Year 2013, Volume 37 , Issue 3, Pages 247 - 258 2013-03-01

Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag
Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag

Altan YILMAZ [1] , Mustafa KARAŞAHİN [2]


In this study, the compressive strength properties of flexible pavement's cement-bound base layers made with FeCr slag have been investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the materials (FeCr slag and cementitious binders) were determined. Cylinder-shaped slag specimens containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% Portland cement (PC) and silica fume were then prepared and stored for 28 days in a humid room. Nondestructive testing was performed using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), and then unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing was applied to the samples. The results of both testing methods are discussed comparatively. The test results showed that FeCr slag stabilized with cementitious binders can potentially be used as a road base layer material, in similar applications to traditional cement stabilized materials. Slag+PC mixtures met the required compressive strength properties of standards at 4% and higher PC contents. In this research, a high correlation was found between UCS and UPV test results.
In this study, the compressive strength properties of flexible pavement's cement-bound base layers made with FeCr slag have been investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the materials (FeCr slag and cementitious binders) were determined. Cylinder-shaped slag specimens containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% Portland cement (PC) and silica fume were then prepared and stored for 28 days in a humid room. Nondestructive testing was performed using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), and then unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing was applied to the samples. The results of both testing methods are discussed comparatively. The test results showed that FeCr slag stabilized with cementitious binders can potentially be used as a road base layer material, in similar applications to traditional cement stabilized materials. Slag+PC mixtures met the required compressive strength properties of standards at 4% and higher PC contents. In this research, a high correlation was found between UCS and UPV test results.
  • ACI Committee 226, Use of Fly Ash in Concrete, ACI 226.3R-87, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, USA, 381–409, 1987.
  • ACI Committee 230, State-of-the-Art Report on Soil Cement. ACI 230-1R-90 (reapproved 1997), ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Vol. 1, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, USA, 1998.
  • Ahmed, I., Use of Waste Materials in Highway Construction, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, USA, 1993.
  • American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM C-597, Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 1998.
  • American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM D-1633, Standard Test Methods for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2000.
  • Conner, J.R., Guide to Improving the Effectiveness of Cement-Based Stabilization/Solidification, Portland Cement Association Engineering Bulletin EB211, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 1997.
  • Dawson, A.R., Elliot, R.C., Rowe, G.M. and Williams, J., “An Assessment of the Suitability of Some Industrial By-Products for Use in Pavement Bases in the United Kingdom”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1486, 114–123, 1995.
  • Emery, J.J., “Slag Utilization in Pavement Construction”, Extending Aggregate Resources, ASTM Special Technical Publication 774, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 95–118, 1982.
  • Erdo˘ gan, T.Y., Beton, Middle East Technical University Press, Ankara, Turkey, 2003 (in Turkish).
  • Erdo˘ gan, T.Y. and ¨ Ozer, ¨ O., “An Evaluation of Different Test Methods to Determine Concrete Compressive Strength”, Fourth International Conference on Concrete Technology in Developing Countries, Gazima˘ gusa, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, 1996.
  • Fallman, A.M., “Leaching of Chromium and Barium From Steel Slag in Laboratory and Field Tests - Solubility Controlled Process”, Waste Management, 20, 149–154, 2000.
  • General Directorate of Turkish Highways, Highway Construction Specifications, General Directorate of Highways Press No: 170/2, Ankara, Turkey, 1994.
  • Gericke, W.A., “Environmental Solutions to Waste Products from Ferrochrome Production”, Proceedings of the Eighth International Ferroalloys Congress (INFACON 8), Beijing, China, 51–58, 1998.
  • Giesekke, E.W., Smit, J.P., Viljoen, E.A., Kruger, A.W., Kruger, S.J. and Maine, C.F., “Evaluation of Solid-stabilized Products Made from Cr(VI) Containing Ferrochrome Bag-filter Dust”, Waste Management Series, 1, 140–150, 2000.
  • Kindness, A., Macias, A. and Glasser, F.P., “Immobilization of Chromium in Cement Matrices”, Waste Management, 14, 3–11, 1994.
  • Lind, B.B., Fallman, A.M. and Larsson, L.B., “Environmental Impact of Ferrochrome Slag in Road Construction”, Waste Management, 21, 255–264, 2001.
  • Malhotra, V.M., Concrete Technology: Past, Present, and Future, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, USA, 19 Malhotra, V.M., Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2004.
  • Motz, H. and Geiseler, J., “Products of Steel Slags an Opportunity to Save Natural Resources”, Waste Management, 21, 285–293, 2001.
  • Niemel¨ a, P. and Kauppi, M., “Production, Characteristics and Use of Ferrochromium Slags”, INFACON XI, New Delhi, India, 171–179, 2007.
  • Pioro, L.S. and Pioro, I.L., “Reprocessing of Metallurgical Slag into Materials for The Building Industry” Waste Management, 24, 371–379, 2004.
  • Qasrawi, H.Y., “Concrete Strength by Combined Nondestructive Methods Simply and Reliably Predicted”, Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 739–746, 2000.
  • Ramirez, T., Steel Slag Aggregate in Bituminous Mixtures - Final Report, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 79-12, Harrisburg, PA, USA, 1992.
  • Rio, L.M., Jimenez, A., Lopez, F., Rosa, F.J., Rufo, M.M. and Paniagua, J.M., “Characterization and Hardening of Concrete with Ultrasonic Testing”, Ultrasonics, 42, 527–530, 2004.
  • S¨ uta¸s, ˙I. and Yılmaz, A., Investigation of Electric-Arc Furnace Slag Utilization in Road Pavements and Fills and Productivity Analysis, Final Report, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, 2006.
  • Turkish Standards Institution, TS EN 1367-1, Tests for Thermal and Weathering Properties of Aggregates - Part 2: Magnesium Sulfate Test, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara, Turkey, 1999.
  • Turkish Standards Institution, TS EN 197-1, Cement – Part 1: Compositions and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara, Turkey, 2002.
  • Turgut, P., “Research into the Correlation between Concrete Strength and UPV Values”, NDT.net, 12, 2004, available online at http://www.ndt.net/article/v09n12/turgut/turgut.htm.
  • US EPA, Method 1312 (1986; 1994 update), (SPLP) The Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  • Wang, L., Seals, R.K. and Roy, A., “Investigation of Utilization of Amorphous Silica Residues as Supplementary Cementing Materials”. Advances in Cement Research, 2, 85–89, 2001.
  • Wu, S., Xue, Y., Ye, Q. and Chen, Y., “Utilization of Steel Slag as Aggregates for Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) Mixtures”, Building and Environment, 42, 2580–2585, 2007.
  • Ye˘ ginobalı, A., “Utilization of Silica Fume as Concrete Additive Material”, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of the Industrial By-Products in Civil Engineering, Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineering, Ankara, Turkey, 209– 221, 19 Yılmaz, A., Use of Ferrochromium and Silico-Ferrochromium Slag and Silica Fume in Road Construction, PhD, Department of Civil Engineering, S¨ uleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, 2008.
  • Zelic, J., “Properties of Concrete Pavements Prepared with Ferrochromium Slag as Concrete Aggregate”, Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 2340–2349, 2005.
Primary Language tr
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Altan YILMAZ

Author: Mustafa KARAŞAHİN

Dates

Publication Date : March 1, 2013

Bibtex @ { tbtkengineering144892, journal = {Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences}, issn = {1300-0160}, eissn = {1303-6157}, address = {}, publisher = {TUBITAK}, year = {2013}, volume = {37}, pages = {247 - 258}, doi = {10.3906/kim-1302-70}, title = {Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag}, key = {cite}, author = {YILMAZ, Altan and KARAŞAHİN, Mustafa} }
APA YILMAZ, A , KARAŞAHİN, M . (2013). Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences , 37 (3) , 247-258 . DOI: 10.3906/kim-1302-70
MLA YILMAZ, A , KARAŞAHİN, M . "Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 (2013 ): 247-258 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tbtkengineering/issue/12119/144892>
Chicago YILMAZ, A , KARAŞAHİN, M . "Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 (2013 ): 247-258
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag AU - Altan YILMAZ , Mustafa KARAŞAHİN Y1 - 2013 PY - 2013 N1 - doi: 10.3906/kim-1302-70 DO - 10.3906/kim-1302-70 T2 - Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 247 EP - 258 VL - 37 IS - 3 SN - 1300-0160-1303-6157 M3 - doi: 10.3906/kim-1302-70 UR - https://doi.org/10.3906/kim-1302-70 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag %A Altan YILMAZ , Mustafa KARAŞAHİN %T Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag %D 2013 %J Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences %P 1300-0160-1303-6157 %V 37 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3906/kim-1302-70 %U 10.3906/kim-1302-70
ISNAD YILMAZ, Altan , KARAŞAHİN, Mustafa . "Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 / 3 (March 2013): 247-258 . https://doi.org/10.3906/kim-1302-70
AMA YILMAZ A , KARAŞAHİN M . Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 37(3): 247-258.
Vancouver YILMAZ A , KARAŞAHİN M . Compressive strength of cement-bound base layers containing ferrochromium slag. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 37(3): 258-247.