Year 2018, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 133 - 148 2018-12-30

Bureaucratic Tradition of China: Confucianism and Legalism
Çin’in Bürokratik Geleneği: Konfüçyanizm ve Legalizm


65 186

There are quite a few important classical Chinese texts, which specifically deal with government and administration. The traditional classification of philosophies is known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. Details such as described by the grand historian Sima Qian provided a substantial understanding of the era. Thus, there can be identified two major bureaucratic traditions that have been subject to dispute throughout the history of China: Confucianism and Legalism. In Confucian thought, there is an emphasis on the moral justification of bureaucracy. It focuses on ideas such as filial piety and benevolent government. Legalism, on the other hand, concentrates on the authoritarian rule and administrative techniques of rewards and punishments. Moreover, during the 1970s, a considerable collection of written legal codes and regulation from the 3rd century B.C. was discovered. The carefully designed documents indicate that administrative efficiency was attained through the bureaucratic procedures. Two schools, which mostly define not only China’s history but also the whole of East Asia, have been the focus of study. The aim is to shed light on the questions of authority and administration.

Çin'de, yönetim alanında birçok önemli klasik metin bulunmaktadır. Felsefelerin geleneksel sınıflandırılması Yüz Düşünce Okulu olarak bilinmektedir. Antik Çin büyük tarihçisi Sima Qian, çağının önemli bir anlayışını temsil etmekteydi. Böylece, Çin tarihi boyunca iki büyük bürokratik gelenek ihtilafa neden olmuştu: Konfüçyanizm ve Legalizm. Konfüçyanizm düşüncesinde, bürokrasinin ahlaki temeline vurgu yapılmaktadır. Ataya saygı ve hayırsever hükümet gibi fikirlere odaklanılmaktadır. Legalizm düşüncesi ise otoriter iktidar ile ödül ve cezalar üzerinde yoğunlaşmaktadır. Ayrıca, 1970'lerde, M.Ö. 3. yüzyıldan kalma önemli yazılı belge ve koleksiyonlar bulunmuştur. Bu belgeler, idari verimliliğe bürokratik prosedürler aracılığıyla ulaşıldığını göstermektedir. Sadece Çin tarihini değil, Doğu Asya'nın tamamında etkili olan bu iki yaklaşım makale boyunca tartışılmıştır. Makalenin otorite ve yönetime ilişkin sorularını aydınlatmaktır.

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Journal Section Articles

Orcid: 0000-0001-7879-4128
Author: Elshad ASSADULLAYEV (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Publication Date: December 30, 2018

APA ASSADULLAYEV, E . (2018). Bureaucratic Tradition of China: Confucianism and Legalism. Medeniyet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3 (6), 133-148. Retrieved from