Year 2021, Volume 22 , Issue 3, Pages 177 - 195 2021-07-01

DEVELOPING MEASURES FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AS REGARDS SUSTAINABILITY: THE MIXED METHOD APPROACH

Siti Haslina Md HARIZAN [1] , Mohd Faiz HILMI [2]


Distance education has been acknowledged as a mechanism through which sustainable development can be achieved. The objective of the study is to develop the instrument that measures the effectiveness of distance education in inculcating sustainability among distance learners as the researchers have observed the absence of comprehensive and contextually appropriate measures for the effectiveness of distance education in nurturing sustainability. A mixed method research design was employed by following the six-phase sequential exploratory instrument development process. The quantitative validation of the instrument was done via a survey on 663 learners from the selected public universities in Malaysia. The SmartPLS 3 used by the researchers, produced a new 61-item measure of the effectiveness of distance education as regards sustainability. The findings have enabled the establishment of a comprehensive and contextually appropriate measurement tool applicable to a larger population of distance learners. It also provides an evaluation tool for practitioners in determining the effectiveness of distance education programs and courses that have led to the attainment of sustainability outcome among learners. Future studies may pursue further processes to improve the rigor and construct validation of the instrument besides uncovering other areas which are necessary to be incorporated in the scope of the measures.
Distance education, distance learning, effectiveness, instrument development, Partial Least Squares - structural equation modelling, sustainability
  • Aleixo, A. M., Leal, S., & Azeiteiro, U. M. (2018). Conceptualization of sustainable higher education institutions, roles, barriers, and challenges for sustainability: An exploratory study in Portugal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1664–1673.
  • Ana Pinto de Moura, Luís Miguel Cunha, Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro, Luísa Aires, Pedro Graca, M. D. V. de A. (2010). Food consumer science post-graduate courses: comparison of face-to-face versus online delivery systems. British Food Journal, 112(5), 544–556.
  • Azeiteiro, U. M., Bacelar-Nicolau, P., Caetano, F. J. P., & Caeiro, S. (2015). Education for sustainable development through e-learning in higher education: Experiences from Portugal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 106, 308–319.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Siti Haslina Md HARIZAN (Primary Author)
Institution: Universiti Sains Malaysia
Country: Malaysia


Author: Mohd Faiz HILMI
Institution: Universiti Sains Malaysia
Country: Malaysia


Dates

Application Date : October 9, 2020
Acceptance Date : July 24, 2021
Publication Date : July 1, 2021

APA Harızan, S , Hılmı, M . (2021). DEVELOPING MEASURES FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AS REGARDS SUSTAINABILITY: THE MIXED METHOD APPROACH . Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 22 (3) , 177-195 . DOI: 10.17718/tojde.961836