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Türkiye’de İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen çocukların sınıflarında öğretmenlerin gerçekleştirdiği dil polisliği incelemesi

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, 183 - 200, 31.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.1057548

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen çocukların sınıflarında öğretmenler tarafından uygulanan dil polisliği uygulamaları incelenmektedir. İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen çocukların sınıflarında gerçekleştirilen dil polisliği çalışmaları oldukça sınırlıdır. Böylece, bu çalışmayla genişleyen çevreden İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen çocukların sınıflarıyla alanyanızdaki ilgili boşluğu ele alma ve düzenek değiştirme alanyazınına katkıda bulunma hedeflenmiştir. Veriler, Türkiye'deki iki özel okulda üç farklı sınıftan alınan 270 dakikalık video kayıtlarından oluşmaktadır ve söz konusu veriler, Konuşma Analizi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Sonuçlar, sadece Türkçe ve sadece İngilizcenin kullanılmasının yanı sıra kalıplaşmış ifadeler yoluyla da dil polisliğin başlatılmasından önce ve sonra iki dilli bir ortamın varlığını göstermiştir. Sınıfta yalnızca-İngilizce politikasının katı bir ödül ve ceza politikasıyla uygulandığı bazı ortaokul bağlamlarının aksine (Amir & Musk, 2013), kaydedilen derslerin çoğunda ana dil ve ikinci dil sorunsuz bir şekilde kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda, çocuklara İngilizce öğretimi, dil polisliği ve ortaokul seviyesinde düzenek değiştirme konularında çeşitli çıkarımlar sunulmaktadır.

References

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  • Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2013). Language policing: micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom. Classroom Discourse 4(2), 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/19463014.2013.783500
  • Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2014). Pupils Doing language policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom. Apples: Journal of Applied Language Studies, 8(2), 93-113.
  • Ataş, U. (2012). Discourse functions of students’ and teachers’ code switching in EFL classrooms: a case study in a Turkish University. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University.
  • Ataş, U., & Sağın-Şimşek, Ç. (2021). Discourse and educational functions of students’ and teachers’ code-switching in EFL classrooms in Turkey. Linguistics and Education, 65, 100981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100981
  • Auer, P. (1984). Bilingual Conversation. John Benjamins.
  • Aus der Wieschen, M. V., & Sert, O. (2021). Divergent language choices and maintenance of intersubjectivity: the case of Danish EFL young learners. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(1), 107-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1447544
  • Balaman, U. (2016). A conversation analytic study on the development of interactional competence in English in an online task-oriented environment. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hacettepe University.
  • Bensen, H., & Çavuşoğlu, Ç. (2013) Reasons for the teachers’ uses of code switching in adult EFL classrooms. Hasan Ali Yücel Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2), 70-82.
  • Bilgin, G.P., & Rahimi, A. (2013). EFL Teachers’ Attitude toward Code Switching: A Turkish Setting. International Journal of Linguistics, 5, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v5i5.4043
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  • Bonacina, F. & Gafaranga, J. (2011). ‘Medium of instruction’ vs. ‘medium of classroom interaction’: Language choice in a French complementary school classroom in Scotland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14, 319-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2010.502222
  • Copp-Jinkerson, A. (2011). Interpreting and managing a monolingual norm in an English- speaking class in Finland: When first and second graders contest the norm. Journal of Applied Language Studies, 5, 27-48.
  • Cromdal, J. (2005). “Bilingual Order in Collaborative Word Processing: On Creating an English Text in Swedish.” Journal of Pragmatics 37(3), 329-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2004.10.006
  • Doğancay-Aktuna, S. (1998). The Spread of English in Turkey and its Current Sociolinguistic Profile. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19(1), 24-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639808666340
  • Eldridge, J (1996). Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT Journal, 50(4), 303-311. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/50.4.303
  • Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069000040030301
  • Gafaranga, J., & Torras, M. C. (2001). Language versus medium in the study of bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(2), 195-219. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050020401
  • Gafaranga, J., & Torras, M. C. (2002). Interactional otherness: Towards a redefinition of codeswitching. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069020060010101
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  • Hazel, S. (2015). Identities at odds: embedded and implicit language policing in the internationalized workplace. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(1), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2014.985311
  • Horasan, S. (2014). Code-switching in EFL classrooms and the perceptions of the students and teachers. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 10(1), 31-45.
  • Huq, R. (2018). Doing English-only instructions. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33, 278-297. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2018038807
  • Huq, R. U. (2020). Monolingual Policy, Bilingual Interaction: English-taught Education in Bangladesh (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Linköping University. https://doi.org/10.3384/diss.diva-172149
  • Hutchby, I. & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation analysis: Principles, practices and applications. Polity Press.
  • İnal, D., Bayyurt, Y., Özturhan, M., & Bektaş, S. (2020). Multilingualism in the linguistic landscape of Istanbul. World Englishes, 40(2), 280-289. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12514
  • Jakonen, T. (2016). Managing multiple normativities in classroom interaction: Student responses to teacher reproaches for inappropriate language choice in a bilingual classroom. Linguistics and Education,33, 14-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2015.11.003
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  • Kachru, B. (1992). The Other Tongue: English across cultures. University of Illinois Press.
  • Kılınç, H. H. (2016). Teachers' perception of 2nd grade English curriculum of primary school in Turkey. The Anthropologist, 23(1-2), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2016.11891949
  • Koshik, I. (2002). Designedly incomplete utterances: A pedagogical practice for eliciting knowledge displays in error correction sequences. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 35(3), 277-230. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3503_2
  • Köylü, Z. (2018). The use of L1 in the tertiary L2 classroom: Code-switching factors, functions, and attitudes in Turkey. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 271-289.
  • Küçükoğlu, B. (2013). The history of foreign language policies in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1090-1094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.162
  • Lehti-Eklund, H. (2012). Code-switching to first language in repair- A resource for students’ problem solving in a foreign language classroom. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(2), 132-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912441416
  • Liebscher, G., & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (2009). Language attitudes in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 13(2), 195-222. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2009.00404.x
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  • Mondada, L. (2014). The local constitution of multimodal resources for social interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 65, 137-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.04.004
  • Mutlu, V. (2017). Problems of primary school teachers and their solution in English courses: Effects and benefits of “Teaching English to Children” course. The Journal of International Social Research, 10(54), 747-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.17719/jisr.20175434641
  • Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Clarendon Press.
  • Nakamura, I. (2010). Formulation as evidence of understanding in teacher–student talk. ELT Journal, 64(2), 125-134. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccp050
  • Papageorgiou, I. (2012). When language policy and pedagogy conflict: Pupils’ and educators’ ‘practiced language policies’ in an English-medium kindergarten classroom in Greece. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Edinburgh University.
  • Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish Y Termino En Español: Toward a Typology of Code Switching. Linguistics 18 (7-8),581-618. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581
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An examination of teachers’ language policing in EFL young learner classrooms in Turkey

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3, 183 - 200, 31.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.1057548

Abstract

This study explores the instances when teachers employ language policing (Amir, 2013) in the Turkish EFL young learners’ context. Language policing studies are scarce in EFL young learners’ classrooms. Hence, this study is an attempt to address the gap in the literature concerning EFL young learners’ contexts from the expanding circle and contribute to the code switching literature. Data consists of 270-minute video recordings from three different classes in two private schools in Turkey and it was analysed using Conversation Analysis. Results show the presence of Turkish, English, as well as a bilingual medium before and after the policing was initiated through formulaic expressions. Unlike some secondary school contexts where the English-only policy is enforced with a strict rewards and punishment policy (Amir & Musk, 2013), speaking Turkish and the bilingual medium for the most part of the lessons was not corrected by the teachers in the current study. These findings have implications for teaching EFL to young learners, language policing and code switching in secondary contexts.

References

  • Amir, A. (2013) Doing language policy: A Micro-Interactional Study of Policy Practices in English as a Foreign Language Classes. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Linköpings Universitet. https://doi.org/10.3384/diss.diva-100202
  • Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2013). Language policing: micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom. Classroom Discourse 4(2), 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/19463014.2013.783500
  • Amir, A. & Musk, N. (2014). Pupils Doing language policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom. Apples: Journal of Applied Language Studies, 8(2), 93-113.
  • Ataş, U. (2012). Discourse functions of students’ and teachers’ code switching in EFL classrooms: a case study in a Turkish University. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University.
  • Ataş, U., & Sağın-Şimşek, Ç. (2021). Discourse and educational functions of students’ and teachers’ code-switching in EFL classrooms in Turkey. Linguistics and Education, 65, 100981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100981
  • Auer, P. (1984). Bilingual Conversation. John Benjamins.
  • Aus der Wieschen, M. V., & Sert, O. (2021). Divergent language choices and maintenance of intersubjectivity: the case of Danish EFL young learners. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(1), 107-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1447544
  • Balaman, U. (2016). A conversation analytic study on the development of interactional competence in English in an online task-oriented environment. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hacettepe University.
  • Bensen, H., & Çavuşoğlu, Ç. (2013) Reasons for the teachers’ uses of code switching in adult EFL classrooms. Hasan Ali Yücel Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2), 70-82.
  • Bilgin, G.P., & Rahimi, A. (2013). EFL Teachers’ Attitude toward Code Switching: A Turkish Setting. International Journal of Linguistics, 5, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v5i5.4043
  • Blom, J. P., & Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Social meaning in linguistic structure: Code-switching in Norway. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics (pp. 407-434). Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Bonacina, F. (2010). A conversation analytic approach to practiced language policies: The example of an induction classroom for newly-arrived immigrant children in France. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Edinburgh.
  • Bonacina, F. & Gafaranga, J. (2011). ‘Medium of instruction’ vs. ‘medium of classroom interaction’: Language choice in a French complementary school classroom in Scotland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14, 319-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2010.502222
  • Copp-Jinkerson, A. (2011). Interpreting and managing a monolingual norm in an English- speaking class in Finland: When first and second graders contest the norm. Journal of Applied Language Studies, 5, 27-48.
  • Cromdal, J. (2005). “Bilingual Order in Collaborative Word Processing: On Creating an English Text in Swedish.” Journal of Pragmatics 37(3), 329-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2004.10.006
  • Doğancay-Aktuna, S. (1998). The Spread of English in Turkey and its Current Sociolinguistic Profile. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19(1), 24-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639808666340
  • Eldridge, J (1996). Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT Journal, 50(4), 303-311. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/50.4.303
  • Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069000040030301
  • Gafaranga, J., & Torras, M. C. (2001). Language versus medium in the study of bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(2), 195-219. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050020401
  • Gafaranga, J., & Torras, M. C. (2002). Interactional otherness: Towards a redefinition of codeswitching. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069020060010101
  • Garfinkel, H. (1967 [1994]). Studies in ethnomethodology. Polity Press.
  • Gürsoy, E., Korkmaz, S. C., & Damar, E. A. (2017). English Language Teaching within the New Educational Policy of Turkey: Views of Stakeholders. International Education Studies, 10(4), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n4p18
  • Hazel, S. (2015). Identities at odds: embedded and implicit language policing in the internationalized workplace. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(1), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2014.985311
  • Horasan, S. (2014). Code-switching in EFL classrooms and the perceptions of the students and teachers. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 10(1), 31-45.
  • Huq, R. (2018). Doing English-only instructions. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33, 278-297. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2018038807
  • Huq, R. U. (2020). Monolingual Policy, Bilingual Interaction: English-taught Education in Bangladesh (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Linköping University. https://doi.org/10.3384/diss.diva-172149
  • Hutchby, I. & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation analysis: Principles, practices and applications. Polity Press.
  • İnal, D., Bayyurt, Y., Özturhan, M., & Bektaş, S. (2020). Multilingualism in the linguistic landscape of Istanbul. World Englishes, 40(2), 280-289. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12514
  • Jakonen, T. (2016). Managing multiple normativities in classroom interaction: Student responses to teacher reproaches for inappropriate language choice in a bilingual classroom. Linguistics and Education,33, 14-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2015.11.003
  • Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In G. H. Lerner (Ed). Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. (pp. 13-31). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.125.02jef
  • Kachru, B. (1992). The Other Tongue: English across cultures. University of Illinois Press.
  • Kılınç, H. H. (2016). Teachers' perception of 2nd grade English curriculum of primary school in Turkey. The Anthropologist, 23(1-2), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2016.11891949
  • Koshik, I. (2002). Designedly incomplete utterances: A pedagogical practice for eliciting knowledge displays in error correction sequences. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 35(3), 277-230. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3503_2
  • Köylü, Z. (2018). The use of L1 in the tertiary L2 classroom: Code-switching factors, functions, and attitudes in Turkey. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 15(2), 271-289.
  • Küçükoğlu, B. (2013). The history of foreign language policies in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1090-1094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.162
  • Lehti-Eklund, H. (2012). Code-switching to first language in repair- A resource for students’ problem solving in a foreign language classroom. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(2), 132-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912441416
  • Liebscher, G., & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (2009). Language attitudes in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 13(2), 195-222. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2009.00404.x
  • Lin, A. M. (2013). Classroom code-switching: Three decades of research. Applied Linguistics Review, 4(1), 195-218. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2013-0009
  • Mondada, L. (2014). The local constitution of multimodal resources for social interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 65, 137-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.04.004
  • Mutlu, V. (2017). Problems of primary school teachers and their solution in English courses: Effects and benefits of “Teaching English to Children” course. The Journal of International Social Research, 10(54), 747-756. http://dx.doi.org/10.17719/jisr.20175434641
  • Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Clarendon Press.
  • Nakamura, I. (2010). Formulation as evidence of understanding in teacher–student talk. ELT Journal, 64(2), 125-134. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccp050
  • Papageorgiou, I. (2012). When language policy and pedagogy conflict: Pupils’ and educators’ ‘practiced language policies’ in an English-medium kindergarten classroom in Greece. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Edinburgh University.
  • Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish Y Termino En Español: Toward a Typology of Code Switching. Linguistics 18 (7-8),581-618. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581
  • Probyn, M. (2009). ‘Smuggling the vernacular into the classroom’: Conflicts and tensions in classroom codeswitching in township/rural schools in South Africa. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(2), 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802153137
  • Richards, K (2003). Qualitative Inquiry in TESOL. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 696-735. https://doi.org/412243
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Esra YATAĞANBABA>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1501-7070
Türkiye


Alia AMİR This is me
Mid-Sweden University
0000-0002-4624-5535
Sweden


Rana YILDIRIM> (Primary Author)
CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9959-6769
Türkiye

Publication Date July 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 3

Cite

APA Yatağanbaba, E. , Amir, A. & Yıldırım, R. (2022). An examination of teachers’ language policing in EFL young learner classrooms in Turkey . Turkish Journal of Education , 11 (3) , 183-200 . DOI: 10.19128/turje.1057548

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