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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among adults in a family health center in Turkey

Year 2012, Volume 19, Issue 1, 6 - 11, 30.03.2012

Abstract

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an urban population enrolled at a family health center in the city of Isparta. Material and Method: Systematically selected individuals aged 20 and over were studied using stratified sampling. A total of 1014 subjects participated in the study. The MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of the MetS was 29.9% and 35.3%, respectively. By both definitions, the prevalence was higher in women than men. For ATP III, it was 32.6% versus 26.7%; while it was 37.9% versus 32.3% for IDF. The prevalence increased significantly by age for both definitions. The most common component was low HDL-C (52.1%) for ATP III, however it was abdominal obesity (72.1%) for IDF. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of MetS in this urban population. Considering our results, it is noteworthy that one third of our population has the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These findings indicate the need for support and promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals of our family health center. Özet Türkiye'de bir aile sağlığı merkezindeki erişkin bireylerde metabolik sendrom prevalansı Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı Isparta ili kentsel alanında bulunan aile sağlığı merkezimize kayıtlı erişkin bireylerde metabolik sendrom prevalansını belirlemektir. Materyal ve Metod: Sistematik olarak tabakalı örnekleme ile belirlenen 20 yaş ve üzeri toplam 1220 kişiden 1014'ü çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Metabolik sendrom (MetS) prevalansı Ulusal Kolesterol Eğitim Programı (NCEP) Erişkin Tedavi Paneli III (ATP III) ve Uluslararası Diyabet Federasyonu (IDF) tanımlamaları kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Bulgular: ATP III ve IDF tanımlamalarına göre MetS prevalansı sırasıyla % 29.9 ve % 35.3 olarak bulunmuştur. Her iki tanımlamayla da prevalans kadınlarda erkeklere oranla daha yüksektir. ATP III için bu oranlar % 32.6'ya % 26.7 iken, IDF için % 37.9'a % 32.3 düzeylerindedir. Prevalans her iki tanımlamayla da yaşla birlikte artış göstermiştir. En yüksek oranda saptanan MetS kriteri, ATP III tanımlamasıyla düşük HDL-C (% 52.1) iken IDF tanımlaması ile abdominal obezite (% 72.1) olmuştur. Sonuç: Kentsel alandaki bu toplumda MetS prevalansı yüksek bulunmuştur. Sonuçlarımız değerlendirildiğinde incelenen toplumun yaklaşık üçte biri diyabet ve kardiyovasküler hastalıkların gelişimi açısından risk altındadır. Bu bulgular aile sağlığı merkezimizdeki bireylerde sağlıklı yaşam tarzı davranışlarının teşvik edilmesi ve desteklenmesi ihtiyacını ortaya koymaktadır. Anahtar kelimeler: Metabolik sendrom, prevalans, aile sağlığı merkezi

References

  • Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1988: role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37: 1595–1607
  • Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002; 288: 2909–2916
  • Hanson RL, Imperatore G, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Components of the “metabolic syndrome” and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51: 3120–3127
  • Stern MP, Williams K, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Hunt KJ, Haffner SM. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (11): 2676–2681
  • Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C. Definition of Metabolic Syndrome: Report of The National Heart, Lung Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Definition. Circulation 2004; 109: 433.438
  • Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001; 24 (4): 683-689
  • World Health Organization, Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications; Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, 1999, Geneva
  • Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diab Med 1999; 16 (5): 442–443
  • Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486–2497
  • Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. The Lancet 2005; 366: 1059–1062
  • Cameron AJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 2004; 33: 351–375
  • Trevisan M, Liu J, Bahsas FB, Menotti A. Syndrome X and mortality: a population based study. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148 (10): 958-966
  • Ford ES. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2745-9
  • Adams RJ, Appleton S, Wilson DH, Taylor AW, Dal Grande E, Chittleborough C et al. Population comparison of two clinical approaches to the metabolic syndrome, Implications of the new international diabetes federation consensus definition. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (11): 2777–2779
  • Can AS, Bersot TP. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic Syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study. BMC Public Health 2007, 7: 353
  • Harzallah F, Alberti H, Ben Khalifa F. The metabolic syndrome in an Arab population: a first look at the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 441–444
  • Boden G, Chen X, DeSantis RA, Kendrick Z. Effects of age and body fat on insulin resistance in healthy men. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 728-733
  • Kanjilal S, Shanker J, Rao VS, Khadrinarasimhaih N, Mukherjee M, Iyengar SS et al. Prevalence and component analysis of metabolic syndrome: An Indian atherosclerosis research study perspective. Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4 (1): 189-197
  • Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Chaturvedi V, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Ramakrishnan L et al. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations. Bulletin of the WHO 2006; 84 (6): 461-469
  • Taylor H, Liu J, Wilson G, Golden SH, Crook E, Brunson CD et al. Distinct component profiles and high risk among African Americans with metabolic syndrome: the Jackson Heart Study. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(6): 1248-1253
  • Hildrum B, Mykletun A, Hole T, Midthjell K, Dahl AA. Age-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program: the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 220
  • Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003; 61: 29–37
  • Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Satyavani K, Sivasankari S, Vijay V. Metabolic syndrome in urban Asian Indian adults: a population study using modified ATP criteria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003, 60: 199- 204
  • Kozan O, Oguz A, Abaci A, Erol C, Ongen Z, Temizhan A et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Turkish adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 548–553
  • Sanisoglu SY, Oktenli C, Hasimi A, Yokusoglu M, Ugurlu M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 92
  • Özsahin AK, Gökcel A, Sezgin N, Akbaba M, Güvener N, Özýsýk I et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a Turkish adult population. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2004; 17: 230–234
  • Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Deger O, Topbas M, Hosver I, Ersöz HO et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon MetS study. Endocr 2008; 33: 9-20
  • Khader Y, Bateiha A, El-Khateeb M, Al-Shaikh A, Ajlouni K. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Northern Jordanians. J Diabetes Complications 2007; 21: 214–219
  • Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 1781–1785
  • Yumuk VD, Hatemi H, Tarakci T, Uyar N, Turan N, Bagrýacik N et al. High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2005; 70: 151–158
  • Erem C, Arslan C, Hacihasanoglu A, Deger O, Topbas M, Ukinc K et al. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors in a Turkish population (Trabzon city, Turkey). Obes Res 2004;12 (7): 1117-1127.

Year 2012, Volume 19, Issue 1, 6 - 11, 30.03.2012

Abstract

References

  • Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1988: role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37: 1595–1607
  • Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002; 288: 2909–2916
  • Hanson RL, Imperatore G, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Components of the “metabolic syndrome” and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51: 3120–3127
  • Stern MP, Williams K, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Hunt KJ, Haffner SM. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (11): 2676–2681
  • Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C. Definition of Metabolic Syndrome: Report of The National Heart, Lung Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Definition. Circulation 2004; 109: 433.438
  • Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001; 24 (4): 683-689
  • World Health Organization, Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications; Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, 1999, Geneva
  • Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diab Med 1999; 16 (5): 442–443
  • Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486–2497
  • Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. The Lancet 2005; 366: 1059–1062
  • Cameron AJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 2004; 33: 351–375
  • Trevisan M, Liu J, Bahsas FB, Menotti A. Syndrome X and mortality: a population based study. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148 (10): 958-966
  • Ford ES. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2745-9
  • Adams RJ, Appleton S, Wilson DH, Taylor AW, Dal Grande E, Chittleborough C et al. Population comparison of two clinical approaches to the metabolic syndrome, Implications of the new international diabetes federation consensus definition. Diabetes Care 2005; 28 (11): 2777–2779
  • Can AS, Bersot TP. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic Syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study. BMC Public Health 2007, 7: 353
  • Harzallah F, Alberti H, Ben Khalifa F. The metabolic syndrome in an Arab population: a first look at the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 441–444
  • Boden G, Chen X, DeSantis RA, Kendrick Z. Effects of age and body fat on insulin resistance in healthy men. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 728-733
  • Kanjilal S, Shanker J, Rao VS, Khadrinarasimhaih N, Mukherjee M, Iyengar SS et al. Prevalence and component analysis of metabolic syndrome: An Indian atherosclerosis research study perspective. Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4 (1): 189-197
  • Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Chaturvedi V, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Ramakrishnan L et al. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations. Bulletin of the WHO 2006; 84 (6): 461-469
  • Taylor H, Liu J, Wilson G, Golden SH, Crook E, Brunson CD et al. Distinct component profiles and high risk among African Americans with metabolic syndrome: the Jackson Heart Study. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(6): 1248-1253
  • Hildrum B, Mykletun A, Hole T, Midthjell K, Dahl AA. Age-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program: the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 220
  • Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003; 61: 29–37
  • Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Satyavani K, Sivasankari S, Vijay V. Metabolic syndrome in urban Asian Indian adults: a population study using modified ATP criteria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003, 60: 199- 204
  • Kozan O, Oguz A, Abaci A, Erol C, Ongen Z, Temizhan A et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Turkish adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 548–553
  • Sanisoglu SY, Oktenli C, Hasimi A, Yokusoglu M, Ugurlu M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 92
  • Özsahin AK, Gökcel A, Sezgin N, Akbaba M, Güvener N, Özýsýk I et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a Turkish adult population. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2004; 17: 230–234
  • Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Deger O, Topbas M, Hosver I, Ersöz HO et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon MetS study. Endocr 2008; 33: 9-20
  • Khader Y, Bateiha A, El-Khateeb M, Al-Shaikh A, Ajlouni K. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Northern Jordanians. J Diabetes Complications 2007; 21: 214–219
  • Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 1781–1785
  • Yumuk VD, Hatemi H, Tarakci T, Uyar N, Turan N, Bagrýacik N et al. High prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Konya, a central Anatolian city in Turkey. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2005; 70: 151–158
  • Erem C, Arslan C, Hacihasanoglu A, Deger O, Topbas M, Ukinc K et al. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors in a Turkish population (Trabzon city, Turkey). Obes Res 2004;12 (7): 1117-1127.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri
Authors

Levent ÖZSEVEN>


Yonca SÖNMEZ>

Publication Date March 30, 2012
Application Date December 19, 2011
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2012, Volume 19, Issue 1

Cite

Vancouver Özseven L. , Sönmez Y. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among adults in a family health center in Turkey. SDÜ Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2012; 19(1): 6-11.

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Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi/ Medical Journal of Süleyman Demirel Universty Creative Commons Atıf-Gayriticari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.