosis of esophageal foreign body. Am J Emerg Med 2005; 23: 897.
  • 30. Seikel K, Primm PA, Elizondo BJ, Remley KL. Handheld metal detector localization of ingested metallic foreign bodies: accurate in any hands? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:853.
  • 31. Doraiswamy NV, Baig H, Hallam L. Metal detector and swallowed metal foreign bodies in children. J Accid Emerg Med 1999; 16:123.
  • 32. Muensterer OJ, Joppich I. Identification and topographic localization of metallic foreign bodies by metal detector. J Pediatr Surg 2004; 39: 1245.
  • 33. Nandi P, Ong GB. Foreign body in the oesophagus: review of 2394 cases. Br J Surg 1978; 65: 5.
  • 34. Hachimi-Idrissi S, Corne L, Vandenplas Y. Management of ingested foreign bodies in childhood: our expe rience and review of the literature. Eur J Emerg Med 1998; 5: 319.
  • 35. Bendig DW, Mackie GG. Management of smooth-blunt gastric foreign bodies in asymptomatic patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990; 29: 642.
  • 36. Soprano JV, Fleisher GR, Mandl KD. The spontaneous passage of esophageal coins in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:1073.
  • 37. Soprano JV, Mandl KD. Four strategies for the management of esophageal coins in children. Pediatrics 2000 Jan;105(1):e5.
  • 38. Katsinelos P, Kountouras J, Paroutoglou G, et al. Endoscopic techniques and management of foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction in the upper gastro intestinal tract: a retrospective analysis of 139 cases. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40: 784.
  • 39. Dahshan AH, Kevin Donovan G. Bougienage versus endoscopy for esophageal coin removal in children. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41: 454.
  • 40. Gmeiner D, von Rahden BH, Meco C, et al. Flexible versus rigid endoscopy for treatment of foreign body impaction in the esophagus. Surg Endosc 2007; 21: 2026.
  • 41. Nelson DB, Bosco JJ, Curtis WD, et al. ASGE technology status evaluation report. Endoscopic retrieval devices. February 1999. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 50: 932.
  • 42. Cheng W, Tam PK. Foreign-body ingestion in child ren: experience with 1,265 cases. J Pediatr Surg 1999; 34: 1472.
  • 43. Janik JE, Janik JS. Magill forceps extraction of upper esophageal coins. J Pediatr Surg 2003; 38: 227. 44. Arms JL, Mackenberg-Mohn MD, Bowen MV, et al. Safety and efficacy of a protocol using bougienage or endoscopy for the management of coins acutely lodged in the esophagus: a large case series. Ann Emerg Med 2008; 51:367.
  • 45. Gauderer MW, DeCou JM, Abrams RS, Thomason MA. The ‘penny pincher’: a new technique for fast and safe removal of esophageal coins. J Pediatr Surg 2000; 35:276.
  • 46. Waltzman ML. Management of esophageal coins. Curr Opin Pediatr 2006; 18:571.
  • 47. Waltzman M. Management of esophageal coins. Pedi atr Emerg Care 2006; 22:367.
  • 48. Cevik M, Gókdemir MT, Boleken ME, et al. The characteristics and outcomes of foreign body ingestion and aspiration in children due to lodged foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Pediatr Emerg Care 2013; 29:53.
  • 49. Kimball SJ, Park AH, Rollins MD 2nd, et al. A review of esophageal disc battery ingestions and a protocol for management. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010; 136:866.
  • 50. Votteler TP, Nash JC, Rutledge JC. The hazard of ingested alkaline disk batteries in children. JAMA 1983; 249:2504.
  • 51. Maves MD, Carithers JS, Birck HG. Esophageal burns secondary to disc battery ingestion. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1984; 93:364.
  • 52. Bertoni G, Sassatelli R, Conigliaro R, Bedogni G. A simple latex protector hood for safe endoscopic removal of sharp-pointed gastroesophageal foreign bodies. Gast rointest Endosc 1996; 44: 458.
  • 53. Velitchkov NG, Grigorov GI, Losanoff JE, Kjossev KT. Ingested foreign bodies of the gastrointestinal tract: retrospective analysis of 542 cases. World J Surg 1996; 20:1001.
  • 54. Lao J, Bostwick HE, Berezin S, et al. Esophageal food impaction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2003; 19: 402.
  • 55. Smith CR, Miranda A, Rudolph CD, Sood MR. Removal of impacted food in children with eosinophilic esophagitis using Saeed banding device. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007; 44: 521.
  • 56. Luis AL, Riñon C, Encinas JL, et al. Non stenotic food impaction due to eosinophilic esophagitis: a potential surgical emergency. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2006; 16:399.
  • 57. Vicente Y, Hernandez-Peredo G, Molina M, et al. Acute food bolus impaction without stricture in children with gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Surg 2001; 36:1397.
  • 58. Andersen HA, Bernatz PE, Grındlay JH. Perforation of the esophagus after use of a digestant agent: report of case and experimental study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1959; 68: 890.
  • 59. Holsinger JW, Furson RL, Sealy WC. Esophageal perforation following meat impaction and papain ingestion. JAMA 1968; 204:188.
  • 60. Ferrucci JT Jr, Long JA Jr. Radiologic treatment of esophageal food impaction using intravenous glucagon. Radiology 1977; 125: 25.
  • 61. Trenkner SW, Maglinte DD, Lehman GA, et al. Esophageal food impaction: treatment with glucagon. Radiology 1983; 149:401.
  • 62. Tibbling L, Bjorkhoel A, Jansson E, Stenkvist M. Effect of spasmolytic drugs on esophageal foreign bodies. Dysphagia 1995; 10: 126.
  • 63. Al-Haddad M, Ward EM, Scolapio JS, et al. Glucagon for the relief of esophageal food impaction does it really work? Dig Dis Sci 2006; 51: 1930.
  • 64. Mehta D, Attia M, Quintana E, Cronan K. Glucagon use for esophageal coin dislodgment in children: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8:200. 65. Arora S, Galich P. Myth: glucagon is an effective first-line therapy for esophageal foreign body impaction. CJEM 2009; 11: 169.
  • 66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gastrointestinal injuries from magnet ingestion in child ren--United States, 2003-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 1296.
  • 67. Hwang JB, Park MH, Choi SO, et al. How strong cons truction toy magnets are A gastro-gastro-duodenal fistula formation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007; 44: 291.
  • 68. Berkowitz S, Tarrago R. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity. Pediatrics 2006; 118:2548.
  • 69. Hugelmeyer CD, Moorhead JC, Horenblas L, Bayer MJ. Fatal lead encephalopathy following foreign body ingestion: case report. J Emerg Med 1988; 6: 397.
  • 70. McKinney PE. Acute elevation of blood lead levels within hours of ingestion of large quantities of lead shot. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2000; 38: 435.
  • 71. Treble RG, Thompson TS. Elevated blood lead levels resulting from the ingestion of air rifle pellets. J Anal Toxicol 2002; 26: 370.
  • 72. Mowad E, Haddad I, Gemmel DJ. Management of lead poisoning from ingested fishing sinkers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152:485.

Çocuklarda Özofagus Yabancı Cisimlerine Genel Yaklaşım

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 38 - 43, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.1031224

Abstract

Bebekler ve yeni yürümeye başlayan çocuklar hemen her şeyi ağızlarına koymak ve yemek isterler. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde her yıl yeni 100.000’den fazla yabancı cisim yutma vakalarının yüzde 80’i çocuklar oluşturur. Nesne, keskin uzun, ya da mıknatıs oluştuğunda, özefagusda disk pil olduğunda, özefagus tıkanıklığı varsa(hasta sekresyonlarını yutamıyorsa), değerlendirme 24 veya daha fazla saat önce meydana gelmişse yabancı cismin çıkarılması için acele edilmelidir

References

  • 1. Wyllie R. Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Pediatr 2006; 18: 563.
  • 2. Webb WA. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: update. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 41: 39.
  • 3. Waltzman ML, Baskin M, Wypij D, et al. A randomized clinical trial of the management of esophageal coins in children. Pediatrics 2005; 116:614.
  • 4. Little DC, Shah SR, St Peter SD, et al. Esophageal foreign bodies in the pediatric population: our first 500 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2006; 41: 914.
  • 5. Uyemura MC. Foreign body ingestion in children. Am Fam Physician 2005; 72: 287.
  • 6. Banerjee R, Rao GV, Sriram PV, et al. Button battery ingestion. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72: 173.
  • 7. Shivakumar AM, Naik AS, Prashanth KB, et al. Foreign body in upper digestive tract. Indian J Pediatr 2004; 71: 689.
  • 8. Simic MA, Budakov BM. Fatal upper esophageal hemorrhage caused by a previously ingested chicken bone: case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1998; 19: 166.
  • 9. Yardeni D, Yardeni H, Coran AG, Golladay ES. Severe esophageal damage due to button battery ingestion: can it be prevented? Pediatr Surg Int 2004; 20: 496.
  • 10. Athanassiadi K, Gerazounis M, Metaxas E, Kalantzi N. Management of esophageal foreign bodies: a retrospective review of 400 cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 21: 653.
  • 11. Kay M, Wyllie R. Pediatric foreign bodies and their management. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2005; 7: 212.
  • 12. Sharieff GQ, Brousseau TJ, Bradshaw JA, Shad JA. Acute esophageal coin ingestions: is immediate removal necessary? Pediatr Radiol 2003; 33: 859.
  • 13. Reilly S, Carr L. Foreign body ingestion in child ren with severe developmental disabilities: a case study. Dysphagia 2001; 16: 68.
  • 14. Louie JP, Alpern ER, Windreich RM. Witnessed and unwitnessed esophageal foreign bodies in children. Pedi atr Emerg Care 2005; 21: 582.
  • 15. Yalçin S, Karnak I, Ciftci AO, et al. Foreign body inges tion in children: an analysis of pediatric surgical practice. Pediatr Surg Int 2007; 23: 755.
  • 16. Arana A, Hauser B, Hachimi-Idrissi S, Vandenplas Y. Management of ingested foreign bodies in childhood and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr 2001; 160:468.
  • 17. Denney W, Ahmad N, Dillard B, Nowicki MJ. Child ren will eat the strangest things: a 10-year retrospective analysis of foreign body and caustic ingestions from a single academic center. Pediatr Emerg Care 2012; 28: 731.
  • 18. Vizcarrondo FJ, Brady PG, Nord HJ. Foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointest Endosc 1983; 29: 208. 19. Macmanus JE. Perforation of the intestine by ingested foreign bodies. JAMA 1941; 53: 393. 20. Benjamin SB. Small bowel obstruction and the Gar ren-Edwards gastric bubble: an iatrogenic bezoar. Gastrointest Endosc 1988; 34: 463.
  • 21. Başer M, Arslantürk H, Kisli E, et al. Primary aortodu odenal fistula due to a swallowed sewing needle: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2007; 13: 154.
  • 22. Yamada T, Sato H, Seki M, et al. Successful salvage of aortoesophageal fistula caused by a fish bone. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 61: 1843.
  • 23. Tokar B, Cevik AA, Ilhan H. Ingested gastrointestinal foreign bodies: predisposing factors for complications in children having surgical or endoscopic removal. Pediatr Surg Int 2007; 23: 135.
  • 24. Ginsberg GG. Management of ingested foreign objects and food bolus impactions. Gastrointest Endosc 1995; 41: 33.
  • 25. Faigel DO, Stotland BR, Kochman ML, et al. Device choice and experience level in endoscopic foreign object retrieval: an in vivo study. Gastrointest Endosc 1997; 45: 490.
  • 26. Younger RM, Darrow DH. Handheld metal detector confirmation of radiopaque foreign bodies in the esophagus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 127:1371.
  • 27. Ngan JH, Fok PJ, Lai EC, et al. A prospective study on fish bone ingestion. Experience of 358 patients. Ann Surg 1990; 211:459.
  • 28. Eisen GM, Baron TH, Dominitz JA, et al. Guideline for the management of ingested foreign bodies. Gastrointest Endosc 2002; 55: 802. 29. Kazam JK, Coll D, Maltz C. Computed tomography scan for the diagnosis of esophageal foreign body. Am J Emerg Med 2005; 23: 897.
  • 30. Seikel K, Primm PA, Elizondo BJ, Remley KL. Handheld metal detector localization of ingested metallic foreign bodies: accurate in any hands? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:853.
  • 31. Doraiswamy NV, Baig H, Hallam L. Metal detector and swallowed metal foreign bodies in children. J Accid Emerg Med 1999; 16:123.
  • 32. Muensterer OJ, Joppich I. Identification and topographic localization of metallic foreign bodies by metal detector. J Pediatr Surg 2004; 39: 1245.
  • 33. Nandi P, Ong GB. Foreign body in the oesophagus: review of 2394 cases. Br J Surg 1978; 65: 5.
  • 34. Hachimi-Idrissi S, Corne L, Vandenplas Y. Management of ingested foreign bodies in childhood: our expe rience and review of the literature. Eur J Emerg Med 1998; 5: 319.
  • 35. Bendig DW, Mackie GG. Management of smooth-blunt gastric foreign bodies in asymptomatic patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990; 29: 642.
  • 36. Soprano JV, Fleisher GR, Mandl KD. The spontaneous passage of esophageal coins in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:1073.
  • 37. Soprano JV, Mandl KD. Four strategies for the management of esophageal coins in children. Pediatrics 2000 Jan;105(1):e5.
  • 38. Katsinelos P, Kountouras J, Paroutoglou G, et al. Endoscopic techniques and management of foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction in the upper gastro intestinal tract: a retrospective analysis of 139 cases. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40: 784.
  • 39. Dahshan AH, Kevin Donovan G. Bougienage versus endoscopy for esophageal coin removal in children. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41: 454.
  • 40. Gmeiner D, von Rahden BH, Meco C, et al. Flexible versus rigid endoscopy for treatment of foreign body impaction in the esophagus. Surg Endosc 2007; 21: 2026.
  • 41. Nelson DB, Bosco JJ, Curtis WD, et al. ASGE technology status evaluation report. Endoscopic retrieval devices. February 1999. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 50: 932.
  • 42. Cheng W, Tam PK. Foreign-body ingestion in child ren: experience with 1,265 cases. J Pediatr Surg 1999; 34: 1472.
  • 43. Janik JE, Janik JS. Magill forceps extraction of upper esophageal coins. J Pediatr Surg 2003; 38: 227. 44. Arms JL, Mackenberg-Mohn MD, Bowen MV, et al. Safety and efficacy of a protocol using bougienage or endoscopy for the management of coins acutely lodged in the esophagus: a large case series. Ann Emerg Med 2008; 51:367.
  • 45. Gauderer MW, DeCou JM, Abrams RS, Thomason MA. The ‘penny pincher’: a new technique for fast and safe removal of esophageal coins. J Pediatr Surg 2000; 35:276.
  • 46. Waltzman ML. Management of esophageal coins. Curr Opin Pediatr 2006; 18:571.
  • 47. Waltzman M. Management of esophageal coins. Pedi atr Emerg Care 2006; 22:367.
  • 48. Cevik M, Gókdemir MT, Boleken ME, et al. The characteristics and outcomes of foreign body ingestion and aspiration in children due to lodged foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Pediatr Emerg Care 2013; 29:53.
  • 49. Kimball SJ, Park AH, Rollins MD 2nd, et al. A review of esophageal disc battery ingestions and a protocol for management. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010; 136:866.
  • 50. Votteler TP, Nash JC, Rutledge JC. The hazard of ingested alkaline disk batteries in children. JAMA 1983; 249:2504.
  • 51. Maves MD, Carithers JS, Birck HG. Esophageal burns secondary to disc battery ingestion. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1984; 93:364.
  • 52. Bertoni G, Sassatelli R, Conigliaro R, Bedogni G. A simple latex protector hood for safe endoscopic removal of sharp-pointed gastroesophageal foreign bodies. Gast rointest Endosc 1996; 44: 458.
  • 53. Velitchkov NG, Grigorov GI, Losanoff JE, Kjossev KT. Ingested foreign bodies of the gastrointestinal tract: retrospective analysis of 542 cases. World J Surg 1996; 20:1001.
  • 54. Lao J, Bostwick HE, Berezin S, et al. Esophageal food impaction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2003; 19: 402.
  • 55. Smith CR, Miranda A, Rudolph CD, Sood MR. Removal of impacted food in children with eosinophilic esophagitis using Saeed banding device. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007; 44: 521.
  • 56. Luis AL, Riñon C, Encinas JL, et al. Non stenotic food impaction due to eosinophilic esophagitis: a potential surgical emergency. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2006; 16:399.
  • 57. Vicente Y, Hernandez-Peredo G, Molina M, et al. Acute food bolus impaction without stricture in children with gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Surg 2001; 36:1397.
  • 58. Andersen HA, Bernatz PE, Grındlay JH. Perforation of the esophagus after use of a digestant agent: report of case and experimental study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1959; 68: 890.
  • 59. Holsinger JW, Furson RL, Sealy WC. Esophageal perforation following meat impaction and papain ingestion. JAMA 1968; 204:188.
  • 60. Ferrucci JT Jr, Long JA Jr. Radiologic treatment of esophageal food impaction using intravenous glucagon. Radiology 1977; 125: 25.
  • 61. Trenkner SW, Maglinte DD, Lehman GA, et al. Esophageal food impaction: treatment with glucagon. Radiology 1983; 149:401.
  • 62. Tibbling L, Bjorkhoel A, Jansson E, Stenkvist M. Effect of spasmolytic drugs on esophageal foreign bodies. Dysphagia 1995; 10: 126.
  • 63. Al-Haddad M, Ward EM, Scolapio JS, et al. Glucagon for the relief of esophageal food impaction does it really work? Dig Dis Sci 2006; 51: 1930.
  • 64. Mehta D, Attia M, Quintana E, Cronan K. Glucagon use for esophageal coin dislodgment in children: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8:200. 65. Arora S, Galich P. Myth: glucagon is an effective first-line therapy for esophageal foreign body impaction. CJEM 2009; 11: 169.
  • 66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gastrointestinal injuries from magnet ingestion in child ren--United States, 2003-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 1296.
  • 67. Hwang JB, Park MH, Choi SO, et al. How strong cons truction toy magnets are A gastro-gastro-duodenal fistula formation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007; 44: 291.
  • 68. Berkowitz S, Tarrago R. Acute brain herniation from lead toxicity. Pediatrics 2006; 118:2548.
  • 69. Hugelmeyer CD, Moorhead JC, Horenblas L, Bayer MJ. Fatal lead encephalopathy following foreign body ingestion: case report. J Emerg Med 1988; 6: 397.
  • 70. McKinney PE. Acute elevation of blood lead levels within hours of ingestion of large quantities of lead shot. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2000; 38: 435.
  • 71. Treble RG, Thompson TS. Elevated blood lead levels resulting from the ingestion of air rifle pellets. J Anal Toxicol 2002; 26: 370.
  • 72. Mowad E, Haddad I, Gemmel DJ. Management of lead poisoning from ingested fishing sinkers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152:485.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Tamer SEKMENLİ (Primary Author)
SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8867-1383
Türkiye


İlhan ÇİFTCİ
selçuk üniversitesi tıp fakültesi
0000-0001-9080-4480
Türkiye

Thanks ilginize teşekkürler
Publication Date March 15, 2022
Acceptance Date January 5, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

Vancouver Sekmenli T. , Çiftci İ. Çocuklarda Özofagus Yabancı Cisimlerine Genel Yaklaşım. Pediatric Practice and Research. 2022; 10(1): 38-43.