Year 2018, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 121 - 143 2018-12-31

Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion

Hatice BAYRAKLI [1] , Bulbin SUCUOGLU [2]

28 76

Parents of young children with special needs in inclusion are among key stakeholders influencing the effectiveness of inclusion. There is significant evidence to suggest, however, that difficulties they encounter throughout inclusion hinder parents to perform their role as partners. This suggests that their role in their child’s education would be highly limited unless their needs resulting from the challenges they face are not met. Meeting their needs would empower them in fulfilling their roles and increase the success of inclusion. This study examines the development and evaluation of a needs-based training program designed for the mothers of children with special needs enrolled in inclusive preschools in North Cyprus. Aiming to support them in overcoming the difficulties they experience throughout inclusion by empowering them as partners, present study employs a mixed methods approach with a dominant qualitative strand. Findings of the study suggest the program have positive contributions to participating mothers and their children.

Early childhood inclusion, mothers’ needs, training program, collaboration, empowerment
  • Abbasoğlu, S. (2016). Özel eğitim ve kaynaştIrma eğitimi uygulanan ilkokullarda özel eğitim hizmetlerinin öğretmen görüşlerine göre değerlendirilmesi [Assessment of special education and inclusive education school through teachers’ opinions]. Unpublished master thesis, Near East Mediterranean University, North Cyprus.
  • Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  • Bailey, D. B., Skinner, D., Correa, V., Arcia, E., Reyes-Blanes, M. E., Rodriguez,… Skinner, M. (1999). Needs and supports reported by Latino families of young children with developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 104(5), 437-451.
  • Beneke, M. R., & Cheatham, G. A. (2016). Inclusive, democratic family–professional partnerships: (Re)conceptualizing culture and language in teacher preparation. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 35(4), 234-244. doi: 10.1177/0271121415581611
  • Bertule, D., & Vetra, A. (2014). The family needs of parents of preschool children with cerebral palsy: The impact of child's gross motor and communications functions. Medicina, 50(6), 323-328. doi: 10.1016/j.medici.2014.11.005
  • Blair, K. C., Lee, I., Cho, S., & Dunlap, G. (2011). Positive behavior support through family-school collaboration for young children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31(1), 22-36. doi: 10.1177/0271121410377510
  • Bruder, M. B. (2000). Family-centred early intervention: Clarifying our values for the new millennium. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(2), 105-115.
  • Brzuszkiewicz, L., & McIntyre, L. L. (2013). Observation system for parent-child play interactions: Parental behavior manual. Unpublished manual.
  • Buysse, V. Skinner, D., & Grant, S. (2001). Toward a definition of quality inclusion: Perspectives of practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 146-161.Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W., & Keyes, L. (1998). Implementing early childhood inclusion: Barrier and support factors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(1), 169-184.
  • Collins, K. M. T., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Jiao, Q. G. (2007). A mixed methods investigation of mixed methods sampling designs in social and health science research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3), 267-294. doi: 10.1177/1558689807299526
  • Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3r ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Cummings, K. P., Sills-Busio, D., Barker, A. F., & Dobbins, N. (2015) Parent-professional partnerships in early education: Relationships for effective inclusion of students with disabilities. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 36(4), 309-323. doi: 10.1080/10901027.2015.1105329
  • DEC/NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.
  • Demir, Ş. (2016). Öğretmen eğitimi programının kaynaştırma uygulamaları yürütülen okul öncesi sınıflardaki öğretmen ve özel gereksinimli çocuklar üzerindeki etkileri [The effects of a teacher training program on teachers and children with special needs in inclusive preschool classrooms]. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Ankara University, Turkey.
  • Dempsey, I., & Dunst, C. J. (2004). Help-giving styles and parent empowerment in families with a young child with a disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 29, 40-51. doi: 10.1080/13668250410001662874
  • Diken, İ. H., Cavkaytar, A., Batu, S., Bozkurt F., & Kurtyılmaz, Y. (2010). First Step to Success - A school/home intervention program for preventing problem behaviors in young children: Examining the effectiveness and social validity in Turkey. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 15(3), 207-221. doi: 10.1080/13632752.2010.497660.
  • Dogan, A., & Bengisoy, A. (2017). The opinions of teachers working at special education centers on inclusive/integration education. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science. 12(3), 121-132.
  • Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Snyder, D. M. (2000). Family-professional partnerships: A behavioral science perspective. In M. J. Fine & R. L. Simpson (Eds.), Collaboration with parents and families of children and youth with exceptionalities (pp. 437-464). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Epley, P. H., Summers, J. A., & Turnbull, A. P. (2011). Family outcomes of early intervention: Families’ perceptions of need, services, and outcomes. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(3), 201-219. doi: 10.1177/1053815111425929
  • Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L. C. (1995). I never knew I could stand up to the system: Families perspectives on pursuing inclusive education. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20(2), 136-146.
  • Fitzpatrick, J. L., Sanders, J. R., & Worthen, B. R. (2011). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Pearson Education.
  • Frauzer-Cross, A., Traub, E. K., Hutter-Pishgahi, L., & Shelton, G. (2004). Elements of successful inclusion for children with significant disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Education, 24(3), 169-183.
  • Gibbs, G. R. (2007). Analyzing qualitative data. In U. Flick (Eds.), The Sage qualitative research kit. London: Sage.
  • Gibson, W. J., & Brown, A. (2009). Working with qualitative data. London: Sage.
  • Grace, R., Llewellyn, G., Wedgwood, N., Fenech, M., & McConnell, D. (2008). Far from ideal everyday experiences of mothers and early childhood professionals negotiating an inclusive early childhood experience in the Australian context. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28(1), 18-30. doi: 10.1177/0271121407313525
  • Guralnick, M. J. (2011). Why early intervention works: A systems perspective. Infants & Young Children, 24(1), 6-28. doi: 10.1097/IYC.0b013e3182002cfe
  • Guralnick, M. (2016). Early intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: An update. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 1-19. doi: 10.1111/jar.12233
  • Guralnick, M. J., & Bruder, M. B. (2016). Early childhood ınclusion in the United States: Goals, current status, and future directions. Infants & Young Children, 29(3), 166-177. doi: 10.1097/IYC.0000000000000071
  • Herman, K. C., Borden, L. A., Reinke, W. M., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2011). The impact of the Incredible Years Parent, Child, and Teacher Training Programs on children’s co-occurring internalizing symptoms. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(3), 189-201. doi:10.1037/a0025228
  • Hu, X., Turnbull, A., Summers, J. A., & Wang, M. (2015). Needs of Chinese families with children with developmental disabilities: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12(1), 64-73. doi: 10.1111/jppi.12110
  • Hurley, J. J., & Horn, E. M. (2010). Family and professional priorities for inclusive early childhood settings. Journal of Early Intervention, 32(5), 335-350. doi: 10.1177/1053815110385650
  • Ingber, S., Al-Yagon, M., & Dromi, E. (2010). Mothers’ involvement in early intervention for children with hearing loss: The role of maternal characteristics and context-based perceptions. Journal of Early Intervention, 32(5), 351-369. doi: 10.1177/1053815110387066
  • Karabulut, İ. (2013). İlkokullarda kaynaştırma uygulamaları: Okul yöneticileri, öğretmenler ve velilerin görüşlerine göre karşılaştırmaya yönelik durum çalışması [Integrated applications in primary schools: Administrators, teachers and parents about the comparison case study of opinions]. Unpublished master thesis, Near East Mediterranean University, North Cyprus.
  • Kargın, T., Acarlar, F., & Sucuoğlu, B. (2003). Öğretmen, yönetici ve anne-babaların kaynaştırma uygulamalarına ilişkin görüşlerinin belirlenmesi [Identifying opinions of teachers, administrators and parents regarding inclusive practices]. Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 4(2), 55-76.
  • Killoran, I., Tymon, D., & Frempong, G. (2007). Disabilities and inclusive practices within Toronto preschools. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 11(1), 81-95. doi: 10.1080/13603110500375473
  • Kim, E. M., Minke, K. M., Sheridan, S. M., Koziol, N., Ryoo, J. H., & Rispoli, K. M. (2012). Congruence within the parent-teacher relationship: Associations with children’s functioning (CYFS Working Paper No. 2012-2). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537826.pdf.
  • Leung, C., Lau, J., Chan, G., Lau, B., & Chui, M. (2010). Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure the service needs of families with children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 664-671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.01.005
  • Lim, G. A. (1996). Parental perspectives on being empowered or disempowerment for the inclusion of their children with disabilities. Paper presented at the Joint ERA/AARE Conference, Singapore.
  • Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Lipton, D. (1994). The “full inclusion” court cases: 1989-1994. National Center on Educational Restructuring and Inclusion Bulletin, 1(2), 1-8.
  • Mahoney, G., & Perales, F. (2005). Relationship-focused early intervention with children with pervasive developmental disorders and other disabilities: A comparative study. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26(2), 77-85. doi: 10.1097/00004703-200504000-00002
  • McIntyre, L. L. (2008a). Adopting Webster-Stratton’s Incredible Years Parent Training for children with developmental delay findings from a treatment group only study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(12), 1176-1192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01108.x
  • McIntyre, L. L. (2008b). Parent training for young children with developmental disabilities: Randomized controlled trial. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 113(5), 356-368. Mertkan, Ş. (2015). Karma araştırma tasarımı [Mixed research design]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Murray, M. M., Handyside, L. M., Straka, L. A., & Arton-Titus., T. V. (2013). Parent empowerment: Connecting with preservice special education teachers. School Community Journal, (23)1, 145-168.
  • National Education Law of Turkish Republic of North Cyprus. (1986). TRNC Official Gazette, 51.
  • Noel, G. M. (2008). Mother and teacher interaction in preschools during parent-teacher conferences (Doctoral thesis, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA). Retrieved from https://dspace.iup.edu/bitstream/handle/2069/105/Gail%20Noel%20Revised.pdf?sequence=1
  • Odom, S. L., Vitztum, J., Wolery, R., Lieber, J., Sandall, S., Hanson, … Horn, E. (2004). Preschool inclusion in the United States: A review of research from an ecological systems perspective. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 4(1), 17-49. doi: 10.1111/J.1471-3802.2004.00016.x
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Phaneuf, L., & McIntyre, L. L. (2007). Effects of individualized video feedback combined with group parent training on inappropriate maternal behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 737-741. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.737–741
  • Phaneuf, L., & McIntyre, L. L. (2011). The application of a three-tier model of intervention to parent training. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(4), 198-207. doi: 10.1177/1098300711405337
  • Polili, Ö. (2012). Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta engelli kişilerin hakları [The rights of people with disabilities in North Cyprus]. Lefkoşa: Kıbrıslı Türk İnsan Hakları Vakfı Yayınları No: 2.
  • Purcell, M. L., Horn, E., & Palmer, S. (2007). A qualitative study of the initiation and continuation of preschool inclusion programs. Exceptional Children, 74(1), 85-99.
  • Reid, M. J., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2001). The Incredible Years parent, teacher, and child intervention: Targeting multiple areas of risk for a young child with pervasive conduct problems using a flexible, manualized treatment program. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 377-386.
  • Roberts, D., & Pickering, N. (2010). Parent training program for autism spectrum disorders: An evaluation. Community Practitioner, 83(10), 27-30.
  • Sarıca, A. D., Akcamete, A. G., & Gurgur, H. (2015). A mother-child interaction intervention for mothers of toddlers with visual impairments. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 7(1), 151-169.
  • Seeley, R. J., Small, J. W., Walker, H. M., Feil, E. G., Severson, H. H., Golly, A., & Forness, S. R. (2009). Efficacy of the First Step to Success Intervention for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Mental Health, 1, 37-48. doi: 0.1007/s12310-008-9003-4
  • Seven, Z. (2016). Özel gereksinimli çocuğa sahip ailelerin yaşam kalitelerinin farklı demografik değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Examining quality of life among families of children with special needs based on different demographic variables]. Unpublished master thesis, Near East Mediterranean University, North Cyprus.
  • Soodak, L. C., & Erwin, E. J. (2000). Valued member or tolerated participant: Parents' experiences in inclusive early childhood settings. Journal of the Association for Persons for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 25(1), 29-41. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.25.1.29
  • Sturmey, P., & Crisp, A. G. (1986). Portage guide to early education: A review of research. Educational Psychology, 6(2), 139-157.
  • Sucuoğlu, B. (1995). Özürlü çocuğu olan anne babaların gereksinimlerinin belirlenmesi [Identifying needs of parents having children with disabilities]. Çocuk ve Gençlik Sağlığı Dergisi, 2(1), 10-18.
  • Sucuoglu, B., Bakkaloglu, H., Demir, Ş., Yilmaz, B., Karademir, A., & Erturk, Z. (2016). The factors predicting the developmental gains of children with and without disabilities in inclusive preschools. Paper presented at The International Society on Early Intervention (ISEI), Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Sucuoğlu, B., Ceber-Bakkaloğlu, H., Özenmiş, P., & Kaygusuz, Y. (2001). Küçük Adımlar Erken Eğitim Programı’nın gelişimsel geriliği olan çocukların gelişimleri üzerindeki etkisi [The effect of Small Steps Early Intervention Program on the development of children with developmental delay]. İstanbul: Zihinsel Engellilere Destek Derneği.
  • Sumi, W. C., Woodbridge, M. W., Javitz, H. S., Thornton, S. P., Wagner, M., Rouspil, K.,… Severson, H. H. (2012). Assessing the effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are short-term results the first step to long-term behavioral improvements? Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 20(10), 1-14. doi: 10.1177/1063426611429571
  • Tabaklar, F. (2017). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin kaynaştırma uygulamalarındaki yeterliklerinin belirlenmesi (KKTC örneği) [Determination of qualifications of classroom teachers in comparative applications]. Unpublished master thesis, Near East Mediterranean University, North Cyprus.
  • Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Tekin-İftar, E. (2012). Eğitim ve davranış bilimlerinde tek denekli araştırmalar [Single subject designs in educational and behavioural sciences]. Ankara: Türk Psikoloji Derneği Yayınları, No. 38.
  • Todd, T. A., Beamer, J., & Goodreau, J. (2014). Bridging the gap: Teacher-parent partnerships for students with autism spectrum disorder. LEARNing Landscapes, 8(1), 287-304.
  • Trainor, A. A. (2010). Diverse approaches to parent advocacy during special education home-school interactions. Remedial and Special Education, 31(1), 34-47. doi: 10.1177/0741932508324401
  • Turkish Republic of North Cyprus Assembly of Republic, Committee of Administrative, Public and Health Affairs. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.cm.gov.nc.tr/
  • Turkish Republic of North Cyprus Ministry of National Education. (2006). Genelge no: 2006-95.
  • Turnbull, A. P., Turbiville, V., & Turnbull, H. R. (2009). Evolution of family-professional partnership: Collective empowerment as the model for the early twenty-first century. In J. P. Shonkoff, & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention (pp. 630-650). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1997). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: a special partnership. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merril.
  • Tuş, Ö., & Çifci-Tekinarslan, İ. (2013). Okul öncesi kaynaştırma eğitimine devam eden özel gereksinimli çocukların karşılaştıkları güçlüklerin annelerin görüşlerine göre belirlenmesi [The determination of the challenges faced by children with special need in preschool inclusive education according to the views of mothers]. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 35,151-165.
  • Ueda, K., Bailey, D. B., Yonemoto, N., Kajikawa, K., Nishigami, Y., Narisawa, S.,… Kodama, K. (2013). Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the family needs survey. Research in Development Disorders, 34, 3596-3606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.07.024
  • Wakimizu, R., Fujioka, H., & Yoneyama, A. (2010). Empowerment process for families rearing children with developmental disorders in Japan. Nursing and Health Sciences, 12, 322-328. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2010.00533.x
  • Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(9), 283-302. Whitaker, P. (2007). Provision for youngsters with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream schools: what parents say – and what parents want. British Journal of Special Education, (34)3, 170-178.
Primary Language en
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-6917-4146
Author: Hatice BAYRAKLI (Primary Author)
Institution: EASTERN MEDITARRANEAN UNIVERSITY
Country: Cyprus


Orcid: 0000-0002-8733-9765
Author: Bulbin SUCUOGLU
Institution: Hacettepe University
Country: Turkey


Bibtex @research article { intjecse512387, journal = {International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education}, issn = {1308-5581}, address = {İbrahim H. DİKEN}, year = {2018}, volume = {10}, pages = {121 - 143}, doi = {10.20489/intjecse.512387}, title = {Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion}, key = {cite}, author = {BAYRAKLI, Hatice and SUCUOGLU, Bulbin} }
APA BAYRAKLI, H , SUCUOGLU, B . (2018). Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 10 (2), 121-143. DOI: 10.20489/intjecse.512387
MLA BAYRAKLI, H , SUCUOGLU, B . "Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion". International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education 10 (2018): 121-143 <http://dergipark.org.tr/intjecse/issue/42127/512387>
Chicago BAYRAKLI, H , SUCUOGLU, B . "Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion". International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education 10 (2018): 121-143
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion AU - Hatice BAYRAKLI , Bulbin SUCUOGLU Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.20489/intjecse.512387 DO - 10.20489/intjecse.512387 T2 - International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 121 EP - 143 VL - 10 IS - 2 SN - 1308-5581- M3 - doi: 10.20489/intjecse.512387 UR - https://doi.org/10.20489/intjecse.512387 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion %A Hatice BAYRAKLI , Bulbin SUCUOGLU %T Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion %D 2018 %J International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education %P 1308-5581- %V 10 %N 2 %R doi: 10.20489/intjecse.512387 %U 10.20489/intjecse.512387
ISNAD BAYRAKLI, Hatice , SUCUOGLU, Bulbin . "Empowering Mothers of Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Inclusion". International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education 10 / 2 (December 2019): 121-143. https://doi.org/10.20489/intjecse.512387