Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 265 - 273, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1099620

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the oil extracted from Lavandula angustifolia (Province of Denizli/Türkiye) on some gram-negative/positive pathogenic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria (by agar well diffusion, MIC test), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, metal chelating, FRAP). As a result of the analysis, it was determined by headspace/GC-MS analysis that eucalyptol was the highest with a value of 22.58%, α-linalool was the second with a value of 19.44% and linalyl acetate was 14.61%. Lavandulol, an essential component of Lavender, was determined by 1.39%. The highest antimicrobial effect of L. angustifolia oil was found on Bacillus subtilus and Methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) with zone diameters of 24 to 22 mm, respectively), followed by Staph. aureus. Antibacterial effects of L. angustifolia oil on Staph. aureus, E. coli, Campliobacter jejuni, Salmonella poona, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum were detected as 17, 16, 14, 14, 12, 12, and 11 mm zone diameters, respectively. Therewithal, a significant antioxidative effect was determined by DPPH, FRAP, and metal chelating analyzes.

References

  • Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M., Szczerbińska, D., 2018. The antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and its influence on the production performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102(4): 1020-1025.
  • Ali-Shtayeh, M.S., Abu-Zaitoun, S.Y., Dudai, N., Jamous, R.M., 2020. Downy lavender oil: a promising source of antimicrobial, antiobesity, and anti-alzheimer’s disease agents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020: 5679408.
  • Anonymous, 2006. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, 9th Ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Approved Standard M2-A9, CLSI, Wayne, Pa.
  • Anonymous, 2007. Disk Diffusion Supplemental Tables, 4th Ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, M100-S17 (M2), CLSI, Wayne Pa.
  • Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., Idaomar, M., 2008. Biological effects of essential oils-a review. Food Chemical Toxicology, 46(2): 446-475.
  • Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M., 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45(4): 493-496.
  • Benzie, I.F.F, Strain, J.J., 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239(1): 70-76.
  • Blažeković, B., Yang, W., Wang, Y., Li, C., Kindl, M., Pepeljnjak, S., Vladimir-Kneževića, S., 2018. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of volatile oils of Lavandula × intermedia‘ Budrovka’ and L. angustifolia cultivated in Croatia. Industrial Crops & Products, 123: 173-182.
  • Blois, M.S., 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 26: 1199-2000.
  • Burt, S., 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3): 223-253.
  • Cavanagh, H.M.A., Wilkinson, J.M., 2002. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 16(4): 301-308.
  • Clevenger, J.F., 1928. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. The Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 17(3): 345-349.
  • de Rapper, S., Kamatou, G., Viljoen, A., van Vuuren, S., 2013. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil in combination with other aroma-therapeutic oils. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013: 852049.
  • Dinis, T.C.P., Maderia, V.M.C., Almeida, L.M., 1994. Action of phenolic derivates (Acetaminophen, Salicylate and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 315(1): 161-169.
  • Ericsson, H.M., Sherris, J.C., 1971. Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing. Report of an International Collaborative Study, Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section B, 217: 90.
  • Giménez-Rota, C., Lorán, S., Mainar, A.M., Hernáiz, M.J., Rota, C., 2019. Supercritical carbon dioxide antisolvent fractionation for the sustainable concentration of Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Riv.-Mart antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds and comparison with its conventional extracts. Plants (Basel), 8(11): 455.
  • Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadib, A., Sharif, B., 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(1): 67-71.
  • Hossain, S., Heo, H., De Silva, B.C.J., Wimalasena, S.H.M.P., Pathirana, H.N.K.S, Heo, G., 2017. Antibacterial activity of essential oil from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) against pet turtle-borne pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory Animal Research, 33(3): 195-201.
  • Jaradat, N.A., Zaid, A.N., Abuzant, A., Shawahna, R., 2016. Investigation the efficiency of various methods of volatile oil extraction from Trichodesma africanum and their impact on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 5(3): 250-256.
  • Kalemba, D., Kunicka, A., 2003. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10(10): 813-829.
  • Kara, N., Baydar, H., 2011. Essential oil characteristics of lavandins (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) of Isparta province, Kuyucak district, where lavender production center of Turkey. Selcuk Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 25(4): 42-46. (In Turkish).
  • Lalitha, M.K., 2004. Manual on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. (Under the Auspices of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  • Moussii, I.M., Kaotar, N., Timinouni, M., Jamaleddine, J., Filali, H., Hakkou, F., 2020. Synergistic antibacterial effects of Moroccan Artemisia herba alba, Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Synergy, 10: 100057.
  • Özyazıcı, G., Kevseroğlu, K., 2019a. Effects of ontogenetic variability on yield of some Labiatae family (Mentha spicata L., Origanum onites L., Melissa officinalis L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(2): 174-185.
  • Özyazıcı, G., Kevseroğlu, K., 2019b. Effects of ontogenetic and diurnal variability on essential oil content in Mentha spicata L., Origanum onites L., Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3): 285-294.
  • Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Schaich, K., 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 53(10): 4290-4302.
  • Puškárová, A., Bučková, M., Kraková, L., Pangallo, D., Kozics, K., 2017. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of six essential oils and their cyto/genotoxicity to human HEL 12469 cells. Scientific Reports, 7(1): 8211.
  • Rashed, M.M.A., Mahdi, A.A., Ghaleb, A.D.S., Zhang, F.R., YongHua, D., Qin, W., WanHai, Z., 2020. Synergistic effects of amorphous OSA-modified starch, unsaturated lipid-carrier, and sonocavitation treatment in fabricating of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil nanoparticles. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 151: 702-712.
  • Rashed, M.M.A., Zhang, C., Ghaleb, A.D.S., Peng, J., Nagi, A., Majeed, H., Bakry, A.M., Haider, J., Xu, Z., QunyiTong, A., 2019. Techno-functional properties and sustainable application of nanoparticles-based Lavandula angustifolia essential oil fabricated using unsaturated lipid-carrier and biodegradable wall material. Industrial Crops and Products, 136: 66-76.
  • Roller, S., Ernest, N., Buckle, J., 2009. The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). Journal Alternative Complement Medicine, 15(3): 275-279.
  • Ryan, K.J., Schoenknecht, F.D., Kirby, W.M.M., 1970. Disc sensitivity testing. Hospital Practice, 5(2): 91-100.
  • Stella, L.R., Marín, D., 2009. Metodologías para evaluar in vitro la actividad antibacteriana de Compuestos de or ígen vegetal. Scientia et technical Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, 42(1): 263-268.
  • Van Vuuren, S., Orchard, A., Viljoen, A., 2019. Essential oils: fragrant pools of antimicrobial synergism explored. Synergy, 100051.
  • Xiaotian, C., Lanyue, Z., Chenyu, Q., Zhiyun, D., Peng, X., Zhangmin, X., 2020. Chemical compositions of essential oil extracted from Lavandula angustifolia and its prevention of TPA-induced inflammation. Microchemical Journal, 153: 104458.

Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 265 - 273, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1099620

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the oil extracted from Lavandula angustifolia (Province of Denizli/Türkiye) on some gram-negative/positive pathogenic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria (by agar well diffusion, MIC test), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, metal chelating, FRAP). As a result of the analysis, it was determined by headspace/GC-MS analysis that eucalyptol was the highest with a value of 22.58%, α-linalool was the second with a value of 19.44% and linalyl acetate was 14.61%. Lavandulol, an essential component of Lavender, was determined by 1.39%. The highest antimicrobial effect of L. angustifolia oil was found on Bacillus subtilus and Methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) with zone diameters of 24 to 22 mm, respectively), followed by Staph. aureus. Antibacterial effects of L. angustifolia oil on Staph. aureus, E. coli, Campliobacter jejuni, Salmonella poona, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum were detected as 17, 16, 14, 14, 12, 12, and 11 mm zone diameters, respectively. Therewithal, a significant antioxidative effect was determined by DPPH, FRAP, and metal chelating analyzes.

References

  • Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M., Szczerbińska, D., 2018. The antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and its influence on the production performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102(4): 1020-1025.
  • Ali-Shtayeh, M.S., Abu-Zaitoun, S.Y., Dudai, N., Jamous, R.M., 2020. Downy lavender oil: a promising source of antimicrobial, antiobesity, and anti-alzheimer’s disease agents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020: 5679408.
  • Anonymous, 2006. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, 9th Ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Approved Standard M2-A9, CLSI, Wayne, Pa.
  • Anonymous, 2007. Disk Diffusion Supplemental Tables, 4th Ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, M100-S17 (M2), CLSI, Wayne Pa.
  • Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., Idaomar, M., 2008. Biological effects of essential oils-a review. Food Chemical Toxicology, 46(2): 446-475.
  • Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M., 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45(4): 493-496.
  • Benzie, I.F.F, Strain, J.J., 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239(1): 70-76.
  • Blažeković, B., Yang, W., Wang, Y., Li, C., Kindl, M., Pepeljnjak, S., Vladimir-Kneževića, S., 2018. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of volatile oils of Lavandula × intermedia‘ Budrovka’ and L. angustifolia cultivated in Croatia. Industrial Crops & Products, 123: 173-182.
  • Blois, M.S., 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 26: 1199-2000.
  • Burt, S., 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3): 223-253.
  • Cavanagh, H.M.A., Wilkinson, J.M., 2002. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 16(4): 301-308.
  • Clevenger, J.F., 1928. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. The Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 17(3): 345-349.
  • de Rapper, S., Kamatou, G., Viljoen, A., van Vuuren, S., 2013. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil in combination with other aroma-therapeutic oils. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013: 852049.
  • Dinis, T.C.P., Maderia, V.M.C., Almeida, L.M., 1994. Action of phenolic derivates (Acetaminophen, Salicylate and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 315(1): 161-169.
  • Ericsson, H.M., Sherris, J.C., 1971. Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing. Report of an International Collaborative Study, Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section B, 217: 90.
  • Giménez-Rota, C., Lorán, S., Mainar, A.M., Hernáiz, M.J., Rota, C., 2019. Supercritical carbon dioxide antisolvent fractionation for the sustainable concentration of Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Riv.-Mart antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds and comparison with its conventional extracts. Plants (Basel), 8(11): 455.
  • Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadib, A., Sharif, B., 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(1): 67-71.
  • Hossain, S., Heo, H., De Silva, B.C.J., Wimalasena, S.H.M.P., Pathirana, H.N.K.S, Heo, G., 2017. Antibacterial activity of essential oil from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) against pet turtle-borne pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory Animal Research, 33(3): 195-201.
  • Jaradat, N.A., Zaid, A.N., Abuzant, A., Shawahna, R., 2016. Investigation the efficiency of various methods of volatile oil extraction from Trichodesma africanum and their impact on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 5(3): 250-256.
  • Kalemba, D., Kunicka, A., 2003. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10(10): 813-829.
  • Kara, N., Baydar, H., 2011. Essential oil characteristics of lavandins (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel.) of Isparta province, Kuyucak district, where lavender production center of Turkey. Selcuk Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 25(4): 42-46. (In Turkish).
  • Lalitha, M.K., 2004. Manual on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. (Under the Auspices of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  • Moussii, I.M., Kaotar, N., Timinouni, M., Jamaleddine, J., Filali, H., Hakkou, F., 2020. Synergistic antibacterial effects of Moroccan Artemisia herba alba, Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Synergy, 10: 100057.
  • Özyazıcı, G., Kevseroğlu, K., 2019a. Effects of ontogenetic variability on yield of some Labiatae family (Mentha spicata L., Origanum onites L., Melissa officinalis L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(2): 174-185.
  • Özyazıcı, G., Kevseroğlu, K., 2019b. Effects of ontogenetic and diurnal variability on essential oil content in Mentha spicata L., Origanum onites L., Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3): 285-294.
  • Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Schaich, K., 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 53(10): 4290-4302.
  • Puškárová, A., Bučková, M., Kraková, L., Pangallo, D., Kozics, K., 2017. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of six essential oils and their cyto/genotoxicity to human HEL 12469 cells. Scientific Reports, 7(1): 8211.
  • Rashed, M.M.A., Mahdi, A.A., Ghaleb, A.D.S., Zhang, F.R., YongHua, D., Qin, W., WanHai, Z., 2020. Synergistic effects of amorphous OSA-modified starch, unsaturated lipid-carrier, and sonocavitation treatment in fabricating of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil nanoparticles. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 151: 702-712.
  • Rashed, M.M.A., Zhang, C., Ghaleb, A.D.S., Peng, J., Nagi, A., Majeed, H., Bakry, A.M., Haider, J., Xu, Z., QunyiTong, A., 2019. Techno-functional properties and sustainable application of nanoparticles-based Lavandula angustifolia essential oil fabricated using unsaturated lipid-carrier and biodegradable wall material. Industrial Crops and Products, 136: 66-76.
  • Roller, S., Ernest, N., Buckle, J., 2009. The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). Journal Alternative Complement Medicine, 15(3): 275-279.
  • Ryan, K.J., Schoenknecht, F.D., Kirby, W.M.M., 1970. Disc sensitivity testing. Hospital Practice, 5(2): 91-100.
  • Stella, L.R., Marín, D., 2009. Metodologías para evaluar in vitro la actividad antibacteriana de Compuestos de or ígen vegetal. Scientia et technical Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, 42(1): 263-268.
  • Van Vuuren, S., Orchard, A., Viljoen, A., 2019. Essential oils: fragrant pools of antimicrobial synergism explored. Synergy, 100051.
  • Xiaotian, C., Lanyue, Z., Chenyu, Q., Zhiyun, D., Peng, X., Zhangmin, X., 2020. Chemical compositions of essential oil extracted from Lavandula angustifolia and its prevention of TPA-induced inflammation. Microchemical Journal, 153: 104458.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Oğuzhan ÖZDEMİR> (Primary Author)
Batman University, Technical Sciences Vocational School, Department of Veterinary Science, Batman, TÜRKİYE
0000-0002-9588-3285
Türkiye


Nurten YILMAZ>
Çukurova University, Karaisalı Vocational School, Department of Crop and Animal Production, Adana, TÜRKİYE
0000-0003-3867-509X
Türkiye


Mesut GOK>
Siirt University, Science and Technology Research and Application Center, Siirt, TÜRKİYE
0000-0001-9217-8022
Türkiye


Mustafa Oğuzhan KAYA>
Kocaeli University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kocaeli, TÜRKİYE
0000-0002-8592-1567
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { tutad1099620, journal = {Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2306}, eissn = {2528-858X}, address = {}, publisher = {Siirt University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {265 - 273}, doi = {10.19159/tutad.1099620}, title = {Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil}, key = {cite}, author = {Özdemir, Oğuzhan and Yılmaz, Nurten and Gok, Mesut and Kaya, Mustafa Oğuzhan} }
APA Özdemir, O. , Yılmaz, N. , Gok, M. & Kaya, M. O. (2022). Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil . Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi , 9 (3) , 265-273 . DOI: 10.19159/tutad.1099620
MLA Özdemir, O. , Yılmaz, N. , Gok, M. , Kaya, M. O. "Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil" . Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 265-273 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/tutad/issue/73473/1099620>
Chicago Özdemir, O. , Yılmaz, N. , Gok, M. , Kaya, M. O. "Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil". Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (2022 ): 265-273
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil AU - OğuzhanÖzdemir, NurtenYılmaz, MesutGok, Mustafa OğuzhanKaya Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.19159/tutad.1099620 DO - 10.19159/tutad.1099620 T2 - Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 265 EP - 273 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - 2148-2306-2528-858X M3 - doi: 10.19159/tutad.1099620 UR - https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1099620 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil %A Oğuzhan Özdemir , Nurten Yılmaz , Mesut Gok , Mustafa Oğuzhan Kaya %T Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil %D 2022 %J Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi %P 2148-2306-2528-858X %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.19159/tutad.1099620 %U 10.19159/tutad.1099620
ISNAD Özdemir, Oğuzhan , Yılmaz, Nurten , Gok, Mesut , Kaya, Mustafa Oğuzhan . "Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil". Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 / 3 (October 2022): 265-273 . https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.1099620
AMA Özdemir O. , Yılmaz N. , Gok M. , Kaya M. O. Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil. TÜTAD. 2022; 9(3): 265-273.
Vancouver Özdemir O. , Yılmaz N. , Gok M. , Kaya M. O. Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil. Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2022; 9(3): 265-273.
IEEE O. Özdemir , N. Yılmaz , M. Gok and M. O. Kaya , "Determination of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Lavandula angustifolia Volatile Oil", Türkiye Tarımsal Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 265-273, Oct. 2022, doi:10.19159/tutad.1099620

TARANILAN DİZİNLER

14658    14659     14660   14661  14662  14663  14664        

14665      14667