Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 7 - 7 2018-12-08

The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples

David G. WATSON [1] , Harry de KONING [2] , Godwin EBILOMA [3] , John IgoLI [4] , Weam SIHERI [5] , Naif ALENZI [6] , Samyah ALANAZI [7] , Sameah ALENEZI [8] , William HARNETT [9]

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Propolis almost always has moderate to strong activity against protozoa, with the strongest activity being against trypanosomatids. It has become evident that protozoan infection in bees is widespread with Lotmaria passim, a monoxenous parasite transmitted via infection of the rectum and a close relative of Trypansoma brucei, being widespread in European bee populations 1, 2. We have studied anti-protozoal activity in propolis from Libya, Saudi Arabia and Nigeria and most recently in samples from the UK. Samples from the UK have widely varying levels of activity against both T.brucei and Crithidia fasiculata, which is closely related to Crithidia mellificae which infects the honey bee. Using orthogonal partial least squares modelling it was possible to see that the highest activity in the UK samples seems to be associated with the abundance of pinobanksin esters. In a separate study the immunomodulatory effects of propolis were studied and it was found that propolis extracts from Brazil and the UK were strong inhibitors of nitric oxide formation by primary macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. In addition the propolis extracts lowered TNF-1β levels and IL-6 levels. Metabolomic profiling of the macrophages indicated that propolis samples had a direct effect on the conversion of arginine into citrulline and the recycling of citrulline back to arginine via argininosuccinate.

Propolis, Anti-protozoal Effects
  • 1. Ravoet, J.; Schwarz, R.S.; Descamps, T.; Yañez, O.; Tozkar, C.O.; Martin-Hernandez, R.; Bartolomé, C.; De Smet, L.; Higes, M.; Wenseleers, T. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim. Journal of invertebrate pathology 2015, 130, 21-27. 2. Schwarz, R.S.; Bauchan, G.R.; Murphy, C.A.; Ravoet, J.; Graaf, D.C.; Evans, J.D. Characterization of two species of trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae langridge and mcghee, and Lotmaria passim n. Gen., n. Sp. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2015, 62, 567-583.
Primary Language en
Journal Section 2nd Propolis Conference Special Issue
Authors

Author: David G. WATSON (Primary Author)

Author: Harry de KONING

Author: Godwin EBILOMA

Author: John IgoLI

Author: Weam SIHERI

Author: Naif ALENZI

Author: Samyah ALANAZI

Author: Sameah ALENEZI

Author: William HARNETT

Dates

Publication Date: December 8, 2018

Bibtex @conference paper { jan488490, journal = {Journal of Apitherapy and Nature}, issn = {}, eissn = {2667-4734}, address = {Oktay YILDIZ}, year = {2018}, volume = {1}, pages = {7 - 7}, doi = {}, title = {The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples}, key = {cite}, author = {WATSON, David G. and KONING, Harry de and EBILOMA, Godwin and IgoLI, John and SIHERI, Weam and ALENZI, Naif and ALANAZI, Samyah and ALENEZI, Sameah and HARNETT, William} }
APA WATSON, D , KONING, H , EBILOMA, G , IgoLI, J , SIHERI, W , ALENZI, N , ALANAZI, S , ALENEZI, S , HARNETT, W . (2018). The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples. Journal of Apitherapy and Nature, 1 (3), 7-7. Retrieved from http://dergipark.org.tr/jan/issue/40577/488490
MLA WATSON, D , KONING, H , EBILOMA, G , IgoLI, J , SIHERI, W , ALENZI, N , ALANAZI, S , ALENEZI, S , HARNETT, W . "The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples". Journal of Apitherapy and Nature 1 (2018): 7-7 <http://dergipark.org.tr/jan/issue/40577/488490>
Chicago WATSON, D , KONING, H , EBILOMA, G , IgoLI, J , SIHERI, W , ALENZI, N , ALANAZI, S , ALENEZI, S , HARNETT, W . "The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples". Journal of Apitherapy and Nature 1 (2018): 7-7
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples AU - David G. WATSON , Harry de KONING , Godwin EBILOMA , John IgoLI , Weam SIHERI , Naif ALENZI , Samyah ALANAZI , Sameah ALENEZI , William HARNETT Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of Apitherapy and Nature JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 7 EP - 7 VL - 1 IS - 3 SN - -2667-4734 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Apitherapy and Nature The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples %A David G. WATSON , Harry de KONING , Godwin EBILOMA , John IgoLI , Weam SIHERI , Naif ALENZI , Samyah ALANAZI , Sameah ALENEZI , William HARNETT %T The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples %D 2018 %J Journal of Apitherapy and Nature %P -2667-4734 %V 1 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD WATSON, David G. , KONING, Harry de , EBILOMA, Godwin , IgoLI, John , SIHERI, Weam , ALENZI, Naif , ALANAZI, Samyah , ALENEZI, Sameah , HARNETT, William . "The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples". Journal of Apitherapy and Nature 1 / 3 (December 2018): 7-7.
AMA WATSON D , KONING H , EBILOMA G , IgoLI J , SIHERI W , ALENZI N , ALANAZI S , ALENEZI S , HARNETT W . The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples. J.Apit.Nat.. 2018; 1(3): 7-7.
Vancouver WATSON D , KONING H , EBILOMA G , IgoLI J , SIHERI W , ALENZI N , ALANAZI S , ALENEZI S , HARNETT W . The Immune Modulatory and Anti-protozoal Effects of Different Propolis Samples. Journal of Apitherapy and Nature. 2018; 1(3): 7-7.