Year 2013, Volume 37 , Issue 2, Pages 186 - 210 2013-02-01

Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications
Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications

Gülben ÇALIŞ [1] , Burçin BECERİK-GERBER [2] , Ahmet Burak GÖKTEPE [3]


Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology-based indoor localisation solutions have been widely adapted by many industries. An important factor affecting the performance of RFID applications is the received signal strength indication (RSSI) values. Indoor setting and layout may have direct effects on the RSSI variability, which, in turn, affect the robustness of RFID applications' outcomes. Effects of different environmental factors on RSSI values for RFID tags have been observed and reported in previous literature; however, there is a lack of research that addresses the effects of such parameters on RSSI values in a holistic and quantified manner. In this study, 2 different test scenarios are used to compare and assess the relationships between the RSSI values and system parameters for active RFID tags in indoor applications. These parameters include: 1) type of materials that tags are attached to, 2) obstructions between tags and an antenna, 3) relative elevation between tags and an antenna, and 4) relative orientation of tags and an antenna. The effect of each parameter was evaluated by statistical analyses. The Shapiro--Wilk, Bartlett's, Levene's, Kruskal--Wallis, Mann--Whitney, and Games--Howell tests were conducted. The results show that the data groups for all of the system parameter tests were nonnormally distributed and heterogeneous. Based on the Mann--Whitney test results, U values for comparisons of RSSI values in both test beds were found to be 0.00 for all of the system parameters. The results indicate that different system parameters caused variations in RSSI values as well as the detectability rates. Nevertheless, different test beds changed the influence of each parameter on the RSSI values. It is concluded that testing environment is a prominent parameter that affects the results and fluctuations in the RSSI values, and that the detectability rates cannot be attributed to any specific parameter that has been included in this study.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology-based indoor localisation solutions have been widely adapted by many industries. An important factor affecting the performance of RFID applications is the received signal strength indication (RSSI) values. Indoor setting and layout may have direct effects on the RSSI variability, which, in turn, affect the robustness of RFID applications' outcomes. Effects of different environmental factors on RSSI values for RFID tags have been observed and reported in previous literature; however, there is a lack of research that addresses the effects of such parameters on RSSI values in a holistic and quantified manner. In this study, 2 different test scenarios are used to compare and assess the relationships between the RSSI values and system parameters for active RFID tags in indoor applications. These parameters include: 1) type of materials that tags are attached to, 2) obstructions between tags and an antenna, 3) relative elevation between tags and an antenna, and 4) relative orientation of tags and an antenna. The effect of each parameter was evaluated by statistical analyses. The Shapiro--Wilk, Bartlett's, Levene's, Kruskal--Wallis, Mann--Whitney, and Games--Howell tests were conducted. The results show that the data groups for all of the system parameter tests were nonnormally distributed and heterogeneous. Based on the Mann--Whitney test results, U values for comparisons of RSSI values in both test beds were found to be 0.00 for all of the system parameters. The results indicate that different system parameters caused variations in RSSI values as well as the detectability rates. Nevertheless, different test beds changed the influence of each parameter on the RSSI values. It is concluded that testing environment is a prominent parameter that affects the results and fluctuations in the RSSI values, and that the detectability rates cannot be attributed to any specific parameter that has been included in this study.
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Primary Language tr
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Gülben ÇALIŞ

Author: Burçin BECERİK-GERBER

Author: Ahmet Burak GÖKTEPE

Dates

Publication Date : February 1, 2013

Bibtex @ { tbtkengineering144902, journal = {Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences}, issn = {1300-0160}, eissn = {1303-6157}, address = {}, publisher = {TUBITAK}, year = {2013}, volume = {37}, pages = {186 - 210}, doi = {10.3906/kim-1207-6}, title = {Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications}, key = {cite}, author = {ÇALIŞ, Gülben and BECERİK-GERBER, Burçin and GÖKTEPE, Ahmet Burak} }
APA ÇALIŞ, G , BECERİK-GERBER, B , GÖKTEPE, A . (2013). Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences , 37 (2) , 186-210 . DOI: 10.3906/kim-1207-6
MLA ÇALIŞ, G , BECERİK-GERBER, B , GÖKTEPE, A . "Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 (2013 ): 186-210 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tbtkengineering/issue/12120/144902>
Chicago ÇALIŞ, G , BECERİK-GERBER, B , GÖKTEPE, A . "Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 (2013 ): 186-210
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications AU - Gülben ÇALIŞ , Burçin BECERİK-GERBER , Ahmet Burak GÖKTEPE Y1 - 2013 PY - 2013 N1 - doi: 10.3906/kim-1207-6 DO - 10.3906/kim-1207-6 T2 - Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 186 EP - 210 VL - 37 IS - 2 SN - 1300-0160-1303-6157 M3 - doi: 10.3906/kim-1207-6 UR - https://doi.org/10.3906/kim-1207-6 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications %A Gülben ÇALIŞ , Burçin BECERİK-GERBER , Ahmet Burak GÖKTEPE %T Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications %D 2013 %J Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences %P 1300-0160-1303-6157 %V 37 %N 2 %R doi: 10.3906/kim-1207-6 %U 10.3906/kim-1207-6
ISNAD ÇALIŞ, Gülben , BECERİK-GERBER, Burçin , GÖKTEPE, Ahmet Burak . "Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications". Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 37 / 2 (February 2013): 186-210 . https://doi.org/10.3906/kim-1207-6
AMA ÇALIŞ G , BECERİK-GERBER B , GÖKTEPE A . Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 37(2): 186-210.
Vancouver ÇALIŞ G , BECERİK-GERBER B , GÖKTEPE A . Analysis of the variability of RSSI values for active RFID-based indoor applications. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 37(2): 210-186.

Authors of the Article
Gülben ÇALIŞ [1]
Burçin BECERİK-GERBER [2]
Ahmet Burak GÖKTEPE [3]