Research Article
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TECHNOLOGY-BASED SELF-REGULATED LEARNING STRATEGIES AND ENGLISH SELF-EFFICACY IN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 52 - 66, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1186230

Abstract

Technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs) have provided language learners with various opportunities to promote their self-sufficient learning outside the classroom lately. Thus, language learners are no longer passive recipients of language; in contrast, they are autonomous learners who apply self-regulated learning strategies through the medium of technology during their English learning process, which in turn can be associated with their English self-efficacy perceptions. Therefore, the current study aimed to present an investigation into the relationship between preparatory school students’ use of technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies and their perceived English self-efficacy as well as the predictability of employing the strategies on their self-efficacy beliefs. Applying a quantitative research design, the data were collected through the Technology-based Self-Regulated English Learning Strategies Questionnaire (TSRLSQ) developed by An et al. (2020) and the Questionnaire of English Self-Efficacy (QESE) developed by Wang (2004). A statistically significant positive relationship was found between students' use of technology-assisted English learning strategies and their perceived English self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, regression analysis results showed that goal setting and learner evaluation, motivational regulation, and technology-based song-movie learning strategies were strong predictors explaining the change in students’ self-efficacy in four language skills.

References

  • Abbasi, S., Chalak, A., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2021). Effect of online strategies-based instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking scores: a case of affective and social strategies instruction. Journal of Modern Research in English Language Studies, 8(3), 51-71. 10.30479/JMRELS.2020.11916.1478.
  • Alhafidh, F. K. Y., & Marcelo, C. (2020). Examining the differences of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL)--cognitive and metacognitive--for university ESL/FSL courses in Canada, Chile, Turkey and Iran. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 19(3), 18-30.
  • An, Z., Gan, Z., & Wang, C. (2020). Profiling Chinese EFL students’ technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies. Plos one, 15(10). 10.1371/journal.pone.0240094.
  • An, Z., Wang, C., Li, S., Gan, Z., & Li, H. (2021). Technology-assisted self-regulated English language learning: Associations with English language self-efficacy, English enjoyment, and learning outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 558466. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558466.
  • Bai, B., & Guo, W. (2018). Influences of self-regulated learning strategy use on self-efficacy in primary school students' English writing in Hong Kong. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 34(6), 523-536. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2018.1499058.
  • Bai, B., Guo, W., & Wang, C. (2022). Relationships between struggling EFL writers’ motivation, self-regulated learning (SRL), and writing competence in Hong Kong primary schools. Applied Linguistics Review. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0131.
  • Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2020). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language Teaching Research, 1362168820933190.
  • Balaman, S. (2021). Investigating the relationship between the perception of self-efficacy and the use of self-regulated learning strategies in the English writing skill. RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi 23, 768-796. : 10.29000/rumelide.949696.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
  • Bekleyen, N., & Hayta, F. (2015). Language learning in new era: Do mobile phones help? In The practice of foreign language teaching: Theories and applications, edited by A. Akbarov, 434-445. New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 161-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(96)00015-1.
  • Bozkurt, M. A., & Ekşioğlu, S. (2018). Lise öğrencilerinin İngilizce özyeterlik düzeyleri. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 440-452.
  • Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 5th ed. Pearson Education Inc.
  • Chen, Y. L., & Hsu, C. C. (2020). Self-regulated mobile game-based English learning in a virtual reality environment. Computers & Education, 154, 103910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103910.
  • Chung, L-Y. (2015). Exploring the effectiveness of self-regulated learning in massive open online courses on non-native English speakers. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies (IJDET), 13(3), 61-73. 10.4018/IJDET.2015070105.
  • Efriana, L. (2021). Problems of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic in EFL classroom and the solution. Jelita, 38-37. European Council (2002). Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 on Lifelong Learning. Official J. Eur. Communities, 9, 1-3.
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  • García Botero, G., Questier, F., Cincinnato, S., He, T., & Zhu, C. (2018). Acceptance and usage of mobile assisted language learning by higher education students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 30(3), 426-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-018-9177-1.
  • Guo, W. & Wei, J. (2019). Teacher feedback and students’ self-regulated learning in mathematics: A study of Chinese secondary students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 28, 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-019-00434-8.
  • Höl, D. & Güç. F. (2020). Discovering self-efficacy beliefs of EFL learners and the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi, 8(24), 425-448. https://doi.org/10.33692/avrasyad.834142.
  • Hung, D. M. (2022). EFL students’ self-regulated learning strategies during the Covid19 pandemic. Arab World English Journal, 2, 22-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/covid2.2.
  • İlbeği, A. & Çeliköz, M. (2020). İngilizce hazırlık programına devam eden üniversite öğrencilerinin İngilizce özyeterlik inançlarının incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8, 14-34. https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.706057.
  • Karafil, B. & Ari, A. (2016). Examining the power-sharing level in a higher education classroom. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Educational Alternatives 14, 170-180.
  • Karatas, K., Senturk, C., & Teke, A. (2021). The mediating role of self-directed learning readiness in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and lifelong learning tendencies. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 46(6), 54-77. 10.14221/ajte.2021v46n6.4.
  • Kızıl, A. & Savran, Z. (2016). Self-regulated learning in the digital age: An EFL perspective. Novitas-Royal (Research on Youth and Language) 10 (2), 147-158.
  • Kim, D. H., Wang, C., Ahn, H. S., & Bong, M. (2015). English language learners' self-efficacy profiles and relationship with self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences 38, 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.016.
  • Lai, C. (2013). A Framework for developing self-directed technology use for language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 17(2), 100-122
  • Lai, C. & Gu, M. (2011). Self-regulated out-of-class language learning with technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24 (4), 317-335.
  • Lai, C. L., Hwang, G. J., & Tu, Y. H. (2018). The effects of computer-supported self-regulation in science inquiry on learning outcomes, learning processes, and self-efficacy. Educational Technology Research and Development 66(4), 863-892. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2011.568417.
  • Lee, C., Yeung, A. S., & Ip, T. (2016). Use of computer technology for English language learning: do learning styles, gender, and age matter? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1035-1051. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1140655.
  • Lee, D., Allen, M., Cheng, L., Watson, S., & Watson, W. (2021). Exploring relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies of english language learners in a college setting. Journal of International Students, 11(3), 567-585. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i3.2145
  • Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.01.003.
  • Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online foreign language learning in higher education and its correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(2), 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020781.
  • Muin, A., & Aswati, A. (2019). Effects of socio-affective strategies on students’ self-confidence in classroom speaking activities. Loquen: English Studies Journal 12(2), 91-98. 10.32678/loquen.v12i2.2178.
  • Nikoopour, J., & Khoshroudi, M. S. (2021). EFL learners’ learning styles and self-regulated learning: Do gender and proficiency level matter? Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 12(4), 616-623. 10.17507/jltr.1204.13.
  • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 2: do they really think differently? On The Horizon 9 (6), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424843.
  • Saito, A. (2020). Strategic use, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-regulatedness in adult foreign language learning. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics 3(2), 152-167. 10.29140/ajal.v3n2.282.
  • Schwam, D., Greenberg, D., & Li, H. (2021). Individual differences in self-regulated learning of college students enrolled in online college courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 35(2), 133-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1829255.
  • Shen, H., Yuan, Y., & Ewing, R. (2015). English learning websites and digital resources from the perspective of Chinese university EFL practitioners. ReCALL, 27(2), 156-176. 10.1017/S0958344014000263.
  • Schunk, D. H. (1994). Self-regulation of self-efficacy and attributions in academic settings. In Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications edited by D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman, 75-99. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Shi, H. (2018). English language learners’ strategy use and self-efficacy beliefs in English language learning. Journal of International Students 8(2), 724-741. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v8i2.101.
  • Su, Y., Zheng, C., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2018). Examining the relationship between English language learners’ online self-regulation and their self-efficacy. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3548
  • Sun, T. & Wang, C. (2020). College students’ writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language. System 90 (3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102221
  • Sener, S. & Erol, İ. K. (2017). Motivational orientations and self‐efficacy beliefs of Turkish students towards EFL learning. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 67: 251-267. 10.14689/ejer.2017.67.15.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., Ullman, J. B. (2011). Using multivariate statistics. 5. Boston, MA: Pearson: 481-498.
  • Teng, L. S., Sun, P. P., & Xu, L. (2018.) Conceptualizing writing self‐efficacy in English as a foreign language contexts: Scale validation through structural equation modeling. Tesol Quarterly, 52(4), 911-942. 10.1002/tesq.432.
  • Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2018). Effects of motivational regulation strategies on writing performance: A mediation model of self-regulated learning of writing in English as a second/foreign language. Metacognition and Learning, 13(2) 213-240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-017-9171-4.
  • Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Empowering learners in the second/foreign language classroom: Can self-regulated learning strategies-based writing instruction make a difference? Journal of Second Language Writing, 48, 100701.
  • Wang, C. (2004). Self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs of children learning English as a second language. Doctoral Dissertation. The Ohio State University.
  • Wang, C. & Bai, B. (2017). Validating the instruments to measure ESL/EFL learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies. TESOL Quarterly 51(4), 931-947. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.355
  • Wang, C., Schwab, G., Fenn, P., & Chang, M. (2013). Self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies for English language learners: Comparison between Chinese and German college students. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 173-191. 10.5539/jedp.v3n1p173.
  • Wang, H. C., & Chen, C. W. Y. (2020). Learning English from YouTubers: English L2 learners’ self-regulated language learning on YouTube. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(4), 333-346. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2019.1607356
  • Wong, M. S-L. (2005). Language learning strategies and language self-efficacy: Investigating the relationship in Malaysia. RELC Journal 36(3), 245-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205060050.
  • Williams, M. & Burden, R. (1997). Motivation in language learning: A social constructivist approach. Cahiers de l'APLIUT 16(3), 19-27. 10.3406/APLIU.1997.1201.
  • Yusuf, M. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-regulated learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 15, 2623-2626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.158.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into practice 41(2), 64-70. 10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Development and adaptation of expertise: The role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs. In Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance edited by Ericsson, K.A, Charness, N, Feltovich P., Hoffman, R., 705-722. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Year 2024, Volume: 25 Issue: 1, 52 - 66, 01.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1186230

Abstract

References

  • Abbasi, S., Chalak, A., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2021). Effect of online strategies-based instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking scores: a case of affective and social strategies instruction. Journal of Modern Research in English Language Studies, 8(3), 51-71. 10.30479/JMRELS.2020.11916.1478.
  • Alhafidh, F. K. Y., & Marcelo, C. (2020). Examining the differences of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL)--cognitive and metacognitive--for university ESL/FSL courses in Canada, Chile, Turkey and Iran. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 19(3), 18-30.
  • An, Z., Gan, Z., & Wang, C. (2020). Profiling Chinese EFL students’ technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies. Plos one, 15(10). 10.1371/journal.pone.0240094.
  • An, Z., Wang, C., Li, S., Gan, Z., & Li, H. (2021). Technology-assisted self-regulated English language learning: Associations with English language self-efficacy, English enjoyment, and learning outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 558466. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558466.
  • Bai, B., & Guo, W. (2018). Influences of self-regulated learning strategy use on self-efficacy in primary school students' English writing in Hong Kong. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 34(6), 523-536. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2018.1499058.
  • Bai, B., Guo, W., & Wang, C. (2022). Relationships between struggling EFL writers’ motivation, self-regulated learning (SRL), and writing competence in Hong Kong primary schools. Applied Linguistics Review. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0131.
  • Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2020). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language Teaching Research, 1362168820933190.
  • Balaman, S. (2021). Investigating the relationship between the perception of self-efficacy and the use of self-regulated learning strategies in the English writing skill. RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi 23, 768-796. : 10.29000/rumelide.949696.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
  • Bekleyen, N., & Hayta, F. (2015). Language learning in new era: Do mobile phones help? In The practice of foreign language teaching: Theories and applications, edited by A. Akbarov, 434-445. New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 161-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(96)00015-1.
  • Bozkurt, M. A., & Ekşioğlu, S. (2018). Lise öğrencilerinin İngilizce özyeterlik düzeyleri. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 440-452.
  • Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 5th ed. Pearson Education Inc.
  • Chen, Y. L., & Hsu, C. C. (2020). Self-regulated mobile game-based English learning in a virtual reality environment. Computers & Education, 154, 103910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103910.
  • Chung, L-Y. (2015). Exploring the effectiveness of self-regulated learning in massive open online courses on non-native English speakers. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies (IJDET), 13(3), 61-73. 10.4018/IJDET.2015070105.
  • Efriana, L. (2021). Problems of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic in EFL classroom and the solution. Jelita, 38-37. European Council (2002). Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 on Lifelong Learning. Official J. Eur. Communities, 9, 1-3.
  • Gan, X. (2019). A survey on self-efficacy of English majors: Exploring its correlation with time management and strategy use. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 9, 16-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0912.20.
  • García Botero, G., Questier, F., Cincinnato, S., He, T., & Zhu, C. (2018). Acceptance and usage of mobile assisted language learning by higher education students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 30(3), 426-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-018-9177-1.
  • Guo, W. & Wei, J. (2019). Teacher feedback and students’ self-regulated learning in mathematics: A study of Chinese secondary students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 28, 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-019-00434-8.
  • Höl, D. & Güç. F. (2020). Discovering self-efficacy beliefs of EFL learners and the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi, 8(24), 425-448. https://doi.org/10.33692/avrasyad.834142.
  • Hung, D. M. (2022). EFL students’ self-regulated learning strategies during the Covid19 pandemic. Arab World English Journal, 2, 22-34. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/covid2.2.
  • İlbeği, A. & Çeliköz, M. (2020). İngilizce hazırlık programına devam eden üniversite öğrencilerinin İngilizce özyeterlik inançlarının incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8, 14-34. https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.706057.
  • Karafil, B. & Ari, A. (2016). Examining the power-sharing level in a higher education classroom. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Educational Alternatives 14, 170-180.
  • Karatas, K., Senturk, C., & Teke, A. (2021). The mediating role of self-directed learning readiness in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and lifelong learning tendencies. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 46(6), 54-77. 10.14221/ajte.2021v46n6.4.
  • Kızıl, A. & Savran, Z. (2016). Self-regulated learning in the digital age: An EFL perspective. Novitas-Royal (Research on Youth and Language) 10 (2), 147-158.
  • Kim, D. H., Wang, C., Ahn, H. S., & Bong, M. (2015). English language learners' self-efficacy profiles and relationship with self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences 38, 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.016.
  • Lai, C. (2013). A Framework for developing self-directed technology use for language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 17(2), 100-122
  • Lai, C. & Gu, M. (2011). Self-regulated out-of-class language learning with technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24 (4), 317-335.
  • Lai, C. L., Hwang, G. J., & Tu, Y. H. (2018). The effects of computer-supported self-regulation in science inquiry on learning outcomes, learning processes, and self-efficacy. Educational Technology Research and Development 66(4), 863-892. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2011.568417.
  • Lee, C., Yeung, A. S., & Ip, T. (2016). Use of computer technology for English language learning: do learning styles, gender, and age matter? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1035-1051. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1140655.
  • Lee, D., Allen, M., Cheng, L., Watson, S., & Watson, W. (2021). Exploring relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies of english language learners in a college setting. Journal of International Students, 11(3), 567-585. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i3.2145
  • Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.01.003.
  • Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online foreign language learning in higher education and its correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(2), 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020781.
  • Muin, A., & Aswati, A. (2019). Effects of socio-affective strategies on students’ self-confidence in classroom speaking activities. Loquen: English Studies Journal 12(2), 91-98. 10.32678/loquen.v12i2.2178.
  • Nikoopour, J., & Khoshroudi, M. S. (2021). EFL learners’ learning styles and self-regulated learning: Do gender and proficiency level matter? Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 12(4), 616-623. 10.17507/jltr.1204.13.
  • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 2: do they really think differently? On The Horizon 9 (6), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424843.
  • Saito, A. (2020). Strategic use, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-regulatedness in adult foreign language learning. Australian Journal of Applied Linguistics 3(2), 152-167. 10.29140/ajal.v3n2.282.
  • Schwam, D., Greenberg, D., & Li, H. (2021). Individual differences in self-regulated learning of college students enrolled in online college courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 35(2), 133-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1829255.
  • Shen, H., Yuan, Y., & Ewing, R. (2015). English learning websites and digital resources from the perspective of Chinese university EFL practitioners. ReCALL, 27(2), 156-176. 10.1017/S0958344014000263.
  • Schunk, D. H. (1994). Self-regulation of self-efficacy and attributions in academic settings. In Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications edited by D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman, 75-99. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Shi, H. (2018). English language learners’ strategy use and self-efficacy beliefs in English language learning. Journal of International Students 8(2), 724-741. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v8i2.101.
  • Su, Y., Zheng, C., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2018). Examining the relationship between English language learners’ online self-regulation and their self-efficacy. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3548
  • Sun, T. & Wang, C. (2020). College students’ writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language. System 90 (3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102221
  • Sener, S. & Erol, İ. K. (2017). Motivational orientations and self‐efficacy beliefs of Turkish students towards EFL learning. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 67: 251-267. 10.14689/ejer.2017.67.15.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., Ullman, J. B. (2011). Using multivariate statistics. 5. Boston, MA: Pearson: 481-498.
  • Teng, L. S., Sun, P. P., & Xu, L. (2018.) Conceptualizing writing self‐efficacy in English as a foreign language contexts: Scale validation through structural equation modeling. Tesol Quarterly, 52(4), 911-942. 10.1002/tesq.432.
  • Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2018). Effects of motivational regulation strategies on writing performance: A mediation model of self-regulated learning of writing in English as a second/foreign language. Metacognition and Learning, 13(2) 213-240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-017-9171-4.
  • Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Empowering learners in the second/foreign language classroom: Can self-regulated learning strategies-based writing instruction make a difference? Journal of Second Language Writing, 48, 100701.
  • Wang, C. (2004). Self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs of children learning English as a second language. Doctoral Dissertation. The Ohio State University.
  • Wang, C. & Bai, B. (2017). Validating the instruments to measure ESL/EFL learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies. TESOL Quarterly 51(4), 931-947. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.355
  • Wang, C., Schwab, G., Fenn, P., & Chang, M. (2013). Self-efficacy and self-regulated learning strategies for English language learners: Comparison between Chinese and German college students. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 173-191. 10.5539/jedp.v3n1p173.
  • Wang, H. C., & Chen, C. W. Y. (2020). Learning English from YouTubers: English L2 learners’ self-regulated language learning on YouTube. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(4), 333-346. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2019.1607356
  • Wong, M. S-L. (2005). Language learning strategies and language self-efficacy: Investigating the relationship in Malaysia. RELC Journal 36(3), 245-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205060050.
  • Williams, M. & Burden, R. (1997). Motivation in language learning: A social constructivist approach. Cahiers de l'APLIUT 16(3), 19-27. 10.3406/APLIU.1997.1201.
  • Yusuf, M. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-regulated learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 15, 2623-2626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.158.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into practice 41(2), 64-70. 10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Lifelong learning
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Esra KARAN AYNAGOZ 0000-0002-8774-9166

Burcu UNAL 0000-0002-6345-6430

Publication Date January 1, 2024
Submission Date October 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2024 Volume: 25 Issue: 1

Cite

APA KARAN AYNAGOZ, E., & UNAL, B. (2024). TECHNOLOGY-BASED SELF-REGULATED LEARNING STRATEGIES AND ENGLISH SELF-EFFICACY IN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 25(1), 52-66. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.1186230