Year 2018, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 253 - 290 2018-06-21

The Story of Circassian Tobacco [Çerkes Tütününün Tarihi]
The Story of Circassian Tobacco

Sufian Zhemukhov [1]

143 486

Bu makale Çerkes tütününün yerel gelişmeler ve küresel marketler ilişkisinde tarihsel hikayesini araştırmaktadır. Avrupalı gezginler 17'nci yüzyıldan bu yana Çerkes tütününün üretim, kullanım ve ticaretini detaylıca anlatmışlardır. Kabarda (Doğu Çerkesya) 1807 Anayasası dini nedenlerden dolayı tütünü yasaklamıştı. 1864'te Rus fethi Çerkes tütününün kültürel geleneklerini sona erdirdi. Yine de sürgün edilen Çerkeslerin yerlerini işgal eden yeni Rus yerleşimciler onların bazı tütün içme gelenekleri miras aldılar. 1700'den itibaren Rusya'nın Kafkasya ile ticaret yasağını kaldırmasıyla, ucuz Çerkes tütünü pahalı Virginia tütünüyle başarılı bir şekilde rekabet etti. 1723'te Rusya Ukrayna'da, Batı Sibirya'da Çin tütünüyle ve Alaska’da California tütünüyle rekabet edebilen, kendi yeni Çerkes tütününü (cherkassky tabak) üretmeye başladı. Çerkes tütünü Sibirya’nın yerli halkı ve Amerikan yerlileri arasında para yerine geçen bir değiş tokuş birimi haline geldi. Bu tür Çerkes tütünü, içine koruyucu güherçile katıldığından sağlığa son derece zararlı olarak biliniyordu. ABD'de tütün üreticisi Pierre Lorillard gerçek Çerkes tütünü olduğunu iddia ettiği yeni bir Çerkes tütünü üretmiş ve Çerkes kadınlarının egzotik görüntülerini de sömürmüştür.

This article explores the story of Circassian tobacco by connecting local developments in Circassia with global markets in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 17th century, European travellers described production, usage, and trade of Circassian tobacco. The 1807 Constitution of Kabarda (Eastern Circassia) prohibited tobacco for religious reasons; while the Russian conquest, in 1864 ended tobacco growing traditions and culture in Western Circassia. But the Russian settlers inherited the indigenous tobacco culture after they occupied the villages and houses left by the deported Circassians and brought it to a new level. Circassians produced a special brand of tobacco for export, known as Ozereg. Circassian tobacco successfully competed with Virginian tobacco from the year 1700 onwards, after the czar relaxed the ban on Russian trade with the Caucasus. In 1723, Russia started producing a new kind of Circassian tobacco known as cherkassky tabak in Ukraine. The Circassian tobacco competed with the Chinese tobacco in Western Siberia and with Californian tobacco in Alaska. Circassian tobacco became an exchange currency among the Native Siberians and Native Americans. This kind of Circassian tobacco became known as extremely bad for health thanks to the saltpeter added to it in order to preserve it. In the United States, tobacco manufacturer Pierre Lorillard introduced a new tobacco brand which he claimed was real Circassian tobacco, exploiting the exotic image of Circassian females.

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Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Article
Authors

Author: Sufian Zhemukhov (Primary Author)
Institution: George Washington University
Country: United States


Bibtex @research article { jocas428805, journal = {Kafkasya Çalışmaları}, issn = {2149-9527}, eissn = {2149-9101}, address = {Murat TOPÇU}, year = {2018}, volume = {3}, pages = {253 - 290}, doi = {10.21488/jocas.428805}, title = {The Story of Circassian Tobacco}, key = {cite}, author = {Zhemukhov, Sufian} }
APA Zhemukhov, S . (2018). The Story of Circassian Tobacco. Kafkasya Çalışmaları, 3 (6), 253-290. DOI: 10.21488/jocas.428805
MLA Zhemukhov, S . "The Story of Circassian Tobacco". Kafkasya Çalışmaları 3 (2018): 253-290 <http://dergipark.org.tr/jocas/issue/37647/428805>
Chicago Zhemukhov, S . "The Story of Circassian Tobacco". Kafkasya Çalışmaları 3 (2018): 253-290
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Story of Circassian Tobacco AU - Sufian Zhemukhov Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.21488/jocas.428805 DO - 10.21488/jocas.428805 T2 - Kafkasya Çalışmaları JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 253 EP - 290 VL - 3 IS - 6 SN - 2149-9527-2149-9101 M3 - doi: 10.21488/jocas.428805 UR - https://doi.org/10.21488/jocas.428805 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Caucasian Studies The Story of Circassian Tobacco %A Sufian Zhemukhov %T The Story of Circassian Tobacco %D 2018 %J Kafkasya Çalışmaları %P 2149-9527-2149-9101 %V 3 %N 6 %R doi: 10.21488/jocas.428805 %U 10.21488/jocas.428805
ISNAD Zhemukhov, Sufian . "The Story of Circassian Tobacco". Kafkasya Çalışmaları 3 / 6 (June 2018): 253-290. https://doi.org/10.21488/jocas.428805