Year 2019, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 91 - 105 2019-03-19

Kuşak ve Yol Projesi Koridorlarının Karşılaştığı Güvenlik Tehditleri
The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors

Gökhan Tekir [1]

120 186

Bu çalışma Kuşak ve Yol Projesinin koridorlarında mevcut olan güvenlik tehditlerini teşhis etmek amacındadır. 21. Yüzyılın en iddialı projelerinden biri olmasına karşın, Kuşak ve Yol Projesi ayrılıkçı ve terörist aktiviteler tarafından tehdit edilmektedir. Bu çalışma Kuşak ve Yol Projesinin üç vakayı ele almaktadır. Şincan, Belucistan, ve Myanmar. Şincan bölgesinde Uygur azınlık Çin otoritesine karşı çıkarak Yeni Avrasya Kara Köprüsü ve Çin-Orta Asya-Batı Asya koridorlarının işleyişini tehlikeye düşürmektedir. Pakistan’ın bağımsızlığından sonra birçok isyanın yaşandığı Belucistan, Çin’in Çin-Pakistan Ekonomik Koridoru kapsamında yaptığı 46 milyar dolarlık yatırımlarını tehdit etmektedir. Myanmar’ın istenmeyen Rohingya Müslümanları Kuşak ve Yol Projesinin geçtiği bölgelerde yaşamaktadır. Bu tehditlere karşılık olarak, Çin, Kuşak ve Yol Koridorlarının istikrarını korumak için, Şincan’da güvenlik güçlerinin varlığını artırmış, dış politikasında da geleneksel olan ülkelerin iç işlerine karışma politikasını bir kenara bırakarak güvenlik araçlarını devreye sokmaya başlamıştır. Şincan’da Çin bir polis devleti kurmuştur; Belucistan’da Pakistan’nın güvenlik güçlerinin sayılarını artırmasını istemiş; Myanmar’daki Rohingya Müslümanları için Myanmar’ın ordusunun katliamlarını uluslararası alanda savunmaya devam etmiştir.

This paper tries to identify security problems exist on the Belt and Road Initiative corridors. Although it is one of the most ambitious economic projects in the 21st century, Belt and Road Initiative is afflicted by separatist and terrorist activities. The paper selected three cases: Xinjiang, Balochistan, and Myanmar. In Xinjiang, oppressed Uyghur people sporadically rise against Chinese rule, afflicting the security of the New Eurasian Land Bridge and China-Central Asia-West Asia corridors. Balochistan province, which has witnessed several rebellions since Pakistan’s independence threaten China’s 46 billion investment in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Myanmar’s Rohingya Muslims are unwanted hosts of the territories which Belt and Road corridors pass through. In response to these threats, China implements a set of security measures including strengthening its presence in Xinjiang and abandoning its traditional non-interference policy in its interactions with relevant countries to provide stability Belt and Road corridors. In Xinjiang, it establishes a security state; in Balochistan it propels Pakistan to increase the number of troops; for Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar China backs Myanmar army’s atrocities in the global arena. 

  • 5,000 Chinese jihadists fighting in middle East-Syrian ambassador to Beijing. (2017, 12 May). Sputnik News. https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201705121053545195-syria-war-chinese-jihadists/
  • Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. (2017). Towards a peaceful, fair and prosperous future for the people of Rakhine. Retrieved from http://www.rakhinecommission.org/app /uploads/2017/08/FinalReport_Eng.pdf
  • Akins, H. (2017). China in Balochistan: CPEC and the shifting security landscape of Pakistan (4/17). Retrieved from http://bakercenter.utk.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/ PolicyBrief4-2017.pdf
  • Analysis: China backs Myanmar at UN Security Council. (2017, 2 July). The Irrawady. Retrieved from https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/analysis-china-backs-myanmar-un-security-council.html
  • Baloch activists protest against China-Pakistan economic corridor. (2018, 29 January). Tribune India. Retrieved from http://www.tribuneindia.com/
  • Bhattacharji, P. (2012). Uighurs and China’s Xinjiang region. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/uighurs-and-chinas-xinjiang-region
  • Borroz, N. (2014). Troubled pipelines in Burma. Zurich: Center for Security Studies.
  • Botobekov, U. (2016). China’s nightmare: Xinjiang jihadists go global. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2016/08/chinas-nightmare-xinjiang-jihadists-go-global/
  • Braithwaite, J., & D’Costa, B. (2018). Cascades of violence war, crime and peacebuilding across South Asia. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
  • Buckley, C. (2013, 27 June). 27 die in rioting in Western China. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/
  • Buckley, C. (2018, 16 October). China breaks silence on muslim detention camps, calling them 'humane'. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/
  • Chau, T. (2017, 4 August). Myanmar’s stakes in two belt and road economic corridors. Myanmar Times. Retrieved from https://www.mmtimes.com/
  • China acts as peacemaker in Pakistan’s Balochistan. (2018). Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/2a3aef43-a7f9-40f7-99e1-5070bcdbd6c8
  • China’s Xinjiang region plagued by violent attacks that Beijing blames on Uygur separatists. (2016, 30 December). South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2057928/chinas-xinjiang-region-plagued-violent-attacks-beijing
  • Considine, C. (2017). The Rohingya are the new Palestinians. Retrieved from http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/09/26/the-rohingya-are-the-new-palestinians/
  • Cook, S. (2018). China’s ever-expanding surveillance state. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2018/04/chinas-ever-expanding-surveillance-state/
  • Crisis Group. (2016). Myanmar: A new muslim insurgency in Rakhine State. Retrieved from https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/283-myanmar-new-muslim-insurgency-rakhine-state
  • Feng, E. (2018, 13 March). Security spending ramped up in China’s restive Xinjiang region. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/
  • Foreign Ministry of People's Republic of China. (2017). Wang Yi: China proposes 3-phase solution to address issue of the Rakhine State of Myanmar. Retrieved from http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1512592.shtml
  • Gramer, R. (2017). The Islamic State pledged to attack China next. Here’s why. Retrieved from http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/03/01/the-islamic-state-pledged-to-attack-china-next-heres-why/
  • Grare, F. (2013). Balochistan the state versus the nation. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Publications Department.
  • Kanwal, G. (2018). Pakistan’s Gwadar port: A new naval base in China’s string of pearls in the Indo-Pacific. Retrieved from https://www.csis.org/analysis/pakistans-gwadar-port-new-naval-base-chinas-string-pearls-indo-pacific
  • Khan, N. A. (2018, 22 April). Balochistan, insurgency and the CPEC. Daily Times. Retrieved from https://dailytimes.com.pk/
  • Larmer, B. (2017). Without a home and, without hope. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/proof/2017/08/rohingya-refugees-myanmar-bangladesh/
  • Lunn, J. (2018). Balochistan: Pakistan’s forgotten conflict. Retrieved from https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN06106#fullreport
  • Mackerras, C. (2012). Causes and ramifications of the xinjiang July 2009 disturbances. Sociology Study, 2(7), 496-510. doi: 10.17265/2159-5526/2012.07.002
  • Magri, P. (2017). Introduction. In A. Amighini. (Ed.), China's belt and road: A game changer? (pp. 7-13). Milano: Edizioni Epoke.
  • Marshall, A. R. C. (2018, 11 April). How the families of 10 massacred Rohingya fled Myanmar. Reuters. Retrived from https://www.reuters.com/
  • Maza, C. (2018, 1 May). Why is China building a military base in Pakistan, America’s newest enemy? Newsweek. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com
  • Memon, N. (2017, 28 May). Killing fields of Balochistan. The News on Sunday. Retrived from http://tns.thenews.com.pk/
  • Mirza, Z. L. (2013). Balochistan - Past, present and future. NDU Journal, 27, 21–34. Retrived from https://ndu.edu.pk/
  • No dialogue between China, Baloch separatists: Pakistani senator. (2018, 21 February). The Express Tribune. Retrieved from https://tribune.com.pk/story/1640557/1-no-dialogue-china-baloch-separatists-pakistani-senator/
  • Notezai, M. A. (2018). Why Balochs are targeting China. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/ 2018/11/why-balochs-are-targeting-china/
  • Paddock, R. C. (2018, 7 January). Rohingya militants in Myanmar claim responsibility for attack. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com
  • Pakistan: Balochistan militants killing teachers. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/12/13/pakistan-balochistan-militants-killing-teachers
  • Pakistan beefs up security for Chinese officials. (2017, 12 June). The Express Tribune. Retrieved from https://tribune.com.pk/story/1433208/pakistan-scrambles-protect-chinas-silk-road-pioneers/
  • Poling, G. B. (2018). Kyaukpyu connecting China to the Indian Ocean. Retrieved from https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fspublic/publication/180402_Poling_Kyaukpyu_.pdf?1G3vYIZYgqVNfXe.4clL.imkAKlGk4U
  • Ramachandran, S. (2017). Rohingya crisis: Will China’s mediation succeed? Retrieved from https://jamestown.org/program/rohingya-crisis-will-chinas-mediation-succeed/
  • Rayner, G. (2017, 14 September). Boris Johnson urges Aung San Suu Kyi to use her “moral capital” to end Rohingya persecution. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/
  • Ricks, T. (2016). Balochistan is seething, and that can’t make China happy about investing. Retrieved from http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/03/31/balochistan-is-seething-and-that-cant-make-china-happy-about-investing/
  • Rifaat, H., & Maini, T. S. (2016). The China-Pakistan economic corridor strategic rationales, external perspectives, and challenges to effective implementation. Washington DC: Stimson.
  • Rohingya refugee crisis a ‘human rights nightmare, UN chief tells Security Council. (2017). UN News. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=57770#. WmzMSqhl_IV
  • Sassen, S. (2017, 15 September). The assault on the Rohingya is not only about religion - It’s also about land. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/
  • Sifton, J. (2018). US Senate Committee takes aim at Burma for atrocities against Rohingya. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/08/us-senate-committee-takes-aim-burma-atrocities-against-rohingya
  • Soliev, N. (2017). How serious is the Islamic State threat to China?. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/03/how-serious-is-the-islamic-state-threat-to-china/
  • Steele-Perkins, C., & Chang, C.-C. (2017). The long and bloody history of Myanmar’s Rohingya refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www.magnumphotos.com/newsroom/politics/long-bloody-history-myanmar-rohingya-refugee-crisis/
  • Strategic Comments. (2014). Uighur militancy threatens China’s ‘new silk road’. Strategic Comments, 20(8), 8-9. doi: 10.1080/13567888.2014.992188
  • The National Development and Reform Commission. (2015). Vision and actions on jointly building silk road economic belt and 21st-century maritime silk road. Retrieved from http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367.html
  • The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs. (2018). China's repression and internment of Uyghurs: U.S. policy responses. Retrieved from https://docs.house.gov/meetings/FA/FA05/201 80926/108718/HHRG-115-FA05-Transcript-20180926.pdf
  • Thought police create climate of fear in China’s tense Xinjiang region. (2017). South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2124651/thought-police-create-climate-fear-chinas-tense
  • UN human rights chief points to ‘textbook example of ethnic cleansing’ in Myanmar. (2017). UN News. Retrieved from https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/09/564622-un-human-rights-chief-points-textbook-example-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar
  • US Commission on International Religious Freedom. (2016). Suspended in time: The ongoing persecution of Rohingya muslims in Burma. Retrieved from https://www.uscirf.gov/sites/default/files/Suspended%20in%20Time.%20The%20Ongoing%20Persecution%20of%20Rohingya%20Muslims%20in%20Burma.pdf
  • US Department of Treasury. (2017). Treasury sanctions commanders and units of the Burmese security forces for serious human rights abuses. Retrieved from https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm460
  • Wei, S., & Weng, C. (2010). China’s new policy in Xinjiang and its challenges. East Asian Policy, 2(3), 58–66. Retrieved from http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/
  • Xu, B., Fletcher, H., & Bajoria, J. (2014). The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM). Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim
  • Yap, L. S. (2017). UN’s futile effort to engage Myanmar on the Rohingya crisis. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/11/uns-futile-effort-to-engage-myanmar-on-the-rohingya-crisis/
  • Yousafzai, F. (2016). Chinese to outnumber Baloch natives by 2048. Retrieved from https://nation.com.pk/29-Dec-2016/chinese-to-outnumber-baloch-natives-by-2048
  • Zenz, A., & Leibold, J. (2017). Xinjiang’s rapidly evolving security state. Retrieved from https://jamestown.org/program/xinjiangs-rapidly-evolving-security-state/
Primary Language en
Subjects Political Science
Published Date Nisan 2019
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3985-7442
Author: Gökhan Tekir (Primary Author)
Institution: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: March 19, 2019

Bibtex @research article { epfad518954, journal = {Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2587-151X}, address = {Ersan ERSOY}, year = {2019}, volume = {4}, pages = {91 - 105}, doi = {10.30784/epfad.518954}, title = {The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors}, key = {cite}, author = {Tekir, Gökhan} }
APA Tekir, G . (2019). The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4 (1), 91-105. DOI: 10.30784/epfad.518954
MLA Tekir, G . "The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors". Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2019): 91-105 <http://dergipark.org.tr/epfad/issue/43968/518954>
Chicago Tekir, G . "The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors". Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2019): 91-105
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors AU - Gökhan Tekir Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.30784/epfad.518954 DO - 10.30784/epfad.518954 T2 - Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 91 EP - 105 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - -2587-151X M3 - doi: 10.30784/epfad.518954 UR - https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.518954 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Research in Economics Politics and Finance The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors %A Gökhan Tekir %T The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors %D 2019 %J Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi %P -2587-151X %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30784/epfad.518954 %U 10.30784/epfad.518954
ISNAD Tekir, Gökhan . "The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors". Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 / 1 (March 2019): 91-105. https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.518954
AMA Tekir G . The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2019; 4(1): 91-105.
Vancouver Tekir G . The Security Challenges of Belt and Road Corridors. Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2019; 4(1): 105-91.